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Focal epilepsy

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Focal epilepsy, also called partial epilepsy, is a seizure disorder in which seizures are preceded by an isolated disturbance of a cerebral function. Such disturbances may include a twitching of a part of the body, such as a limb; a deceptive or illusory sensation or feeling, or some other perceptual disturbance. It is a subtype of epilepsy.

Causes

The cause of the isolated disturbances results from the electrical signals

Classification

International Classification of Partial Seizures

  1. Simple (with no interruption to consciousness)
  2. Complex (interrupts consciousness)
  3. Partial seizures evolving into a secondary generalized epilepsy (known as generalized seizure)

Hallucinations

Visual hallucinations due to focal seizures differ depending on the region of the brain where the seizure occurs. For example, visual hallucinations during occipital lobe seizures are typically visions of brightly colored, geometric shapes that may move across the visual field, multiply, or form concentric rings and generally persist from a few seconds to a few minutes. They are usually unilateral and localized to one part of the visual field on the ipsilateral side of the seizure focus, typically the temporal field. However, unilateral visions moving horizontally across the visual field begin on the contralateral side and move towards the ipsilateral side.[1]

References

  1. Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos P. A clinical guide to epileptic syndromes and their treatment: based on the ILAE classification and practice parameter guidelines. 2. ed. London: Springer, 2007.
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