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- the minimum (smallest observation)
- the lower quartile or first quartile (which cuts off the lowest 25% of the data)
- the median (middle value)
- the upper quartile or third quartile (which cuts off the highest 25% of the data)
- the maximum (largest observation)
The five-number summary is sometimes represented as in the following table:
|1st quartile||3rd quartile|
The five-number summary can be represented graphically using a boxplot.
- David C. Hoaglin, Frederick Mosteller and John W. Tukey. "Understanding robust and exploratory data analysis". Wiley, 1983. ISBN 0-471-09777-2.
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