Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Ocular accommodation

Talk1
34,135pages on
this wiki

Redirected from Focus (optics)

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)


Focus in an eye

Light from a single point of a distant object and light from a single point of a near object being brought to a focus by changing the curvature of the lens.

Accommodation is the process by which the eye increases optical power to maintain a clear image (focus) on an object as it draws near the eye. The young human eye can change focus from distance to 7 cm from the eye in 350 milliseconds. This dramatic change in focal power of the eye of approximately 15 diopters (a diopter is 1 divided by the focal length in meters) occurs as a consequence of a reduction in zonular tension induced by ciliary muscle contraction. The amplitude of accommodation declines with age. By the fifth decade of life the accommodative amplitude has declined so the near point of the eye is more remote than the reading distance. When this occurs the patient is presbyopic. Once presbyopia occurs, those who are emmetropic (do not require optical correction for distance vision) will need an optical aid for near vision; those who are myopic (nearsighted and require an optical correction for distance vision), will find that they see better at near without their distance correction; and those who are hyperopic (farsighted) will find that they may need a correction for both distance and near vision. The age-related decline in accommodation occurs almost universally, and by 60 years of age, most of the population will have noticed a decrease in their ability to focus on close objects.

Theories of mechanismEdit

  • Helmholtz - The most widely held theory of accommodation is that proposed by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1855. When focusing at near the circular muscle fibers of the ciliary muscle contract decreasing the equatorial circumlenticular space which reduces zonular tension and allows the lens to round up and increase in optical power lens zonules. When viewing a distance object the circular ciliary muscle fibers relax which increases the equatorial circumlenticular space causing an increase in zonular tension. The increase in zonular tension causes the surfaces of the lens to flatten and the optical power of the lens to decrease. Helmholtz’s theory of accommodation is inconsistent with the well-documented flattening of the anterior peripheral surfaces of the lens and negative shift of spherical aberration that occurs during human in vivo accommodation.
  • Schachar - Ronald Schachar has contributed scientific insight into the mechanism of human accommodation, indicating that focus by the human lens is associated with increased tension on the lens via the equatorial zonules. Moreover, the evidence supporting the Schachar hypothesis disproves the older theory concerning the mechanism of accommodation of von Helmholtz. Schachar found that when the ciliary muscle contracts, equatorial zonular tension is increased. The increase in equatorial zonular tension causes the central surfaces of the crystalline lens to steepen, the central thickness of the lens to increase (anterior-posterior diameter), and the peripheral surfaces of the lens to flatten. While the tension on equatorial zonules is increased during accommodation, the anterior and posterior zonules are simultaneously relaxing. [1] As a consequence of the changes in lens shape during human in vivo accommodation, the central optical power of the lens increases and spherical aberration of the lens shifts in the negative direction. [2] Because of the increased equatorial zonular tension on the lens during accommodation, the stress on the lens capsule is increased and the lens remains stable and unaffected by gravity. [3][4] The same shape changes that occur to the crystalline lens during accommodation are observed when equatorial tension is applied to any encapsulated biconvex object that encloses a minimally compressible material (volume change less than approximately 3%) and has an elliptical profile with an aspect ratio ≤ 0.6 (minor axis/major axis ratio). [5] Equatorial tension is very efficient when applied to biconvex objects that have a profile with an aspect ratio ≤ 0.6. Minimal equatorial tension and only a small increase in equatorial diameter causes a large increase in central curvature. This explains why the aspect ratio of a vertebrate crystalline lens can be used to predict the qualitative amplitude of accommodation of the vertebrate eye. Vertebrates that have lenses with aspect ratios ≤ 0.6 have high amplitudes of accommodation; e.g., primates and falcons, while those vertebrates with lenticular aspect ratios > 0.6 have low amplitudes of accommodation; e.g. owls and antelopes. [6] The decline in the amplitude of accommodation eventually results in the clinical manifestation of presbyopia; i.e., when the near focal point of the eye is more remote than the near reading distance. It has been widely suggested that the age-related decline in accommodation that leads to presbyopia occurs as a consequence of sclerosis (hardening) of the lens. However, the lens does not become sclerotic until after 40 years of age. In fact, the greatest decline in the amplitude of accommodation occurs during childhood, prior to the time that any change in hardness of the lens has been found. The decline in accommodative amplitude, rapid in childhood and slow thereafter, follows a logarithmic pattern that is similar to that of the increase in the equatorial diameter of the lens, which is the most likely basis for the accommodative loss. [7] As the equatorial diameter of the lens continuously increases over life, baseline zonular tension simultaneously declines. This results in a reduction in baseline ciliary muscle length that is associated with both lens growth and increasing age. Since the ciliary muscle, like all muscles, has a length-tension relationship, the maximum force the ciliary muscle can apply decreases, as its length shortens with increasing age. This is the etiology of the age-related decline in accommodative amplitude that results in presbyopia. [8] Any procedure that can prevent equatorial lens growth or increase the effective distance between the lens equator and the ciliary muscle can potentially increase the amplitude of accommodation. [9]
  • Catenary - D. Jackson Coleman proposes that the lens, zonule and anterior vitreous comprise a diaphragm between the anterior and vitreous chambers of the eye. [10] Ciliary muscle contraction initiates a pressure gradient between the vitreous and aqueous compartments that support the anterior lens shape in the mechanically reproducible state of a steep radius of curvature in the center of the lens with slight flattening of the peripheral anterior lens, i.e. the shape, in cross section, of a catenary. The anterior capsule and the zonule form a trampoline shape or hammock shaped surface that is totally reproducible depending on the circular dimensions, i.e. the diameter of the ciliary body (Müeller’s muscle). The ciliary body thus directs the shape like the pylons of a suspension bridge, but does not need to support an equatorial traction force to flatten the lens.[11] [12]

Accommodative dysfunctionEdit

Duke-Elder classified a number of accommodative dysfunctions:[13]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Schachar RA. The mechanism of accommodation and presbyopia. International Ophthalmology Clinics. 46(3): 39-61, 2006
  2. Abolmaali A, Schachar RA, Le T. “Sensitivity study of human crystalline lens accommodation.” Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine. 85(1): 77-90, 2007
  3. Schachar RA, Davila C, Pierscionek BK, Chen W, Ward WW. The effect of human in vivo accommodation on crystalline lens stability. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 91(6): 790-793, 2007.
  4. Schachar RA. The lens is stable during accommodation.. Ophthalmic Physiological Optics. In press, 2007.
  5. Schachar RA, Fygenson DK. Topographical changes of biconvex objects during equatorial traction: An analogy for accommodation of the human lens. British Journal of Ophthalmology. In press, 2007.
  6. Schachar RA, Pierscionek BK, Abolmaali A, Le, T. The relationship between accommodative amplitude and the ratio of central lens thickness to its equatorial diameter in vertebrate eyes. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 91(6): 812-817, 2007.
  7. Schachar RA. Equatorial lens growth predicts the age-related decline in accommodative amplitude that results in presbyopia and the increase in intraocular pressure that occurs with age. International Ophthalmology Clinics. 48(1): In press, 2008.
  8. Schachar RA, Abolmaali A, Le T. Insights into the etiology of the age related decline in the amplitude of accommodation using a nonlinear finite element model of the accommodating human lens. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 90: 1304-1309, 2006.
  9. Schachar RA. The mechanism of accommodation and presbyopia. International Ophthalmology Clinics. 46(3): 39-61, 2006.
  10. Coleman DJ. Unified model for the accommodative mechanism. Am J Ophthalmol 1970, 69:1063-79.
  11. Coleman DJ. On the hydraulic suspension theory of accommodation. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1986, 84:846-68.
  12. Coleman DJ, Fish SK. Presbyopia, Accommodation, and the Mature Catenary. Ophthalmol 2001; 108(9):1544-51.
  13. Duke-Elder, Sir Stewart (1969). The Practice of Refraction (8th ed.). St. Louis: The C.V. Mosby Company. ISBN 0-7000-1410-1.

