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Fluphenazine

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Fluphenazine chemical structure
Fluphenazine

2-[4-[3-[2-(trifluoromethyl)-
10H-phenothiazin-10-yl]propyl]-
piperazin-1-yl]ethanol
IUPAC name
CAS number
69-23-8
ATC code

N05AB02

PubChem
3372
DrugBank
APRD00633
Chemical formula {{{chemical_formula}}}
Molecular weight 437.523 g/mol
Bioavailability 40% - 50%
Metabolism Hepatic
Elimination half-life 15 to 30 hours
Excretion bile/feces
Pregnancy category
Legal status Rx-only
Routes of administration oral, IM, decanoate

Fluphenazine (marketed as Prolixin) is a typical antipsychotic drug used for the treatment of psychoses such as schizophrenia and acute manic phases of bipolar disorder. It belongs to the piperazine class of phenothiazines and is extremely potent; more potent than haloperidol and around fifty to seventy times the potency of chlorpromazine.

Its main use is as a long acting injection given two or three weekly to people with schizophrenia who have a poor compliance with medication and suffer frequent relapses of illness. In some countries this can be involuntary under Community Treatment Orders. Its side effect profile is similar to haloperidol, namely predominantly dopamine-blocking effects which give rise to akathisia, parkinsonism and tremor. Long term side effects include the potentially irreversible tardive dyskinesia and the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

Brand names

Fluphenazine decanoate Modecate, Prolixin Decanoate, Dapotum D, Anatensol, Fludecate, Sinqualone Deconoate
Fluphenazine enanthate Dapotum Injektion, Flunanthate, Moditen Enanthate Injection, Sinqualone Enanthate
Fluphenazine hydrochloride Prolixin, Permitil, Dapotum, Lyogen, Moditen, Omca, Sediten, Selecten, Sevinol, Sinqualone, Trancin

Pharmacokinetics

Fluphenazine has an incomplete oral bioavailability of 40% to 50% (due to extensive first pass metabolization in the liver). Its half life is 15 to 30 hours.

Dosing

12.5 mg of fluphenazine decanoate is roughly equivalent to 100 mg of zuclopenthixol decanoate or 20 mg of flupentixol decanoate.

Side effects

Further information: Typical antipsychotic

Notable side effects include akathisia, extrapyramidal side effects, including tardive dyskinesia. The frequency and severity of extrapyramidal side effects are direct proportional to the dose given and the duration of treatment.

Sedative, allergic-toxic and anticholinergic/sympatholytic side effects are less likely to occur compared with chlorpromazine. The direct deposition of fluphenazine in the cornea and retina has so far not been reported.

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, although rare, is a potentially lethal side effect of all antipsychotics.

References


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