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Five-number summary

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In descriptive statistics, the five-number summary of a data set consists of:

  1. the minimum (smallest observation)
  2. the lower quartile or first quartile (which cuts off the lowest 25% of the data)
  3. the median (middle value)
  4. the upper quartile or third quartile (which cuts off the highest 25% of the data)
  5. the maximum (largest observation)

The five-number summary is sometimes represented as in the following table:

1st quartile 3rd quartile
Minimum Maximum

The five-number summary can be represented graphically using a boxplot.

See also: Quartile, Order statistic


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