See alsoEdit

Disorders of accommodationEdit

OtherEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Abadi, R. V., Forster, J. E., & Lloyd, I. C. (2006). Ocular motor outcomes after bilateral and unilateral infantile cataracts: Vision Research Vol 46(6-7) Mar 2006, 940-952.
  • Abdel-Fattah, A. B. (1983). Nonlinear analysis of the human accommodation systems: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Acosta, H. M. (2004). Eight factors affecting focal distance and the moon illusion. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Albrecht, J., Jagle, H., Hood, D. C., & Sharpe, L. T. (2002). The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) and cone isolating stimuli: Variation in L- and M-cone driven signals across the retina: Journal of Vision Vol 2(8) Aug 2002, 543-558.
  • Alhalel, A., Ziv, I., Versano, D., Ruach, M., & et al. (1995). Ocular effects of hyoscine in double dose transdermal administration and its reversal by low dose pyridostigmine: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 66(11) Nov 1995, 1037-1041.
  • Allen, P. M., & O'Leary, D. J. (2006). Accommodation functions: Co-dependency and relationship to refractive error: Vision Research Vol 46(4) Feb 2006, 491-505.
  • Allum, J. H. J., & Ledin, T. (1999). Recovery of vestibulo-ocular reflex-function in subjects with an acute unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation Vol 9(2) 1999, 135-144.
  • Andersen, G. J. (1990). Focused attention in three-dimensional space: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 47(2) Feb 1990, 112-120.
  • Andison, M. E., & Sivak, J. G. (1996). The naturally occurring accommodative response of the Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus, to visual stimuli: Vision Research Vol 36(19) Oct 1996, 3021-3027.
  • Andre, J. (2003). Controversies concerning the resting state of accommodation: Focusing on Leibowitz. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Andre, J. T., & Owens, D. A. (1999). Predicting optimal accommodative performance from measures of the dark focus of accommodation: Human Factors Vol 41(1) Mar 1999, 139-145.
  • Angelaki, D. E. (2003). Three-Dimensional Ocular Kinematics During Eccentric Rotations: Evidence for Functional Rather Than Mechanical Constraints: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 89(5) May 2003, 2685-2696.
  • Angelaki, D. E., & Hess, B. J. M. (1998). Visually induced adaptation in three-dimensional organization of primate vestibuloocular reflex: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 79(2) Feb 1998, 791-807.
  • Artal, P., Marcos, S., Iglesias, I., & Green, D. G. (1996). Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye: Vision Research Vol 36(22) Nov 1996, 3575-3586.
  • Aslin, R. N. (1993). Infant accommodation and convergence. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Aslin, R. N., & Dobson, V. (1983). Dark vergence and dark accommodation in human infants: Vision Research Vol 23(12) 1983, 1671-1678.
  • Aslin, R. N., & Johnson, S. P. (1996). Suppression of the optokinetic reflex in human infants: Implications for stable fixation and shifts of attention: Infant Behavior & Development Vol 19(2) Apr-Jun 1996, 233-240.
  • Bahuguna, R. D., Malacara, D., & Singh, K. (1984). White-light speckle optometer: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 1(1) Jan 1984, 132-134.
  • Baird, J. W. (1907). Review of Untersuchungen uber das periphere Sehen: Ein Beitrag zur Psychologie der Aufmerksamkeit: Psychological Bulletin Vol 4(4) Apr 1907, 108-109.
  • Baker, F. J., & Gilmartin, B. (2003). A longitudinal study of vergence adaptation in incipient presbyopia: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 23(6) Nov 2003, 507-511.
  • Baker, R. G. V. (1999). On the quantum mechanics of optic flow and its application to driving in uncertain environments: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour Vol 2F(1) Mar 1999, 27-53.
  • Bando, T., & et al. (1981). Cortical neurons in and around the Clare-Bishop area related with lens accommodation in the cat: Brain Research Vol 225(1) Nov 1981, 195-199.
  • Bando, T., Takagi, M., Toda, H., & Yoshizawa, T. (1992). Functional roles of the lateral suprasylvian cortex in ocular near response in the cat: Neuroscience Research Vol 15(3) Nov 1992, 162-178.
  • Barton, J. J. S., Rizzo, M., Nawrot, M., & Simpson, T. (1996). Optical blur and the perception of global coherent motion in random dot cinematograms: Vision Research Vol 36(19) Oct 1996, 3051-3059.
  • Beers, A. P. A., & van der Heijde, G. L. (1994). In vivo determination of the biomechanical properties of the component elements of the accommodation mechanism: Vision Research Vol 34(21) Nov 1994, 2897-2905.
  • Belton, T., & McCrea, R. A. (2000). Role of the cerebellar flocculus region in cancellation of the VOR during passive whole body rotation: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 84(3) Sep 2000, 1599-1613.
  • Berry, M. (1995). Natural focusing. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Best, P. S., Littleton, M. H., Gramopadhye, A. K., & Tyrrell, R. A. (1996). Relations between individual differences in oculomotor resting states and visual inspection performance: Ergonomics Vol 39(1) Jan 1996, 35-40.
  • Bharadwaj, S. R., & Schor, C. M. (2005). Acceleration characteristics of human ocular accommodation: Vision Research Vol 45(1) Jan 2005, 17-28.
  • Bharadwaj, S. R., & Schor, C. M. (2006). Dynamic control of ocular disaccommodation: First and second-order dynamics: Vision Research Vol 46(6-7) Mar 2006, 1019-1037.
  • Bingham, G. P. (1993). The implications of ocular occlusion: Ecological Psychology Vol 5(3) 1993, 235-253.
  • Bobier, W. R., Guinta, A., Kurtz, S., & Howland, H. C. (2000). Prism induced accommodation in infants 3 to 6 months of age: Vision Research Vol 40(5) 2000, 529-537.
  • Bobier, W. R., & McRae, M. (1996). Gain changes in the accommodative convergence cross-link: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 16(4) Jul 1996, 318-325.
  • Borsting, E., Rouse, M., & Chu, R. (2005). Measuring ADHD behaviors in children with symptomatic accommodative dysfunction or convergence insufficiency: A preliminary study: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 76(10) Oct 2005, 588-592.
  • Bour, L. J. (1981). The influence of the spatial distribution of a target on the dynamic response and fluctuations of the accommodation of the human eye: Vision Research Vol 21(8) 1981, 1287-1296.
  • Braddick, O., Ayling, L., Sawyer, R., & Atkinson, J. (1981). A photorefractive study of dark focus and refraction: Vision Research Vol 21(12) 1981, 1761-1764.
  • Buehren, T., & Collins, M. J. (2006). Accommodation stimulus-response function and retinal image quality: Vision Research Vol 46(10) May 2006, 1633-1645.
  • Busby, A., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (2005). The effect of apparent depth in pictorial images on accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 25(4) Jul 2005, 320-327.
  • Busettini, C., Miles, F. A., & Schwarz, U. (1991). Ocular responses to translation and their dependence on viewing distance: II. Motion of the scene: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 66(3) Sep 1991, 865-878.
  • Callahan, H., Ikeda-Douglas, C., Head, E., Cotman, C. W., & Milgram, N. W. (2000). Development of a protocol for studying object recognition memory in the dog: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 24(5) Jul 2000, 693-707.
  • Candy, T. R., & Bharadwaj, S. R. (2007). The stability of steady state accommodation in human infants: Journal of Vision Vol 7(11) 2007, 1-16.
  • Chard, R. D. (1939). Visual acuity in the pigeon: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 24(6) Jun 1939, 588-608.
  • Charman, W. N. (1989). Accommodation performance for chromatic displays: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 9(4) Oct 1989, 459-463.
  • Chauhan, K., Charman, N., & Schneider, W. (1998). Environmental sources of perceptual impairment. Oxford, England: Elsevier Science Ltd.
  • Chauhan, K., & Charman, W. N. (1996). Accommodation responses to flickering stimuli: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 16(5) Sep 1996, 391-408.
  • Chauhan, K., Charman, W. N., Halnan, A. M., Kelly, C. M., & et al. (1992). Time-averaged accommodation response to flickering stimuli: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(3) Jul 1992, 327-334.
  • Chen, A. H., & O'Leary, D. J. (2000). Free-space accommodative response and minus lens-induced accommodative response in pre-school children: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 71(7) Jul 2000, 454-458.
  • Cheng, H., Barnett, J. K., Vilupuru, A. S., Marsack, J. D., Kasthurirangan, S., Applegate, R. A., et al. (2004). A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation: Journal of Vision Vol 4(4) 2004, 272-280.
  • Chiu, N. N., & Rosenfield, M. (1994). Tonic accommodation, tonic vergence and surround propinquity: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 14(3) Jul 1994, 290-292.
  • Cho, A., Iwasaki, T., & Noro, K. (1996). A study on visual characteristics of binocular 3-D images: Ergonomics Vol 39(11) Nov 1996, 1285-1293.
  • Ciuffreda, K. J. (2002). The scientific basis for and efficacy of optometric vision therapy in nonstrabismic accommodative and vergence disorders: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 73(12) Dec 2002, 735-762.
  • Ciuffreda, K. J., & Hokoda, S. C. (1983). Spatial frequency dependence of accommodative responses in amblyopic eyes: Vision Research Vol 23(12) 1983, 1585-1594.
  • Ciuffreda, K. J., & Hokoda, S. C. (1985). Effect of instruction and higher level control on the accommodative response spatial frequency profile: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 5(2) 1985, 221-223.
  • Ciuffreda, K. J., Rosenfield, M., Rosen, J., Azimi, A., & et al. (1990). Accommodative responses to naturalistic stimuli: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 10(2) Apr 1990, 168-174.
  • Ciuffreda, K. J., & Rumpf, D. (1985). Contrast and accommodation in amblyopia: Vision Research Vol 25(10) 1985, 1445-1457.
  • Collins, M., Davis, B., & Atchison, D. (1994). VDT screen reflections and accommodation response: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 14(2) Apr 1994, 193-198.
  • Collins, M., Davis, B., & Goode, A. (1994). Steady-state accommodation response and VDT screen conditions: Applied Ergonomics Vol 25(5) Oct 1994, 334-338.
