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Dentate gyrus

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Brain: Dentate gyrus
HippocampalRegions
Diagram of hippocampal regions. DG: Dentate gyrus.
Gray717
Coronal section of brain immediately in front of pons. (Label for "Gyrus dentatus" is at bottom left.)
Latin gyrus dentatus
Gray's subject #189 827
Part of
Components
Artery
Vein
BrainInfo/UW hier-161
MeSH A08.186.211.577.405.200

The dentate gyrus is part of the hippocampal formation. It contains granule cells, which project to the pyramidal cells and interneurons of subfield CA3 of the hippocampus. The granule cells, principal excitatory neurons in the dentate gyrus, receive inputs from areas in the neocortex. Most of these inputs are provided by the perforant path, the axons of spiny stellate cells at the entorhinal cortex. The perforant path is divided in the medial perforant path and the lateral perforant path generated respectively at the medial and lateral portions of the entorhinal cortex. The medial perforant path synapses onto the proximal dendritic area of the granule cells, while the lateral perforant path does it onto the distal dendrites of these same cells.

The dentate gyrus is also one of the few regions of the brain where neurogenesis takes place. Neurogenesis is thought to play a role in the formation of new memories. It has also been found to be increased in response to both antidepressants and physical exercise. This implies that neurogenesis may improve symptoms of depression.

The dentate gyrus plays a role in recognizing the differences that make each place unique. Thus, damage to the dentate gyrus can play a role in déjà vu.[1]

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  • Bliss, T. V. P. and Lomo, T. (1973). Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus of the anaesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path , Journal of Physiology 232, 331-56
  • Ikegaya, Y., Saito, H. and Abe, K. (1995). Requirement of basolateral amygdale neuron activity for the induction of long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus in vivo , Brain Research 67, 351-4


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Telencephalon (cerebrum, cerebral cortex, cerebral hemispheres) - edit

primary sulci/fissures: medial longitudinal, lateral, central, parietoöccipital, calcarine, cingulate

frontal lobe: precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex, 4), precentral sulcus, superior frontal gyrus (6, 8), middle frontal gyrus (46), inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area, 44-pars opercularis, 45-pars triangularis), prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal cortex, 9, 10, 11, 12, 47)

parietal lobe: postcentral sulcus, postcentral gyrus (1, 2, 3, 43), superior parietal lobule (5), inferior parietal lobule (39-angular gyrus, 40), precuneus (7), intraparietal sulcus

occipital lobe: primary visual cortex (17), cuneus, lingual gyrus, 18, 19 (18 and 19 span whole lobe)

temporal lobe: transverse temporal gyrus (41-42-primary auditory cortex), superior temporal gyrus (38, 22-Wernicke's area), middle temporal gyrus (21), inferior temporal gyrus (20), fusiform gyrus (36, 37)

limbic lobe/fornicate gyrus: cingulate cortex/cingulate gyrus, anterior cingulate (24, 32, 33), posterior cingulate (23, 31),
isthmus (26, 29, 30), parahippocampal gyrus (piriform cortex, 25, 27, 35), entorhinal cortex (28, 34)

subcortical/insular cortex: rhinencephalon, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, lateral ventricles, septum pellucidum, ependyma, internal capsule, corona radiata, external capsule

hippocampal formation: dentate gyrus, hippocampus, subiculum

basal ganglia: striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen), lentiform nucleus (putamen, globus pallidus), claustrum, extreme capsule, amygdala, nucleus accumbens

Some categorizations are approximations, and some Brodmann areas span gyri.

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