  • Crawford, J. D., & Guitton, D. (1997). Primate head-free saccade generator implements a desired (post-VOR) eye position command by anticipating intended head motion: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 78(5) Nov 1997, 2811-2816.
  • Cufflin, M. P., Hazel, C. A., & Mallen, E. A. H. (2007). Static accommodative responses following adaptation to differential levels of blur: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 27(4) Jul 2007, 353-360.
  • Cumming, B. G., & Judge, S. J. (1986). Disparity-induced and blur-induced convergence eye movement and accommodation in the monkey: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 55(5) May 1986, 896-914.
  • Da Silva, J. A., Matsushima, E. H., Aznar-Casanova, J. A., & Ribeiro-Filho, N. P. (2006). Distance perception in a natural outdoor setting: Is there a developmental trend to overconstancy? : The Spanish Journal of Psychology Vol 9(2) Nov 2006, 285-294.
  • Das, V. E., Dell'Osso, L. F., & Leigh, R. J. (1999). Enhancement of the vestibulo-ocular reflex by prior eye movements: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 81(6) Jun 1999, 2884-2892.
  • Delabarre, E. B. (1895). On the Relation of Accommodation and Convergence to our Sense of Depth: Psychological Review Vol 2(4) Jul 1895, 417-418.
  • Delabarre, E. B. (1895). Uber die latente Hypermetropie: Psychological Review Vol 2(4) Jul 1895, 416-417.
  • Demer, J. L., & Crane, B. T. (2001). Ocular compensation due to labyrinthine input during natural motion. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Denieul, P. (1982). Effects of stimulus vergence on mean accommodation response, microfluctuations of accommodation and optical quality of the human eye: Vision Research Vol 22(5) 1982, 561-569.
  • Denieul, P., & Corno-Martin, F. (1994). Mean response and oscillations of accommodation with colour and contrast: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 14(2) Apr 1994, 184-192.
  • Deubel, H., & Bridgeman, B. (1995). Perceptual consequences of ocular lens overshoot during saccadic eye movements: Vision Research Vol 35(20) Oct 1995, 2897-2902.
  • Diller, D. E. (2000). The effects of attentional focus on visual information processing. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Dobson, V., Howland, H. C., Moss, C., & Banks, M. S. (1983). Photorefraction of normal and astigmatic infants during viewing of patterned stimuli: Vision Research Vol 23(10) 1983, 1043-1052.
  • Dornbush, R. L., Dunn, M. W., Shapiro, B., & Freedman, A. M. (1982). Visual effects of a psychoactive short-chain neuropeptide: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 139(3) Mar 1982, 354-355.
  • Dreger, R. M. (1965). A Funny Thing Happened: American Psychologist Vol 20(5) May 1965, 368.
  • Duijnhouwer, J., Beintema, J. A., van den Berg, A. V., & van Wezel, R. J. A. (2006). An illusory transformation of optic flow fields without local motion interactions: Vision Research Vol 46(4) Feb 2006, 439-443.
  • Ebenholtz, S. M., & Citek, K. (1995). Absence of adaptive plasticity after voluntary vergence and accoMmodation: Vision Research Vol 35(19) Oct 1995, 2773-2783.
  • Ebenholtz, S. M., & Ebenholtz, J. M. (2003). Distance perception for points at equiconvergence and equidistance loci: Perception Vol 32(6) 2003, 707-716.
  • Ebenholtz, S. M., & Fisher, S. K. (1982). Distance adaptation depends upon plasticity in the oculomotor control system: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 31(6) Jun 1982, 551-560.
  • Edgar, G. K., & Reeves, C. A. (1997). Visual accommodation and virtual images: Do attentional factors mediate the interacting effects of perceived distance, mental workload, and stimulus presentation modality? : Human Factors Vol 39(3) Sep 1997, 374-381.
  • Elul, R., & Marchiafava, P. L. (1964). Accommodation of the eye as related to behavior in the cat: Archives Italiennes de Biologie 102(4) 1964, 616-644.
  • Elul, R., Marchiafava, P. L., & Nicotra, L. (1964). Method for measurement of accommodation in the cat: Journal of the Optical Society of America 54(3) 1964, 380-386.
  • Elworth, C. L., Larry, C., & Malmstrom, F. V. (1986). Age, degraded viewing environments, and the speed of accommodation: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 57(1) Jan 1986, 54-58.
  • Enright, J. T. (1985). On Pulfrich-illusion eye movements and accommodation vergence during visual pursuit: Vision Research Vol 25(11) 1985, 1613-1622.
  • Evans, B. J. W., Drasdo, N., & Richards, I. L. (1994). Investigation of accommodative and binocular function in dyslexia: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 14(1) Jan 1994, 5-19.
  • Facoetti, A., Paganoni, P., Turatto, M., Marzola, V., & Mascetti, G. G. (2000). Visual-spatial attention in developmental dyslexia: Cortex Vol 36(1) Feb 2000, 109-123.
  • Ferree, C. E., & Rand, G. (1917). The power of the eye to sustain clear seeing under different conditions of lighting: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 8(8) Oct 1917, 451-468.
  • Fisher, S. K., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (1988). Accommodation and apparent distance: Perception Vol 17(5) 1988, 609-621.
  • Fisher, S. K., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (1989). The effect of accommodative hysteresis on apparent distance: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 9(2) Apr 1989, 184-190.
  • Fisher, S. K., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (1990). Adaptation to optically-increased interocular separation under naturalistic viewing conditions: Perception Vol 19(2) 1990, 171-180.
  • Fisher, S. K., Ciuffreda, K. J., & Hammer, S. (1987). Interocular equality of tonic accommodation and consensuality of accommodative hysteresis: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 7(1) 1987, 17-20.
  • Flitcroft, D. I. (1988). Effects of temporal frequency on the contrast sensitivity of the human accommodation system: Vision Research Vol 28(2) 1988, 269-278.
  • Flitcroft, D. I. (1989). The interactions between chromatic aberration, defocus and stimulus chromaticity: Implications for visual physiology and colorimetry: Vision Research Vol 29(3) 1989, 349-360.
  • Flitcroft, D. I. (1990). Sensory control of ocular accommodation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Flitcroft, D. I. (1991). Accommodation and flicker: Evidence of a role for temporal cues in accommodation control? : Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 11(1) Jan 1991, 81-90.
  • Flitcroft, D. I., & Morley, J. W. (1997). Accommodation in binocular contour rivalry: Vision Research Vol 37(1) Jan 1997, 121-125.
  • Fukuda, T., Kanada, K., & Saito, S. (1990). An ergonomic evaluation of lens accommodation related to visual circumstances: Ergonomics Vol 33(6) Jun 1990, 811-831.
  • Gallop, S. (2005). Viewpoint: Prevention & Early Intervention with Plus for Near: Journal of Behavioral Optometry Vol 16(3) Jun 2005, 68-70.
  • Garcia, A., & Cacho, P. (2002). MEM and Nott dynamic retinoscopy in patients with disorders of vergence and accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 22(3) May 2002, 214-220.
  • Gauchard, G. C., Gangloff, P., Jeandel, C., & Perrin, P. P. (2003). Physical activity improves gaze and posture control in the elderly: Neuroscience Research Vol 45(4) Apr 2003, 409-417.
  • Gawron, V. J., Paap, K. R., & Malmstrom, F. V. (1985). The effects of task performance on ocular accommodation and perceived size: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 56(3) Mar 1985, 225-232.
  • Giersch, A., Boucart, M., Speeg-Schatz, C., Muller-Kauffmann, F., & et al. (1996). Lorazepam impairs perceptual integration of visual forms: A central effect: Psychopharmacology Vol 126(3) Aug 1996, 260-270.
  • Gilmartin, B. (1986). A review of the role of sympathetic innervation of the ciliary muscle in ocular accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 6(1) 1986, 23-37.
  • Gilmartin, B., & Winfield, N. R. (1995). The effect of topical !b-adrenoreceptor antagonists on accomodation in emmetropia and myopia: Vision Research Vol 35(9) May 1995, 1305-1312.
  • Good, G. W. (1981). The effect of accommodation on visual evoked potentials and visual acuity measurements: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Goss, D. A., Downing, D. B., Lowther, A. H., Horner, D. G., Blemker, M., Donaldson, L., et al. (2007). The effect of HTS vision therapy conducted in a school setting on reading skills in third and fourth grade students: Optometry and Vision Development Vol 38(1) 2007, 27-32.
  • Gottfried, A. W., & Gilman, G. (1985). Visual skills and intellectual development: A relationship in young children: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 56(7) Jul 1985, 550-555.
  • Gray, L. S., Gilmartin, B., & Winn, B. (2000). Accommodation microfluctuations and pupil size during sustained viewing of visual display terminals: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 20(1) Jan 2000, 5-10.
  • Gray, L. S., Winn, B., & Gilmartin, B. (1993). Accommodative microfluctuations and pupil diameter: Vision Research Vol 33(15) Oct 1993, 2083-2090.
  • Gronau, N., Sequerra, E., Cohen, A., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2006). The effect of novel distractors on performance in focused attention tasks: A cognitive-psychophysiological approach: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 13(4) Aug 2006, 570-575.
  • Gu, Y., & Legge, G. E. (1987). Accommodation to stimuli in peripheral vision: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 4(8) Aug 1987, 1681-1687.
  • Gundlach, R. H. (1944). The mechanism of monocular accommodation in man: Psychological Bulletin Vol 41(9) Nov 1944, 634-639.
  • Gundlach, R. H., Chard, R. D., & Skahen, J. R. (1945). The mechanism of accommodation in pigeons: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 38(1) Feb 1945, 27-42.
  • Haig, N. D. (1993). Local gain control and focal accommodation in the Self Similar Stack vision model: Spatial Vision Vol 7(1) Mar 1993, 15-34.
  • Hainline, L., Riddell, P., Grose-Fifer, J., & Abramov, I. (1992). Development of accommodation and convergence in infancy: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 49(1) Jul 1992, 33-50.
  • Hamilton, W. F., & Goldstein, J. L. (1933). Visual acuity and accommodation in the pigeon: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 15(1) Feb 1933, 193-197.
  • Hanke, F. D., Dehnhardt, G., Schaeffel, F., & Hanke, W. (2006). Corneal topography, refractive state, and accommodation in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina): Vision Research Vol 46(6-7) Mar 2006, 837-847.
  • Harpster, J. L., Freivalds, A., Shulman, G. L., & Leibowitz, H. W. (1989). Visual performance on CRT screens and hard-copy displays: Human Factors Vol 31(3) Jun 1989, 247-257.
  • Harvey, N. (1984). The Stroop effect: Failure to focus attention or failure to maintain focusing? : The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 36(1-A) Feb 1984, 89-115.
  • Hasebe, S., Graf, E. W., & Schor, C. (2001). Fatigue reduces tonic accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 21(2) Mar 2001, 151-160.
  • Hasebe, S., Nonaka, F., & Ohtsuki, H. (2005). Accuracy of accommodation in heterophoric patients: Testing an interaction model in a large clinical sample: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 25(6) Nov 2005, 582-591.
  • He, J. C., Burns, S. A., & Marcos, S. (2000). Monochromatic aberrations in the accommodated human eye: Vision Research Vol 40(1) 2000, 41-48.
  • He, J. C., Gwiazda, J., Thorn, F., Held, R., & Huang, W. (2003). Change in corneal shape and corneal wave-front aberrations with accommodation: Journal of Vision Vol 3(7) 2003, 456-463.
  • Hernandez, C., Domenech, B., Segui, M. M., & Illueca, C. (1996). The effect of pupil and observation distance on the contrast sensitivity function: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 16(4) Jul 1996, 336-341.
  • Heron, G., Furby, H. P., Walker, R. J., Lane, C. S., & et al. (1995). Relationship between visual acuity and observation distance: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 15(1) Jan 1995, 23-30.
  • Heron, G., & Winn, B. (1989). Binocular accommodation reaction and response times for normal observers: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 9(2) Apr 1989, 176-183.
  • Hesler, J., Pickwell, D., & Gilchrist, J. (1989). The accommodative contribution to binocular vergence eye movements: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 9(4) Oct 1989, 379-384.
  • Hine, T., & Thorn, F. (1987). Compensatory eye movements during active head rotation for near targets: Effects of imagination, rapid head oscillation and vergence: Vision Research Vol 27(9) 1987, 1639-1657.
  • Hirvonen, T. P., Aalto, H., Pyykko, I., & Juhola, M. (1999). Comparison of two head autorotation tests: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation Vol 9(2) 1999, 119-125.
  • Hodos, W., & Erichsen, J. T. (1990). Lower-field myopia in birds: An adaptation that keeps the ground in focus: Vision Research Vol 30(5) 1990, 653-657.
  • Hogan, R. E., & Linfield, P. B. (1983). The effects of moderate doses of ethanol on heterophoria and other aspects of binocular vision: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 3(1) 1983, 21-31.
  • Hokoda, S. C., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (1982). Measurement of accommodative amplitude in amblyopia: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 2(3) 1982, 205-212.
  • Hood, C. (1911). Review of Die Hygiene geistiger Arbeit der Schuler und Lehrer: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 2(5) May 1911, 279-280.
  • Howland, H., Boothe, R. G., & Kiorpes, L. (1982). Accommodative defocus does not limit development of acuity in infant Macaca nemistrina monkeys: Science Vol 215(4538) Mar 1982, 1409-1411.
  • Howland, H. C., Dobson, V., & Sayles, N. (1987). Accommodation in infants as measured by photorefraction: Vision Research Vol 27(12) 1987, 2141-2152.
  • Hull, J. C., Gill, R. T., & Roscoe, S. N. (1982). Locus of the stimulus to visual accommodation: Where in the world, or where in the eye? : Human Factors Vol 24(3) Jun 1982, 311-319.
  • Hung, G. K. (1992). Adaptation model of accommodation and vergence: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(3) Jul 1992, 319-326.
  • Hung, G. K., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (1988). Dual-mode behaviour in the human accommodation system: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 8(3) Jul 1988, 327-332.
  • Hung, G. K., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (1992). Accommodative responses to eccentric and laterally-oscillating targets: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(3) Jul 1992, 361-364.
  • Hung, G. K., Semmlow, J. L., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (1982). Accommodative oscillation can enhance average accommodative response: A simulation study: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, & Cybernetics Vol 12(4) Jul-Aug 1982, 594-598.
  • Hylan, J. P. (1896). Review of Die Aufmerksamkeit und die Funktion der Sinnesorgane: Psychological Review Vol 3(4) Jul 1896, 457-459.
  • Iavecchia, J. H., Iavecchia, H. P., & Roscoe, S. N. (1988). Eye accommodation to head-up virtual images: Human Factors Vol 30(6) Dec 1988, 689-702.
  • Iida, T. (1983). Accommodative response under reduced visual conditions: Japanese Psychological Research Vol 25(4) 1983, 222-227.
  • Iida, T. (1987). Psychological studies on accommodation of the eye: Japanese Journal of Psychology Vol 58(3) Aug 1987, 186-200.
  • Ishikawa, S. (1990). Examination of the near triad in VDU operators: Ergonomics Vol 33(6) Jun 1990, 787-798.
  • Ittelson, W. H., & Ames, A., Jr. (1961). Accommodation, convergence, and apparent distance. New York, NY: New York University Press.
  • Iwasaki, T. (1993). Effects of a visual task with cognitive demand on dynamic and steady-state accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 13(3) Jul 1993, 285-290.
  • Iwasaki, T., Akiya, S., Inoue, T., & Noro, K. (1996). Surmised state of accommodation to stereoscopic three-dimensional images with binocular disparity: Ergonomics Vol 39(11) Nov 1996, 1268-1272.
  • Iwasaki, T., & Kurimoto, S. (1988). Eye-strain and changes in accommodation of the eye and in visual evoked potential following quantified visual load: Ergonomics Vol 31(12) Dec 1988, 1743-1751.
  • Iwasaki, T., Kurimoto, S., & Noro, K. (1989). The change in colour critical flicker fusion (CFF) values and accommodation times during experimental repetitive tasks with CRT display screens: Ergonomics Vol 32(3) Mar 1989, 293-305.
  • Jachinski, W., Bonkacker, M., & Alshuth, E. (1996). Accommodation, convergence, pupil diameter and eye blinks at a CRT display flickering near fusion limit: Ergonomics Vol 39(1) Jan 1996, 152-164.
  • Jainta, S., & Jaschinski, W. (2002). Fixation disparity: Binocular vergence accuracy for a visual display at different positions relative to the eyes: Human Factors Vol 44(3) Fal 2002, 443-450.
  • Jaschinski, W., Koitcheva, V., & Heuer, H. (1998). Fixation disparity, accommodation, dark vergence and dark focus during inclined gaze: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 18(4) Jul 1998, 351-359.
  • Jaschinski-Kruza, W. (1991). On proximal effects in objective and subjective testing of dark accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 11(4) Oct 1991, 328-334.
  • Jaschinski-Kruza, W., & Schubert-Alshuth, E. (1992). Variability of fixation disparity and accommodation when viewing a CRT visual display unit: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(4) Oct 1992, 411-419.
  • Jaschinski-Kruza, W., & Toenies, U. (1988). Effect of a mental arithmetic task on dark focus of accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 8(4) Oct 1988, 432-437.
  • Jiang, B. C. (1996). Accommodative vergence is driven by the phasic component of the accommodative controller: Vision Research Vol 36(1) Jan 1996, 97-102.
  • Jiang, B.-c., & Woessner, W. M. (1996). Dark focus and dark vergence: An experimental verification of the configuration of the dual-interactive feedback model: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 16(4) Jul 1996, 342-347.
  • Jimenez, R., Gonzalez, M. D., Perez, M. A., & Garcia, J. A. (2003). Evolution of accommodative function and development of ocular movements in children: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 23(2) Mar 2003, 97-107.
  • Judge, S. J. (1985). Can current models of accommodation and vergence control account for the discrepancies between AC/A measurements made by the fixation disparity and phoria methods? : Vision Research Vol 25(12) 1985, 1999-2001.
  • Judge, S. J. (1988). Do target angular size-change and blur cues interact linearly in the control of human accommodation? : Vision Research Vol 28(2) 1988, 263-268.
  • Judge, S. J., & Miles, F. A. (1985). Changes in the coupling between accommodation and vergence eye movements induced in human subjects by altering the effective interocular separation: Perception Vol 14(5) 1985, 617-629.
  • Kalsi, M., Heron, G., & Charman, W. N. (2001). Changes in the static accommodation response with age: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 21(1) Jan 2001, 77-84.
  • Kasthurirangan, S., Vilupuru, A. S., & Glasser, A. (2003). Amplitude dependent accomodative dynamics in humans: Vision Research Vol 43(27) Dec 2003, 2945-2956.
  • Katsumi, O., Arai, M., Wajima, R., Denno, S., & et al. (1996). Spatial frequency sweep pattern reversal VER acuity vs Snellen visual acuity: Effect of optical defocus: Vision Research Vol 36(6) Mar 1996, 903-909.
  • Kaufman, G., Weng, T., & Ruttley, T. (2005). A rodent model for artificial gravity: VOR adaptation and Fos expression: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation Vol 15(3) 2005, 131-147.
  • Kelly, J. E., Mihashi, T., & Howland, H. C. (2004). Compensation of corneal horizontal/vertical astigmatism, lateral coma, and spherical aberration by internal optics of the eye: Journal of Vision Vol 4(4) 2004, 262-271.
  • Kersten, D., & Legge, G. E. (1983). Convergence accommodation: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 73(3) Mar 1983, 332-338.
  • Kertesz, A. E., & Lee, H. J. (1988). The nature of sensory compensation during fusional response: Vision Research Vol 28(2) 1988, 313-322.
  • Kintz, R. T., & Bowker, D. O. (1982). Accommodation response during a prolonged visual search task: Applied Ergonomics Vol 13(1) Mar 1982, 55-59.
  • Kiorpes, L., & Boothe, R. G. (1984). Accommodative range in amblyopic monkeys (Macaca nemestrina): Vision Research Vol 24(12) 1984, 1829-1834.
  • Knowlton, M., Woo, I., & Silverstein, B. (1991). Performance of visually handicapped and nonvisually handicapped children on three accommodation tasks: RE:view Vol 23(3) Fal 1991, 106-118.
  • Ko, W. (2001). Influence of two attentional strategies on performance, quiet eye duration, and competitive anxiety in an underhand dart tossing task. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Koh, L. H., & Charman, W. N. (1998). Accommodation to perceived depth in stereotests: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 18(3) May 1998, 279-284.
  • Koh, L. H., & Charman, W. N. (1998). Accommodative responses to anisoaccommodative targets: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 18(3) May 1998, 254-262.
  • Koivisto, M., & Revonsuo, A. (2005). Prechange event-related potentials predict change blindness in various attention conditions: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 16(8) May 2005, 869-873.
  • Koretz, J. F., & Handelman, G. H. (1985). Internal crystalline lens dynamics during accommodation: Age-related changes: Atti della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi Vol 40(4) Jul-Aug 1985, 409-416.
  • Kotulak, J. C., & Morse, S. E. (1994). Relationship among accommodation, focus, and resolution with optical instruments: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 11(1) Jan 1994, 71-79.
  • Kotulak, J. C., & Morse, S. E. (1995). The effect of perceived distance on accommodation under binocular steady-state conditions: Vision Research Vol 35(6) Mar 1995, 791-795.
  • Kotulak, J. C., Morse, S. E., & Wiley, R. W. (1994). The effect of knowledge of object distance on accommodation during instrument viewing: Perception Vol 23(6) 1994, 671-679.
  • Kotulak, J. C., & Schor, C. M. (1986). The accommodative response to subthreshold blur and to perceptual fading during the Troxler phenomenon: Perception Vol 15(1) 1986, 7-15.
  • Kotulak, J. C., & Schor, C. M. (1986). Temporal variations in accommodation during steady-state conditions: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 3(2) Feb 1986, 223-227.
  • Kotulak, J. C., & Schor, C. M. (1987). The effects of optical vergence, contrast, and luminance on the accommodative response to spatially bandpass filtered targets: Vision Research Vol 27(10) 1987, 1797-1806.
  • Kramer, A. F., Cassavaugh, N. D., Irwin, D. E., Peterson, M. S., & Hahn, S. (2001). Influence of single and multiple onset distractors on visual search for singleton targets: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 63(6) Aug 2001, 952-968.
  • Kraskin, R. A. (2003). The Use & Misuse of Language: Centering & Identification: Journal of Behavioral Optometry Vol 14(4) Aug 2003, 87-93.
  • Kruger, P. B., Mathews, S., Aggarwala, K. R., Sanchez, N., & et al. (1993). Chromatic aberration and ocular focus: Fincham revisited: Vision Research Vol 33(10) Jul 1993, 1397-1411.
  • Kruger, P. B., Mathews, S., Aggarwala, K. R., Yager, D., & et al. (1995). Accommodation responds to changing contrast of long, middle and short spectral-waveband components of the retinal image: Vision Research Vol 35(17) Sep 1995, 2415-2429.
  • Kruger, P. B., Mathews, S., Aggarwala, K. R., Yager, D., & Kruger, E. S. (1996). Accommodation responds to changing contrast of long, middle and short spectral-waveband components of the retinal image: Vision Research Vol 36(13) Jul 1996, 2014.
  • Kruger, P. B., Mathews, S., Katz, M., Aggarwala, K. R., & Nowbotsing, S. (1997). Accommodation without feedback suggests directional signals specify ocular focus: Vision Research Vol 37(18) Sep 1997, 2511-2526.
  • Kruger, P. B., & Pola, J. (1985). Changing target size is a stimulus for accommodation: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 2(11) Nov 1985, 1832-1835.
  • Kruger, P. B., & Pola, J. (1986). Stimuli for accommodation: Blur, chromatic aberration and size: Vision Research Vol 26(6) 1986, 957-971.
  • Kruger, P. B., & Pola, J. (1987). Dioptric and non-dioptric stimuli for accommodation: Target size alone and with blur and chromatic aberration: Vision Research Vol 27(4) 1987, 555-567.
  • Kruger, P. B., Rucker, F. J., Hu, C., Rutman, H., Schmidt, N. W., & Roditis, V. (2005). Accommodation with and without short-wavelength-sensitive cones and chromatic aberration: Vision Research Vol 45(10) May 2005, 1265-1274.
  • Kruger, P. B., Stark, L. R., & Nguyen, H. N. (2004). Small foveal targets for studies of accommodation and the Stiles-Crawford effect: Vision Research Vol 44(24) Nov 2004, 2757-2767.
  • Leat, S. J. (1996). Reduced accommodation in children with cerebral palsy: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 16(5) Sep 1996, 385-390.
  • Leat, S. J., & Gargon, J. L. (1996). Accommodative response in children and young adults using dynamic retinoscopy: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 16(5) Sep 1996, 375-384.
  • Lee, J. H., Stark, L. R., Cohen, S., & Kruger, P. B. (1999). Accommodation to static chromatic simulations of blurred retinal images: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 19(3) May 1999, 223-235.
  • Lee, K. S., & Cho, J. Y. (2002). Polarization-mode coupling in birefringent fiber gratings: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 19(8) Aug 2002, 1621-1631.
  • Leibowitz, H., & Moore, D. (1966). Role of changes in accommodation and convergence in the perception of size: Journal of the Optical Society of America 56(8) 1966, 1120-1129.
  • Lesniak-Karpiak, K. (1999). The focus-execute component of attention: A comparison of children with Turner Syndrome with healthy children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Leukart, R. H. (1939). The speed of monocular accommodation: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 25(3) Sep 1939, 257-270.
  • Li, J., Smith, S. S., & McElligott, J. G. (1995). Cerebellar nitric oxide is necessary for vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation, a sensorimotor model of learning: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 74(1) Jul 1995, 489-494.
  • Lisberger, S. G., & Sejnowski, T. J. (1992). Motor learning in a recurrent network model based on the vestibulo-ocular reflex: Nature Vol 360(6400) Nov 1992, 159-161.
  • Loerzel, R., Tran, L., & Goss, D. A. (2003). Effect of Lens Power on Binocular Lens Flipper Accommodative Facility Rates: Journal of Behavioral Optometry Vol 14(1) Feb 2003, 7-9.
  • Lopez-Gil, N., Iglesias, I., & Artal, P. (1998). Retinal image quality in the human eye as a function of the accommodation: Vision Research Vol 38(19) Oct 1998, 2897-2907.
  • Lovasik, J. V., & Kergoat, H. (1988). Accommodative performance for chromatic displays: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 8(4) Oct 1988, 443-449.
  • Lovasik, J. V., & Kergoat, H. (1988). The effect of optical defocus on the accommodative accuracy for chromatic displays: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 8(4) Oct 1988, 450-457.
  • Lovasik, J. V., & Kothe, A. C. (1989). Ocular refraction with body orientation: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 60(4) Apr 1989, 321-328.
  • Lovasik, J. V., Matthews, M. L., & Kergoat, H. (1989). Neural, optical, and search performance in prolonged viewing of chromatic displays: Human Factors Vol 31(3) Jun 1989, 273-289.
  • Lovasik, J. V., Spafford, M., & Szymkiw, M. (1985). Modification of pattern reversal VERs by ocular accommodation: Vision Research Vol 25(4) 1985, 599-608.
  • Ludlam, W. M., & Ludlam, D. E. (1988). Effects of prism-induced, accommodative convergence stress on reading comprehension test scores: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 59(6) Jun 1988, 440-445.
  • Luria, D. M. (1989). Speed of visual acuity for vertical eye-movements with a change of accommodation: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 69(3, Pt 1) Dec 1989, 751-754.
  • Lyons, K., Mouroulis, P., & Cheng, D. (1991). Effect of instrumental spherical aberration on visual image quality: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 8(8) 1991, 193-205.
  • Macko, K. A., & Hodos, W. (1985). Near point of accommodation in pigeons: Vision Research Vol 25(10) 1985, 1529-1530.
  • Malmstrom, F. V., & et al. (1981). Visual fatigue: The need for an integrated model: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 17(4) Apr 1981, 183-186.
  • Marran, L. (1998). Aniso-accommodation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Marran, L., & Schor, C. M. (1998). Lens induced aniso-accommodation: Vision Research Vol 38(22) Nov 1998, 3601-3619.
  • Marran, L., & Schor, C. M. (1999). The effect of target proximity on the aniso-accommodative response: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 19(5) Sep 1999, 376-392.
  • Marsh, J. S., & Temme, L. A. (1990). Optical factors in judgments of size through an aperture: Human Factors Vol 32(1) Feb 1990, 109-118.
  • Martin, H., Guthoff, R., Terwee, T., & Schmitz, K.-P. (2005). Comparison of the accommodation theories of Coleman and of Helmholtz by finite element simulations: Vision Research Vol 45(22) Oct 2005, 2910-2915.
  • Maruta, J., MacDougall, H. G., Simpson, J. I., Raphan, T., & Cohen, B. (2006). Eye velocity asymmetry, ocular orientation, and convergence induced by angular rotation in the rabbit: Vision Research Vol 46(6-7) Mar 2006, 961-969.
  • Mathews, S., & Kruger, P. B. (1994). Spatiotemporal transfer function of human accommodation: Vision Research Vol 34(15) Aug 1994, 1965-1980.
  • Maturana, H. R., & Varela, F. J. (1981). Size constancy and accommodation: Perception Vol 10(6) 1981, 707-709.
  • Maxwell, J. S., & Schor, C. M. (1997). Head-position-dependent adaptation of nonconcomitant vertical skew: Vision Research Vol 37(4) Feb 1997, 441-446.
  • McBrien, N. A., & Millodot, M. (1986). The effect of refractive error on the accommodative response gradient: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 6(2) 1986, 145-149.
  • McColl, S. L. (2004). Interictal visual system function in migraine: A psychophysical approach. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • McCourt, M. E., & Jacobs, G. H. (1984). Refractive state, depth of focus and accommodation of the eye of the California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi): Vision Research Vol 24(10) 1984, 1261-1266.
  • McLin, L. N., Schor, C. M., & Kruger, P. B. (1988). Changing size (looming) as a stimulus to accommodation and vergence: Vision Research Vol 28(8) 1988, 883-898.
  • McQuaide, S. C., Seibel, E. J., Kelly, J. P., Schowengerdt, B. T., & Furness, T. A., III. (2003). A retinal scanning display system that produces multiple focal planes with a deformable membrane mirror: Displays Vol 24(2) Aug 2003, 65-72.
  • Medendorp, W. P., Goltz, H. C., & Vilis, T. (2005). Remapping the Remembered Target Location for Anti-Saccades in Human Posterior Parietal Cortex: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 94(1) Jul 2005, 734-740.
  • Meehan, J. W., & Day, R. H. (1995). Visual accommodation as a cue for size: Ergonomics Vol 38(6) Jun 1995, 1239-1249.
  • Meehan, J. W., Smith, G., & Day, R. H. (1994). Pseudophakes experience apparent minification in an imaging display: Perception Vol 23(9) 1994, 1063-1068.
  • Meltzer, H. (1954). Review of Textbook of Refraction: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 45(1) Jan 1954, 63-64.
  • Mettens, P., Godaux, E., & Cheron, G. (1990). Effects of ketamine on ocular movements of the cat: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation Vol 1(4) 1990-1991, 325-338.
  • Miller, R. J. (1990). Pitfalls in the conception, manipulation, and measurement of visual accommodation: Human Factors Vol 32(1) Feb 1990, 27-44.
  • Miller, R. J., & LeBeau, R. C. (1982). Induced stress, situationally-specific trait anxiety, and dark focus: Psychophysiology Vol 19(3) May 1982, 260-265.
  • Miller, R. J., Pigion, R. G., & Martin, K. D. (1985). The effects of ingested alcohol on accommodation: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 37(5) May 1985, 407-414.
  • Miller, R. J., Pigion, R. G., & Takahama, M. (1986). The effects of ingested alcohol on accommodative, fusional, and dark vergence: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 39(1) Jan 1986, 25-31.
  • Miller, R. J., Pigion, R. G., Wesner, M. F., & Patterson, J. G. (1983). Accommodation fatigue and dark focus: The effects of accommodation-free visual work as assessed by two psychophysical methods: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 34(6) Dec 1983, 532-540.
  • Miller, R. J., & Takahama, M. (1987). Effects of relaxation and aversive visual stimulation on dark focus accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 7(3) 1987, 219-223.
  • Miyahara, E. (2003). Focal Colors and Unique Hues: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 97(3,Pt2) Dec 2003, 1038-1042.
  • Miyao, M., Ishihara, S.-Y., Saito, S., Kondo, T.-A., & et al. (1996). Visual accommodation and subject performance during a stereographic object task using liquid crystal shutters: Ergonomics Vol 39(11) Nov 1996, 1294-1309.
  • Moffitt, K. W. (1985). Target detection and resolution performance during active accommodation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Mon-Williams, M., & Tresilian, J. R. (1999). Some recent studies on the extraretinal contribution to distance perception: Perception Vol 28(2) 1999, 167-181.
  • Mon-Williams, M., & Tresilian, J. R. (2000). Ordinal depth information from accommodation? : Ergonomics Vol 43(3) Mar 2000, 391-404.
  • Mordi, J., Tucker, J., & Charman, W. N. (1986). Effects of 0.1% cyclopentolate or 10% phenylephrine on pupil diameter and accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 6(2) 1986, 221-227.
  • Mordi, J. A., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (2004). Dynamic aspects of accommodation: Age and presbyopia: Vision Research Vol 44(6) Mar 2004, 591-601.
  • Mordi, J. A., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (2004). "Dynamic aspects of accommodation: Age and presbyopia": Reply: Vision Research Vol 44(19) Sep 2004, 2315-2316.
  • Morrison, J. D., & Whiteside, T. C. (1984). Binocular cues in the perception of distance of a point source of light: Perception Vol 13(5) 1984, 555-566.
  • Murphy, C. J., & et al. (1983). Visual accommodation in the flying fox (Pteropus giganteus): Vision Research Vol 23(6) 1983, 617-620.
  • Nakayama, K., & Mackeben, M. (1989). Sustained and transient components of focal visual attention: Vision Research Vol 29(11) 1989, 1631-1647.
  • Neveu, C., & Stark, L. (1995). Hysteresis in accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 15(3) May 1995, 207-216.
  • North, R. V., Henson, D. B., & Smith, T. J. (1993). Influence of proximal, accommodative and disparity stimuli upon the vergence system: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 13(3) Jul 1993, 239-243.
  • North, R. V., Sethi, B., & Henson, D. B. (1986). Effects of prolonged forced vergence upon the adaptation system: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 6(4) 1986, 391-396.
  • Nothdurft, H.-C. (2006). Salience-controlled visual search: Are the brightest and the least bright targets found by different processes? : Visual Cognition Vol 13(6) Apr 2006, 700-732.
  • Nyman, K. G., Knave, B. G., & Voss, M. (1985). Work with video display terminals among office employees: IV. Refraction, accommodation, convergence and binocular vision: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health Vol 11(6) Dec 1985, 483-487.
  • Okada, Y., Ukai, K., Wolffsohn, J. S., Gilmartin, B., lijima, A., & Bando, T. (2006). Target spatial frequency determines the response to conflicting defocus- and convergence-driven accommodative stimuli: Vision Research Vol 46(4) Feb 2006, 475-484.
  • Oohira, A., & Ochiai, M. (1996). Influence on visual function by a stereoscopic TV programme with binocular liquid crystal shutter and Hi-Vision TV display: Ergonomics Vol 39(11) Nov 1996, 1310-1314.
  • Owens, D. A. (1984). The resting state of the eyes: American Scientist Vol 72(4) Jul-Aug 1984, 378-387.
  • Owens, D. A. (1986). Oculomotor tonus and visual adaptation: Acta Psychologica Vol 63(1-3) Dec 1986, 213-231.
  • Owens, D. A., & Wolfe, J. M. (1985). Accommodation for flickering stimuli: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 5(3) 1985, 291-296.
  • Paramei, G. V., Bimler, D. L., & Cavonius, C. R. (2001). Color-vision variants represented in an individual-difference vector chart: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S230-S234.
  • Parsa, C. F., Ellis, F. J., & Guyton, D. L. (2001). Photographic reproduction of out-of-focus and distorted ocular imagery: Vision Research Vol 41(12) Jun 2001, 1489-1499.
  • Peli, E. (1998). The visual effects of head-mounted display (HMD) are not distinguishable from those of desk-top computer display: Vision Research Vol 38(13) Jun 1998, 2053-2066.
  • Pelisson, D., Prablanc, C., & Urquizar, C. (1988). Vestibuloocular reflex inhibition and gaze saccade control characteristics during eye-head orientation in humans: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 59(3) Mar 1988, 997-1013.
  • Perreault, E. D. (1992). The effects of visual stress on eye movements and comprehension while reading: Journal of Optometric Vision Development Vol 23(4) Dec 1992, 27-38.
  • Phillips, J. O., Fuchs, A. F., Ling, L., Iwamoto, Y., & Votaw, S. (1997). Gain adaptation of eye and head movement components of simian gaze shifts: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 78(5) Nov 1997, 2817-2821.
  • Plainis, S., Ginis, H. S., & Pallikaris, A. (2005). The effect of ocular aberrations on steady-state errors of accommodative response: Journal of Vision Vol 5(5) 2005, 466-477.
  • Poggel, D. A., Treutwein, B., Calmanti, C., & Strasburger, H. (2006). Increasing the temporal g(r)ain: Double-pulse resolution is affected by the size of the attention focus: Vision Research Vol 46(18) Aug 2006, 2998-3008.
  • Poppe, R., Rienks, R., & Heylen, D. (2007). Accuracy of head orientation perception in triadic situations: Experiment in a virtual environment: Perception Vol 36(7) 2007, 971-979.
  • Post, R. B., & Lott, L. A. (1992). The relationship between vestibulo-ocular reflex plasticity and changes in apparent concomitant motion: Vision Research Vol 32(1) Jan 1992, 89-96.
  • Powers, M. K., & Dobson, V. (1982). Effect of focus on visual acuity of human infants: Vision Research Vol 22(5) 1982, 521-528.
  • Prinzmetal, W., & Taylor, N. (2006). Color singleton pop-out does not always poop out: An alternative to visual search: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 13(4) Aug 2006, 576-580.
  • Radhakrishnan, H., & Charman, W. N. (2007). Age-related changes in ocular aberrations with accommodation: Journal of Vision Vol 7(7) 2007, 1-21.
  • Radhakrishnan, H., & Charman, W. N. (2007). Changes in astigmatism with accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 27(3) May 2007, 275-280.
  • Radhakrishnan, H., & Pardhan, S. (2006). Contrast detection in noise with positive and negative defocus in myopes: Vision Research Vol 46(18) Aug 2006, 2949-2955.
  • Radhakrishnan, H., Pardhan, S., Calver, R. I., & O'Leary, D. J. (2004). Effect of positive and negative defocus on contrast sensitivity in myopes and non-myopes: Vision Research Vol 44(16) Jul 2004, 1869-1878.
  • Randle, R. J. (1988). Responses of myopes to volitional control training of accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 8(3) Jul 1988, 333-340.
  • Ray, N. J., Fowler, S., & Stein, J. F. (2005). Yellow Filters Can Improve Magnocellular Function: Motion Sensitivity, Convergence, Accommodation, and Reading. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Raymond, J. E., Lindblad, I. M., & Leibowitz, H. W. (1984). The effect of contrast on sustained detection: Vision Research Vol 24(3) 1984, 183-188.
  • Reiner, A., Karten, H. J., Gamlin, P. D., & Erichsen, J. T. (1983). Parasympathetic ocular control: Functional subdivisions and circuitry of the avian nucleus of Edinger-Westphal: Trends in Neurosciences Vol 6(4) Apr 1983, 140-145.
  • Rempel, D., Willms, K., Anshel, J., Jaschinski, W., & Sheedy, J. (2007). The effects of visual display distance on eye accommodation, head posture, and vision and neck symptoms: Human Factors Vol 49(5) Oct 2007, 830-838.
  • Richter, H., & Franzen, O. (1994). Velocity percepts of apparent laser speckle motion modulated by voluntary changes of visual accommodation: Real-time, in-vivo measurements of the accommodative response: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 62(1) May 1994, 93-102.
  • Richter, H. O., Costello, P., Sponheim, S. R., Lee, J. T., & Pardo, J. V. (2004). Functional neuroanatomy of the human near/far response to blur cues: Eye-lens accommodation/vergence to point targets varying in depth: European Journal of Neuroscience Vol 20(10) Nov 2004, 2722-2732.
  • Richter, H. O., & Knez, I. (2007). Superior short-wavelength contrast sensitivity in asthenopics during reflexive readjustments of ocular accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 27(4) Jul 2007, 361-372.
  • Rodionov, V., Zislin, J., & Elidan, J. (2004). Imagination of Body Rotation can Induce Eye Movements: Acta Oto-Laryngologica Vol 124(6) Aug 2004, 684-689.
  • Roorda, A., & Glasser, A. (2004). Wave aberrations of the isolated crystalline lens: Journal of Vision Vol 4(4) 2004, 250-261.
  • Roscoe, S. N. (1982). Landing airplanes, detecting traffic, and the dark focus: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 53(10) Oct 1982, 970-976.
  • Roscoe, S. N. (1985). Bigness is in the eye of the beholder: Human Factors Vol 27(6) Dec 1985, 615-636.
  • Roscoe, S. N. (1993). Visual orientation: Facts and hypotheses: International Journal of Aviation Psychology Vol 3(3) 1993, 221-229.
  • Roscoe, S. N. (1997). Size-distance variance and eye accommodation: The ways of an investigator: International Journal of Aviation Psychology Vol 8(1) 1997, 75-81.
  • Roscoe, S. N., Corl, L., & Couchman, D. H. (1994). Eye accommodation: Use of vernier optometers in behavioral research: International Journal of Aviation Psychology Vol 4(4) 1994, 359-371.
  • Roscoe, S. N., & Couchman, D. H. (1987). Improving visual performance through volitional focus control: Human Factors Vol 29(3) Jun 1987, 311-325.
  • Rosenfield, M., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (1989). Does target orientation influence the accommodative response? : Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 9(4) Oct 1989, 437-439.
  • Rosenfield, M., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (1990). Proximal and cognitively-induced accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 10(3) Jul 1990, 252-256.
  • Rosenfield, M., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (1991). Accommodative responses to conflicting stimuli: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 8(2) Feb 1991, 422-427.
  • Rosenfield, M., & Cohen, A. S. (1996). Repeatability of clinical measurements of the amplitude of accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 16(3) May 1996, 247-249.
  • Rosenfield, M., & Gilmartin, B. (1987). Oculomotor consequences of beta-adrenoceptor antagonism during sustained near vision: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 7(2) 1987, 127-130.
  • Rosner, J. (1999). Symposium on vision and learning: Journal of Optometric Vision Development Vol 30(3) Fal 1999, 116-121.
  • Ross, L. M., Heron, G., Mackie, R., McWilliam, R., & Dutton, G. N. (2000). Reduced accommodative function in dyskinetic cerebral palsy: A novel management strategy: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 42(10) Oct 2000, 701-703.
  • Rucker, F. J., & Kruger, P. B. (2004). Accommodation responses to stimuli in cone contrast space: Vision Research Vol 44(25) Nov 2004, 2931-2944.
  • Rucker, F. J., & Kruger, P. B. (2004). The role of short-wavelength sensitive cones and chromatic aberration in the response to stationary and step accommodation stimuli: Vision Research Vol 44(2) Jan 2004, 197-208.
  • Rucker, F. J., & Kruger, P. B. (2006). Cone contributions to signals for accommodation and the relationship to refractive error: Vision Research Vol 46(19) Sep 2006, 3079-3089.
  • Ruckmich, C. A., & Whipple, G. M. (1913). Is myopia inherited or acquired? : Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 4(10) Dec 1913, 593-606.
  • Rushton, S. K., & Riddell, P. M. (1999). Developing visual systems and exposure to virtual reality and stereo displays: Some concerns and speculations about the demands on accommodation and vergence: Applied Ergonomics Vol 30(1) Feb 1999, 69-78.
  • Saeed, M., Henderson, G., & Button, G. N. (2007). Hyoscine skin patches for drooling dilate pupils and impair accommodation: Spectacle correction for photophobia and blurred vision may be warranted: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 49(6) Jun 2007, 426-428.
  • Saida, S., Ono, H., & Mapp, A. P. (2000). Closed-loop and open-loop accommodative vergence eye movements: Vision Research Vol 41(1) Dec 2000, 77-86.
  • Savarese, J. M. (1982). Dark focus of accommodation as a function of induced stress and relaxation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schachar, R. A. (2004). "Dynamic aspects of accommodation: Age and presbyopia": Comment: Vision Research Vol 44(19) Sep 2004, 2313.
  • Schachar, R. A. (2007). Age related changes in accommodative dynamics in humans: Vision Research Vol 47(15) Jul 2007, 2111-2112.
  • Schaeffel, F., Glasser, A., & Howland, H. C. (1988). Accommodation, refractive error and eye growth in chickens: Vision Research Vol 28(5) 1988, 639-657.
  • Schaeffel, F., Howland, H. C., & Farkas, L. (1986). Natural accommodation in the growing chicken: Vision Research Vol 26(12) 1986, 1977-1993.
  • Schaeffel, F., Troilo, D., Wallman, J., & Howland, H. C. (1990). Developing eyes that lack accommodation grow to compensate for imposed defocus: Visual Neuroscience Vol 4(2) Feb 1990, 177-183.
  • Schmid, K. L., Iskander, D. R., Li, R. W. H., Edwards, M. H., & Lew, J. K. F. (2002). Blur detection thresholds in childhood myopia: Single and dual target presentation: Vision Research Vol 42(2) Jan 2002, 239-247.
  • Schnider, C. M., Ciuffreda, K. J., & Selenow, A. (1985). Orthoptic effects on accommodation and related visual functions in an adult alternating esotrope: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 5(4) 1985, 425-433.
  • Schor, C. M., Alexander, J., Cormack, L., & Stevenson, S. (1992). Negative feedback control model of proximal convergence and accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(3) Jul 1992, 307-318.
  • Schor, C. M., & Bharadwaj, S. R. (2005). A pulse-step model of accommodation dynamics in the aging eye: Vision Research Vol 45(10) May 2005, 1237-1254.
  • Schor, C. M., & Bharadwaj, S. R. (2006). Pulse-step models of control strategies for dynamic ocular accommodation and disaccommodation: Vision Research Vol 46(1-2) Jan 2006, 242-258.
  • Schor, C. M., & Kotulak, J. C. (1986). Dynamic interactions between accommodation and convergence are velocity sensitive: Vision Research Vol 26(6) 1986, 927-942.
  • Schor, C. M., Lott, L. A., Pope, D., & Graham, A. D. (1999). Saccades reduce latency and increase velocity of ocular accommodation: Vision Research Vol 39(22) Nov 1999, 3769-3795.
  • Schor, C. M., & Task, H. L. (1996). Effects of overlay symbology in night vision goggles on accommodation and attention shift: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 67(11) Nov 1996, 1039-1047.
  • Schowengerdt, B. T. (2004). Development and human factors evaluation of a true three-dimensional display: A stereoscopic retinal scanned light display that provides accurate focus cues to ocular accommodation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Schowengerdt, B. T., & Seibel, E. J. (2004). True Three-Dimensional Displays that Allow Viewers to Dynamically Shift Accommodation, Bringing Objects Displayed at Different Viewing Distances Into and Out of Focus: CyberPsychology & Behavior Vol 7(6) Dec 2004, 610-620.
  • Schwarz, U., & Miles, F. A. (1991). Ocular responses to translation and their dependence on viewing distance: I. Motion of the observer: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 66(3) Sep 1991, 851-864.
  • Seidemann, A., & Schaeffel, F. (2002). Effects of longitudinal chromatic aberration on accommodation and emmetropization: Vision Research Vol 42(21) Sep 2002, 2409-2417.
  • Seidemann, A., & Schaeffel, F. (2003). An evaluation of the lag of accommodation using photorefraction: Vision Research Vol 43(4) Feb 2003, 419-430.
  • Semmlow, J. L., Yuan, W., & Alvarez, T. (2002). Short-term adaptive control processes in vergence eye movement: Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition Vol 21(4-5) Oct 2002, 343-375.
  • Shahnavaz, H., & Hedman, L. (1984). Visual accommodation changes in VDU-operators related to environmental lighting and screen quality: Ergonomics Vol 27(10) Oct 1984, 1071-1082.
  • Sheliga, B. M., Chen, K. J., FitzGibbon, E. J., & Miles, F. A. (2006). The initial ocular following responses elicited by apparent-motion stimuli: Reversal by inter-stimulus intervals: Vision Research Vol 46(6-7) Mar 2006, 979-992.
  • Shepherd, M., & Muller, H. J. (1989). Movement versus focusing of visual attention: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 46(2) Aug 1989, 146-154.
  • Shi, Z., & Elliott, M. A. (2007). Oscillatory priming and form complexity: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 69(2) Feb 2007, 193-208.
  • Shibata, T. (2002). Head mounted display: Displays Vol 23(1-2) Apr 2002, 57-64.
  • Shors, T. J., Wright, K., & Greene, E. (1992). Control of interocular suppression as a function of differential image blur: Vision Research Vol 32(6) Jun 1992, 1169-1175.
  • Siegmund, H., & Santibanez-H, G. (1982). Effector pattern of the audio-visual targeting reflex in cats: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis Vol 42(4-5) 1982, 311-326.
  • Simmers, A. J., Gray, L. S., & Wilkins, A. J. (2001). The influence of tinted lenses upon ocular accommodation: Vision Research Vol 41(9) Apr 2001, 1229-1238.
  • Simonelli, N. M. (1983). The dark focus of the human eye and its relationship to age and visual defect: Human Factors Vol 25(1) Feb 1983, 85-92.
  • Sivak, J. G., Hildebrand, T. E., Lebert, C. G., Myshak, L. M., & et al. (1986). Ocular accommodation in chickens: Corneal vs lenticular accommodation and effect of age: Vision Research Vol 26(11) 1986, 1865-1872.
  • Smith, E. L., & Harwerth, R. S. (1984). Behavioral measurements of accommodative amplitude in rhesus monkeys: Vision Research Vol 24(12) 1984, 1821-1827.
  • Smith, G., Meehan, J. W., & Day, R. H. (1992). The effect of accommodation on retinal image size: Human Factors Vol 34(3) Jun 1992, 289-301.
  • Smith, W. G. (1898). Ueber die bedeutung der convergenz- und accommodations bewegungen fur die tiefenvahrnehmung: Psychological Review Vol 5(1) Jan 1898, 90-93.
  • Sokol, S., Moskowitz, A., & Paul, A. (1983). Evoked potential estimates of visual accommodation in infants: Vision Research Vol 23(9) 1983, 851-860.
  • Stapleton, L., Ward, N. J., Parkes, A. M., Kiefer, R. J., Wolffsohn, J. S., Edgar, G. K., et al. (1998). Head up displays. Oxford, England: Elsevier Science Ltd.
  • Stark, L. R., Lee, R. S., Kruger, P. B., Rucker, F. J., & Fan, H. Y. (2002). Accomodation to simulations of defocus and chromatic aberration in the presence of chromatic misalignment: Vision Research Vol 42(12) Jun 2002, 1485-1498.
  • Stark, L. R., Strang, N. C., & Atchison, D. A. (2003). Dynamic accommodation response in the presence of astigmatism: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 20(12) Dec 2003, 2228-2236.
  • Sterner, B., Gellerstedt, M., & Sjostrom, A. (2006). Accommodation and the relationship to subjective symptoms with near work for young school children: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 26(2) Mar 2006, 148-155.
  • Stewart, C. M., Mustari, M. J., & Perachio, A. A. (2005). Visual-Vestibular Interactions During Vestibular Compensation: Role of the Pretectal NOT in Horizontal VOR Recovery After Hemilabyrinthectomy in Rhesus Monkey: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 94(4) Oct 2005, 2653-2666.
  • Stolbkov, Y. K., & Orlov, I. V. (2000). Mechanisms of the interaction of the angular and linear components of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex in the pigeon: Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology Vol 30(2) Mar-Apr 2000, 169-178.
  • Stolbkov, Y. K., & Orlov, I. V. (2005). Habituation of Horizontal Nystagmus of the Eyes in Pigeons in Conditions of Alternating Central and Eccentric Rotations: Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology Vol 35(1) Jan 2005, 89-96.
  • Stolzberg, M. E. (1987). Reading comprehension as a function of time and ocular functioning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Stone, D., Mathews, S., & Kruger, P. B. (1993). Accommodation and chromatic aberration: Effect of spatial frequency: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 13(3) Jul 1993, 244-252.
  • Strang, N. C., Atchison, D. A., & Woods, R. L. (1999). Effects of defocus and pupil size on human contrast sensitivity: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 19(5) Sep 1999, 415-426.
  • Stratton, G. M. (1902). Review of Uber stereoskopische Lupen und Brillen and Die normale Refraction des menschlichen Auges: Psychological Review Vol 9(5) Sep 1902, 528-530.
  • Suchoff, I. B. (2003). Editorial: A Question of Language: Journal of Behavioral Optometry Vol 14(4) Aug 2003, 86.
  • Suchoff, I. B., & Petito, G. T. (1986). The efficacy of visual therapy: Accommodative disorders and non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 57(2) Feb 1986, 119-125.
  • Suzuki, K. (1986). Effects of oculomotor cues on the apparent size of afterimages: Japanese Psychological Research Vol 28(4) 1986, 168-175.
  • Switkes, E., Bradley, A., & Schor, C. (1990). Readily visible changes in color contrast are insufficient to stimulate accommodation: Vision Research Vol 30(9) 1990, 1367-1376.
  • Takeda, T., Hashimoto, K., Hiruma, N., & Fukui, Y. (1999). Characteristics of accommodation toward apparent depth: Vision Research Vol 39(12) Jun 1999, 2087-2097.
  • Tassinari, J. T. (2005). Change in Accommodative Response & Posture Induced by Nearpoint Plus Lenses Per Monocular Estimate Method Retinoscopy: Journal of Behavioral Optometry Vol 16(4) 2005, 87-93.
  • Tawney, G. A. (1897). Review of Ueber die Bedeutung der Convergenz- und Accomodationsbewe-gungen fur die Tiefenwahrnehmung: Psychological Review Vol 4(5) Sep 1897, 547-549.
  • Toh, Y., & Okamura, J.-y. (2007). Morphological and optical properties of the corneal lens and retinal structure in the posterior large stemma of the tiger beetle larva: Vision Research Vol 47(13) Jun 2007, 1756-1768.
  • Trautman, E. A. (1989). Quasi-monochromatic visual environments and the resting point of accommodation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Travis, R. C. (1948). Measurement of accomodation and convergence time as part of complex visual adjustment: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 38(4) Aug 1948, 395-403.
  • Troilo, D., Quinn, N., & Baker, K. (2007). Accommodation and induced myopia in marmosets: Vision Research Vol 47(9) Apr 2007, 1228-1244.
  • Tucker, J., & Charman, W. N. (1987). Effect of target content at higher spatial frequencies on the accuracy of the accommodation response: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 7(2) 1987, 137-142.
  • Tucker, J., Charman, W. N., & Ward, P. A. (1986). Modulation dependence of the accommodation response to sinusoidal gratings: Vision Research Vol 26(10) 1986, 1693-1707.
  • Turner, J. E., Horwood, A. M., Houston, S. M., & Riddell, P. M. (2002). Development of the response AC/A ratio over the first year of life: Vision Research Vol 42(22) Oct 2002, 2521-2532.
  • Tweed, D., Haslwanter, T., & Fetter, M. (1998). Optimizing gaze control in three dimensions: Science Vol 281(5381) Aug 1998, 1363-1366.
  • Ukai, K., Ishii, M., & Ishikawa, S. (1986). A quasi-static study of accommodation in amblyopia: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 6(3) 1986, 287-295.
  • Vera-Diaz, F. A., Gwiazda, J., Thorn, F., & Held, R. (2004). Increased accommodation following adaptation to image blur in myopes: Journal of Vision Vol 4(12) 2004, 1111-1119.
  • Vilupuru, A. S., Roorda, A., & Glasser, A. (2004). Spatially variant changes in lens power during ocular accommodation in a rhesus monkey eye: Journal of Vision Vol 4(4) 2004, 299-309.
  • Wada, Y., Kodaka, Y., & Kawano, K. (2007). Vertical ocular responses to constant linear acceleration generated by fore--aft head translation in monkeys: Neuroscience Research Vol 57(2) Feb 2007, 240-247.
  • Wade, N. J. (2000). Porterfield and Wells on the motions of our eyes: Perception Vol 29(2) 2000, 221-239.
  • Wallin, J. E. W. (1904). The Influence of Accommodation and Convergence upon the Perception of Depth: Psychological Bulletin Vol 1(3) Feb 1904, 84-88.
  • Walsh, G., & Charman, W. N. (1990). The subjective sensitivity to small changes in the contrast of a suprathreshold grating: Vision Research Vol 30(1) 1990, 163-173.
  • Wang, B., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (2004). Depth-of-focus of the human eye in the near retinal periphery: Vision Research Vol 44(11) May 2004, 1115-1125.
  • Ward, L. M. (1985). Covert focussing of the attentional gaze: Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Vol 39(4) Dec 1985, 546-563.
  • Ward, P. A. (1987). The effect of stimulus contrast on the accommodation response: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 7(1) 1987, 9-15.
  • Ward, P. A., & Charman, W. N. (1985). Effect of pupil size on steady state accommodation: Vision Research Vol 25(9) 1985, 1317-1326.
  • Warshawsky, J. (1964). High-resolution optometer for the continuous measurement of accommodation: Journal of the Optical Society of America 54(3) 1964, 375-379.
  • Watten, R. G., Lie, I., & Birketvedt, O. (1994). The influence of long-term visual near-work on accommodation and vergence: A field study: Journal of Human Ergology Vol 23(1) Jun 1994, 27-39.
  • Weber, A., Braun, B., & Crocker, M. W. (2006). Finding Referents in Time: Eye-tracking Evidence for the Role of Contrastive Accents: Language and Speech Vol 49(3) Sep 2006, 367-392.
  • Werner, C., & Himstedt, W. (1984). Eye accommodation during prey capture behaviour in salamanders (Salamandra salamandra L.): Behavioural Brain Research Vol 12(1) Apr 1984, 69-73.
  • White, J. M., & Wick, B. (1995). Accommodation in humans with juvenile macular degeneration: Vision Research Vol 35(6) Mar 1995, 873-880.
  • Wick, B. (2000). On the etiology of refractive error--I: A conceptual model: Journal of Optometric Vision Development Vol 31(1) Spr 2000, 5-21.
  • Wildsoet, C. F., & Schmid, K. L. (2001). Emmetropization in chicks uses optical vergence and relative distance cues to decode defocus: Vision Research Vol 41(24) Nov 2001, 3197-3204.
  • Williams, J. A., Bridgeman, B., Woods, T., & Welch, R. (2007). Global VOR gain adaptation during near fixation to foveal targets: Human Movement Science Vol 26(6) Dec 2007, 787-795.
  • Winawer, J., & Wallman, J. (2002). Temporal constraints on lens compensation in chicks: Vision Research Vol 42(24) Nov 2002, 2651-2668.
  • Winawer, J., Zhu, X., Choi, J., & Wallman, J. (2005). Ocular compensation for alternating myopic and hyperopic defocus: Vision Research Vol 45(13) Jun 2005, 1667-1677.
  • Winn, B., Charman, W. N., Pugh, J. R., Heron, G., & et al. (1989). Perceptual detectability of ocular accommodation microfluctuations: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 6(3) Mar 1989, 459-462.
  • Winn, B., Gilmartin, B., Mortimer, L. C., & Edwards, N. R. (1991). The effect of mental effort on open- and closed-loop accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 11(4) Oct 1991, 335-339.
  • Winn, B., Pugh, J. R., Gilmartin, B., & Owens, H. (1990). The frequency characteristics of accommodative microfluctuations for central and peripheral zones of the human crystalline lens: Vision Research Vol 30(7) 1990, 1093-1099.
  • Woehrle, M. B., Peters, R. J., & Frantz, K. A. (1997). Accommodative amplitude determination: Can we substitute the pull-away for the push-up method? : Journal of Optometric Vision Development Vol 28(4) Win 1997, 246-249.
  • Wolf, K. S., Ciuffreda, K. J., & Jacobs, S. E. (1987). Time course and decay of effects of near work on tonic accommodation and tonic vergence: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 7(2) 1987, 131-135.
  • Wolfe, J. M. (1983). Hidden visual processes: Scientific American Vol 248(2) Feb 1983, 94-103.
  • Wolfe, J. M., & Owens, D. A. (1981). Is accommodation colorblind? Focusing chromatic contours: Perception Vol 10(1) 1981, 53-62.
  • Wolffsohn, J. S., Edgar, G. K., Stone, H. E., Williams, M., & McBrien, N. A. (1999). Does over-accommodation occur when using aircraft head-up displays? : Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 70(7) Jul 1999, 666-673.
  • Woodhouse, J. M., Pakeman, V. H., Saunders, K. J., Parker, M., Fraser, W. I., Lobo, S., et al. (1996). Visual acuity and accommodation in infants and young children with Down's syndrome: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research Vol 40(1) Feb 1996, 49-55.
  • Woods, R. L., Bradley, A., & Atchison, D. A. (1996). Consequences of monocular diplopia for the contrast sensitivity function: Vision Research Vol 36(22) Nov 1996, 3587-3596.
  • Woods, R. L., & Thomson, W. D. (1995). Effects of exercise on aspects of visual function: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 15(1) Jan 1995, 5-12.
  • Yang, D. S., & Miles, F. A. (2003). Short-latency ocular following in humans is dependent on absolute (rather than relative) binocular disparity: Vision Research Vol 43(12) Jun 2003, 1387-1396.
  • Young, T. (1948). Observations on vision, 1793. East Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  • Zhang, H., & Gamlin, P. D. R. (1998). Neurons in the posterior interposed nucleus of the cerebellum related to vergence and accommodation. I. Steady-state characteristics: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 79(3) Mar 1998, 1255-1269.
  • Zhokhov, V. P., Osobova, T. Z., & Chmutova, L. N. (1988). On the problem of visual efficiency of visually impaired schoolchildren: Defektologiya No 4 1988, 41-44.
  • Zhu, M., Collins, M. J., & Iskander, D. R. (2006). The contribution of accommodation and the ocular surface to the microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the eye: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 26(5) Sep 2006, 439-446.


External linksEdit

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki