Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Facial nerve

Talk2
34,139pages on
this wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)


This article is in need of attention from a psychologist/academic expert on the subject.
Please help recruit one, or improve this page yourself if you are qualified.
This banner appears on articles that are weak and whose contents should be approached with academic caution
.
Nerve: Facial nerve
Cranial nerve VII
Cranial nerve VII
Gray790
The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of neck.
Latin nervus facialis
Gray's subject #202 901
Innervates
From
To
MeSH A08.800.800.120.250

The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. It emerges from the brainstem between the pons and the medulla, and controls the muscles of facial expression, and taste to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. It also supplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to several head and neck ganglia.

Cranial Nerves
CN 0 - Cranial nerve zero
CN I - Olfactory
CN II - Optic
CN III - Oculomotor
CN IV - Trochlear
CN V - Trigeminal
CN VI - Abducens
CN VII - Facial
CN VIII - Vestibulocochlear
CN IX - Glossopharyngeal
CN X - Vagus
CN XI - Accessory
CN XII - Hypoglossal

StructureEdit

The motor part of the facial nerve arises from the facial nerve nucleus in the pons while the sensory part of the facial nerve arises from the nervus intermedius.

The motor part of the facial nerve enters the petrous temporal bone into the internal auditory meatus (intimately close to the inner ear) then runs a tortuous course (including two tight turns) through the facial canal, emerges from the stylomastoid foramen and passes through the parotid gland, where it divides into five major branches. Though it passes through the parotid gland, it does not innervate the gland. This action is the responsibility of cranial nerve IX, the glossopharyngeal nerve.

Inside one of the tight turns in the facial canal, the facial nerve forms the geniculate ganglion.

No other nerve in the body travels such a long distance through a bony canal.

BranchesEdit

Inside the facial canalEdit

Outside skull (distal to stylomastoid foramen)Edit

A helpful mnemonic device for remembering the major branches are the phrases: "To Zanzibar By Motor Car", "Two Zebras Bit My Cat", "Tell Ziggy Bob Marley Called",

Location of Cell BodiesEdit

The cell bodies for the facial nerve are grouped in anatomical areas called nuclei or ganglia. The cell bodies for the afferent nerves are found in the the geniculate ganglion for both taste and general afferent sensation. The cell bodies for muscular efferent nerves are found in the facial motor nucleus whereas the cell bodies for the parasympathetic efferent nerves are found in the superior salivatory nucleus.

FunctionEdit

EfferentEdit

Its main function is motor control of most of the muscles of facial expression. It also innervates the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, the stylohyoid muscle, and the stapedius muscle of the middle ear. All of these muscles are striated muscles of branchiomeric origin developing from the 2nd pharyngeal arch.

The facial also supplies parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular gland and sublingual glands via chorda tympani and the submandibular ganglion. Parasympathetic innervation serves to increase the flow of saliva from these glands. It also supplies parasympathetic innervation to the nasal mucosa and the lacrimal gland via the pterygopalatine ganglion.

AfferentEdit

In addition, it receives taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and sends them to the nucleus of solitary tract. The facial nerve also supplies a small amount of afferent innervation to the oropharynx above the palatine tonsil. There is also a small amount of cutaneous sensation carried by the nervus intermedius from the skin in and around the auricle (earlobe).

The role of the facial nerve in gustationEdit

Main article: Neurobiology of taste perception


Human studiesEdit

Animal studiesEdit

PathologyEdit

People may suffer from acute facial nerve paralysis, which is usually manifested by facial paralysis. Bell's palsy is one type of idiopathic acute facial nerve paralysis, which is more accurately described as a multiple cranial nerve ganglionitis that involves the facial nerve, and most likely results from viral infection and also sometimes as a result of Lyme disease.

Testing the facial nerveEdit

Voluntary facial movements, such as wrinkling the brow, showing teeth, frowning, closing the eyes tightly (lagophthalmos)[1] , pursing the lips and puffing out the cheeks, all test the facial nerve. There should be no noticeable asymmetry.

In an upper motor neuron lesion, called central seven, only the lower part of the face on the opposite side will be affected, due to the bilateral control to the upper facial muscles.

Lower motor neuron lesions can result in Bell's palsy, manifested as both upper and lower facial weakness on the same side of the lesion.

Taste can be tested on the anterior of the tongue, this can be tested with a swab dipped in a flavoured solution, or with electronic stimulation (similar to putting your tongue on a battery).

Facial nerve can also be tested because it controls about 2/3 of the tongue. Try making your finger moist, and dipping it in some sugar, or salt (something sweet/salty) then touch your finger to the back of your tongue. See if you can taste it!

Additional imagesEdit

See alsoEdit

Further reading==Edit

  • Agostoni, E., Frigerio, R., & Santoro, P. (2005). Atypical facial pain: Clinical considerations and differential diagnosis: Neurological Sciences Vol 26(Suppl2) May 2005, S71-S74.
  • Aguggia, M. (2005). Typical facial neuralgias: Neurological Sciences Vol 26(Suppl2) May 2005, S68-S70.
  • Barry, M. A., Larson, D. C., & Frank, M. E. (1996). Effects of chorda tympani transection on long-term salt preference in hamsters: Physiology & Behavior Vol 60(2) Aug 1996, 347-352.
  • Benjamin, R. M. (1955). Cortical taste mechanisms studied by two different test procedures: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 48(2) Apr 1955, 119-122.
  • Bermejo, R., & Zeigler, H. P. (2000). "Real-time" monitoring of vibrissa contacts during rodent whisking: Somatosensory & Motor Research Vol 17(4) 2000, 373-377.
  • Bernstein, I. L., & Taylor, E. M. (1992). Amiloride sensitivity of the chorda tympani response to sodium chloride in sodium-depleted Wistar rats: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 106(4) Aug 1992, 722-725.
  • Blonde, G. D., Garcea, M., & Spector, A. C. (2006). The Relative Effects of Transection of the Gustatory Branches of the Seventh and Ninth Cranial Nerves on NaCl Taste Detection in Rats: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 120(3) Jun 2006, 580-589.
  • Bohnert, B., & Stohr, M. (1977). Contribution to facial spasm: Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten Vol 224(1) 1977, 11-21.
  • Boudreau, J. C., & et al. (1985). Neurophysiology of geniculate ganglion (facial nerve) taste systems: Species comparisons: Chemical Senses Vol 10(1) 1985, 89-127.
  • Boudreau, J. C., Oravec, J. J., & Hoang, N. K. (1982). Taste systems of goat geniculate ganglion: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 48(5) Nov 1982, 1226-1242.
  • Bratzlavsky, M., & vander Eecken, H. (1977). Altered synaptic organization in facial nucleus following facial nerve regeneration: An electrophysiological study in man: Annals of Neurology Vol 2(1) Jul 1977, 71-73.
  • Brett-Green, B. A., Chen-Bee, C. H., & Frostig, R. D. (2001). Comparing the functional representations of central and border whiskers in rat primary somatosensory cortex: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 21(24) Dec 2001, 9944-9954.
  • Broggi, G., Ferroli, P., Franzini, A., & Galosi, L. (2005). The role of surgery in the treatment of typical and atypical facial pain: Neurological Sciences Vol 26(Suppl2) May 2005, S95-S100.
  • Broton, J. G. (1985). Effects of interrupting specific central trigeminal pathways on behavioral responses to noxious and non-noxious facial stimuli in the rat: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Catalanotto, F. A., Bartoshuk, L. M., Ostrom, K. M., Gent, J. F., & et al. (1993). Effects of anesthesia of the facial nerve on taste: Chemical Senses Vol 18(5) Oct 1993, 461-470.
  • Churchill, L., Taishi, P., Guan, Z., Chen, L., Fang, J., & Krueger, J. M. (2001). Sleep modifies glutamate decarboxylase mRNA within the barrel cortex of rats after a mystacial whisker trim: Sleep: Journal of Sleep Research & Sleep Medicine Vol 24(3) May 2001, 261-266.
  • Clark, R. E., Zhang, A. A., & Lavond, D. G. (1997). The importance of cerebellar cortex and facial nucleus in acquisition and retention of eyeblink/NM conditioning: Evidence for critical unilateral regulation of the conditioned response: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Vol 67(2) Mar 1997, 96-111.
  • Colbert, C. L., Garcea, M., & Spector, A. C. (2004). Effects of Selective Lingual Gustatory Deafferentation on Suprathreshold Taste Intensity Discrimination of NaCl in Rats: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 118(6) Dec 2004, 1409-1417.
  • Csecsei, G. (1979). Facial afferent fibers in the blink reflex of man: Brain Research Vol 161(2) Feb 1979, 347-350.
  • Danilova, V., Roberts, T., & Hellekant, G. (1999). Responses of single taste fibers and whole chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve in the domestic pig, Sus scrofa: Chemical Senses Vol 24(3) Jun 1999, 301-316.
  • Dinkins, M. E., & Travers, S. P. (1998). Effects of chorda tympani nerve anesthesia on taste responses in the NST: Chemical Senses Vol 23(6) Dec 1998, 661-673.
  • Dinkins, M. E., & Travers, S. P. (1999). Altered taste responses in adult NST after neonatal chorda tympani denervation: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 82(5) Nov 1999, 2565-2578.
  • Dubbeldam, J. L. (1984). Afferent connections of nervus facialis and nervus glossopharyngeus in the pigeon (Columba livia) and their role in feeding behavior: Brain, Behavior and Evolution Vol 24(1) Mar 1984, 47-57.
  • Edin, B. B., Essick, G. K., Trulsson, M., & Olsson, K. A. (1995). Receptor encoding of moving tactile stimuli in humans: I. Temporal pattern of discharge of individual low-threshold mechanoreceptors: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 15(1, Pt 2) Jan 1995, 830-847.
  • Elizarraras-Rivas, J., Fragoso-Herrera, R., Cerdan-Sanchez, L. F., Ramos-Zepeda, R., Barajas-Barajas, L. O., Troyo-Sanroman, R., et al. (2003). Minor physical anomalies and anthropometric measures in schizophrenia: A pilot study from Mexico: Schizophrenia Research Vol 62(3) Aug 2003, 285-287.
  • Esteban, A. A., & Molina-Negro, P. (1984). Primary and postparalytic facial hemispasm: Clinical aspects and pathogenetic neurophysiologic mechanisms: Archivos de Neurobiologia Vol 47(6) Nov-Dec 1984, 331-346.
  • Finger, T. E., & Morita, Y. (1985). Two gustatory systems: Facial and vagal gustatory nuclei have different brainstem connections: Science Vol 227(4688) Feb 1985, 776-778.
  • Formaker, B. K., & Frank, M. E. (1996). Responses of the hamster chorda tympani nerve to binary component taste stimuli: Evidence for peripheral gustatory mixture interactions: Brain Research Vol 727(1-2) Jul 1996, 79-90.
  • Franchi, G., Maggiolini, E., Muzzioli, V., & Guandalini, P. (2006). The vibrissal motor output following severing and repair of the facial nerve in the newborn rat reorganises less than in the adult: European Journal of Neuroscience Vol 23(6) Mar 2006, 1547-1558.
  • Franchi, G., & Veronesi, C. (2004). Long-term motor cortex reorganization after facial nerve severing in newborn rats: European Journal of Neuroscience Vol 20(7) Oct 2004, 1885-1896.
  • Frank, M. E., & Blizard, D. A. (1999). Chorda tympani responses in two inbred strains of mice with different taste preferences: Physiology & Behavior Vol 67(2) Aug 1999, 287-297.
  • Frank, M. E., Contreras, R. J., & Hettinger, T. P. (1983). Nerve fibers sensitive to ionic taste stimuli in chorda tympani of the rat: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 50(4) Oct 1983, 941-960.
  • Fujita, K., Yokouchi, K., Fukuyama, T., Fukushima, N., Kawagishi, K., & Moriizumi, T. (2006). Effects of hypoglossal and facial nerve injuries on milk-suckling: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience Vol 24(1) Feb 2006, 29-34.
  • Fukushima, N., Yokouchi, K., Kawagishi, K., & Moriizumi, T. (2006). Effect of maternal deprivation on milk intake in normal and bilaterally facial nerve-injured developing rats: Neuroscience Research Vol 54(2) Feb 2006, 154-157.
  • Gadler, R. M. (1997). Evaluation of needle electromyographic trigger point response to emotional stimuli. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Geran, L. C., Guagliardo, N. A., & Spector, A. C. (1999). Chorda tympani nerve transection, but not amiloride, increases the KCl taste detection threshold in rats: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 113(1) Feb 1999, 185-195.
  • Granger, E. M., Glendinning, J. I., Smith, J. C., & Beidler, L. M. (1993). Behavioral and electrophysiological responses to NaCl in young and old Fischer-344 rats: Chemical Senses Vol 18(4) Aug 1993, 419-426.
  • Grant, R., Miller, S. M., Simpson, D., Lamey, P. J., & et al. (1989). The effect of chorda tympani section on ipsilateral and contralateral salivary secretion and taste in man: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 52(9) Sep 1989, 1058-1062.
  • Grassi, S., Magni, F., & Ottaviani, F. (1983). Identification of the motoneurons innervating the stapedius muscle in Gallus gallus: A horseradish peroxidase study: Archives Italiennes de Biologie Vol 121(1) Jan 1983, 37-45.
  • Grazzi, L., Usai, S., & Rigamonti, A. (2005). Facial pain in children and adolescents: Neurological Sciences Vol 26(Suppl2) May 2005, S101-S103.
  • Grill, H. J., & Schwartz, G. J. (1992). The contribution of gustatory nerve input to oral motor behavior and intake-based preference: II. Effects of combined chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve section in the rat: Brain Research Vol 573(1) Feb 1992, 105-113.
  • Grill, H. J., Schwartz, G. J., & Travers, J. B. (1992). The contribution of gustatory nerve input to oral motor behavior and intake-based preference: I. Effects of chorda tympani or glossopharyngeal nerve section in the rat: Brain Research Vol 573(1) Feb 1992, 95-104.
  • Grinevich, V., Brecht, M., & Osten, P. (2005). Monosynaptic Pathway from Rat Vibrissa Motor Cortex to Facial Motor Neurons Revealed by Lentivirus-Based Axonal Tracing: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 25(36) Sep 2005, 8250-8258.
  • Grushka, M., Epstein, J. B., & Gorsky, M. (2003). Burning mouth syndrome and other oral sensory disorders: A unifying hypothesis: Pain Research & Management Vol 8(3) Fal 2003, 133-135.
  • Guidoux, C., Garcin, B., Clery-Melin, M. L., Blanc, R., Jouvent, E., & Hosseini, H. (2006). Acute bilateral deafness and facial diplegia as a presentation of occlusion of the basilar artery: Revue Neurologique Vol 162(5) May 2006, 637-639.
  • Guntinas-Lichius, O., Irintchev, A., Streppel, M., Lenzen, M., Grosheva, M., Wewetzer, K., et al. (2005). Factors limiting motor recovery after facial nerve transection in the rat: Combined structural and functional analyses: European Journal of Neuroscience Vol 21(2) Jan 2005, 391-402.
  • Guntinas-Lichius, O., Wewetzer, K., Tomov, T. L., Azzolin, N., Kazemi, S., Streppel, M., et al. (2002). Transplantation of Olfactory Mucosa Minimizes Axonal Branching and Promotes the Recovery of Vibrissae Motor Performance after Facial Nerve Repair in Rats: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 22(16) Aug 2002, 7121-7131.
  • Halpern, B. P., & Marowitz, L. A. (1973). Taste response to lick-duration stimuli: Brain Research Vol 57 1973, 473-478.
  • Harada, S., Yamaguchi, K., & Kasahara, Y. (1998). Gustatory responses to amino acids in the chorda tympani nerve of C3H mice: Chemical Senses Vol 23(6) Dec 1998, 699-707.
  • Harada, S., Yamamoto, T., Yamaguchi, K., & Kasahara, Y. (1997). Different characteristics of gustatory responses between the greater superficial petrosal and chorda tympani nerves in the rat: Chemical Senses Vol 22(2) Apr 1997, 133-140.
  • Hasselmo, M. E., Rolls, E. T., & Baylis, G. C. (1989). The role of expression and identity in the face-selective responses of neurons in the temporal visual cortex of the monkey: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 32(3) Apr 1989, 203-218.
  • Hein, P. (2007). A role for C/EBPbeta in neuronal differentiation and neuronal regeneration. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hellekant, G., Danilova, V., & Ninomiya, Y. (1997). Primate sense of taste: Behavioral and single chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve fiber recordings in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 77(2) Feb 1997, 978-993.
  • Hellekant, G., Glaser, D., Brouwer, J., & Van der Wel, H. (1981). Gustatory responses in three prosimian and two simian primate species (Tupaia glis, Nycticebus coucang, Galago senegalensis, Callithrix jacchus jacchus and Saguinus midas niger) to six sweeteners and miraculin and their phylogenetic implications: Chemical Senses Vol 6(3) 1981, 165-173.
  • Hellekant, G., Hladik, C. M., Dennys, V., Simmen, B., & et al. (1993). On the sense of taste in two Malagasy primates (Microcebus murinus and Eulemur mongoz): Chemical Senses Vol 18(3) Jun 1993, 307-320.
  • Hellekant, G., & Ninomiya, Y. (1991). On the taste of umami in chimpanzee: Physiology & Behavior Vol 49(5) May 1991, 927-934.
  • Hellekant, G., & Ninomiya, Y. (1994). Bitter taste in single chorda tympani taste fibers from chimpanzee: Physiology & Behavior Vol 56(6) Dec 1994, 1185-1188.
  • Hellekant, G., Ninomiya, Y., DuBois, G. E., Danilova, V., & Roberts, T. W. (1996). Taste in chimpanzee: I. The summated response to sweeteners and the effect of gymnemic acid: Physiology & Behavior Vol 60(2) Aug 1996, 469-479.
  • Hellekant, G., & Roberts, T. W. (1983). Study of the effect of gymnemic acid on taste in hamster: Chemical Senses Vol 8(2) 1983, 195-202.
  • Hellekant, G., Van der Wel, H., Brouwer, J. N., Glaser, D., & et al. (1986). Chorda tympani proper nerve responses to intra-arterial and surface stimulation of the tongue in rhesus monkey and rat: Chemical Senses Vol 11(4) Nov 1986, 557-566.
  • Hendricks, S. J., Stewart, R. E., Heck, G. L., & DeSimone, J. A. (2000). Development of rat chorda tympani sodium responses: Evidence for age-dependent changes in global amiloride-sensitive Na6A+ ) channel kinetics: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 84(3) Sep 2000, 1531-1544.
  • Hendricks, S. J., Stewart, R. E., Heck, G. L., & DeSimone, J. A. (2000). Development of rat chorda tympani sodium responses: Evidence for age-dependent changes in global amiloride-sensitive Na6-super(+) channel kinetics: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 84(3) Sep 2000, 1531-1544.
  • Hettinger, T. P., & Frank, M. E. (1990). Specificity of amiloride inhibition of hamster taste responses: Brain Research Vol 513(1) Apr 1990, 24-34.
  • Hill, D. L., & Almli, C. R. (1980). Ontogeny of chorda tympani nerve responses to gustatory stimuli in the rat: Brain Research Vol 197(1) Sep 1980, 27-38.
  • Hill, D. L., & Phillips, L. M. (1994). Functional plasticity of regenerated and intact taste receptors in adult rats unmasked by dietary sodium restriction: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 14(5, Pt 1) May 1994, 2904-2910.
  • Hopf, H. C., Fitzek, C., Marx, J., Urban, P. P., & Thomke, F. (2000). Emotional facial paresis of pontine origin: Neurology Vol 54(6) Mar 2000, 1217.
  • Horvath, S., Prandovszky, E., Pankotai, E., Kis, Z., Farkas, T., Boldogkoi, Z., et al. (2005). Use of a Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus to Analyze Motor Cortical Reorganization after Unilateral Facial Denervation: Cerebral Cortex Vol 15(4) Apr 2005, 378-384.
  • Hurley, S. D., & Coleman, P. D. (2003). Facial nerve axotomy in aged and young adult rats: Analysis of the glial response: Neurobiology of Aging Vol 24(3) May-Jun 2003, 511-518.
  • Idanpaan-Heikkila, J. J., & Guilbaud, G. (1999). Pharmacological studies on a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain: Baclofen, but not carbamazepine, morphine or tricyclic antidepressants, attenuates the allodynia-like behaviour: Pain Vol 79(2-3) Feb 1999, 281-290.
  • Iwasaki, K., & Sato, M. (1981). Neural responses and aversion to bitter stimuli in rats: Chemical Senses Vol 6(2) 1981, 119-128.
  • Iwasaki, K., & Sato, M. (1984). Neural and behavioral responses to taste stimuli in the mouse: Physiology & Behavior Vol 32(5) May 1984, 803-807.
  • Jaaskelainen, S. K. (1995). Blink reflex with stimulation of the mental nerve: Methodology, reference values, and some clinical vignettes: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Vol 91(6) Jun 1995, 477-482.
  • Jacob, J., & Guthrie, S. (2000). Facial visceral motor neurons display specific rhombomere origin and axon pathfinding behavior in the chick: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 20(20) Oct 2000, 7664-7671.
  • Kissig, B., & Zierz, S. (2006). Isolated Pereses of the Terminal Branches of the Facial Nerve: Clinical Findings, Etiology and Differential Diagnosis: Fortschritte der Neurologie, Psychiatrie Vol 74(7) Jul 2006, 371-376.
  • Kloub, M. A., Heck, G. L., & DeSimone, J. A. (1998). Self-inhibition in Ca-super(2+)-evoked taste responses: A novel tool for functional dissection of salt taste transduction mechanisms: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 79(2) Feb 1998, 911-921.
  • Komiyama, O., Wang, K., Svensson, P., Arendt-Nielsen, L., & De Laat, A. (2005). Gender difference in masseteric exteroceptive suppression period and pain perception: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 116(11) Nov 2005, 2599-2605.
  • Korkosz, A., Scinska, A., Rogowski, A., Mierzejewski, P., Kostowski, W., Kukwa, A., et al. (2003). Chorda tympani nerve transection does not alter operant oral self-administration of ethanol in the rat: Alcohol Vol 30(3) Jul 2003, 211-215.
  • Kosten, T., & Contreras, R. J. (1985). Adrenalectomy reduces peripheral neural responses to gustatory stimuli in the rat: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 99(4) Aug 1985, 734-741.
  • Krimm, R. F., Nejad, M. S., Smith, J. C., Miller, I. J., & et al. (1987). The effect of bilateral sectioning of the chorda tympani and the greater superficial petrosal nerves on the sweet taste in the rat: Physiology & Behavior Vol 41(5) 1987, 495-501.
  • Kujawa, K. A., & Jones, K. J. (1990). Testosterone-induced acceleration of recovery from facial paralysis in male hamsters: Temporal requirements of hormone exposure: Physiology & Behavior Vol 48(5) Nov 1990, 765-768.
  • Kumazawa, T., Nakamura, M., & Kurihara, K. (1991). Canine taste nerve responses to umami substances: Physiology & Behavior Vol 49(5) May 1991, 875-881.
  • Lasiter, P. S. (1991). Effects of early postnatal receptor damage on dendritic development in gustatory recipient zones of the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract: Developmental Brain Research Vol 61(2) Aug 1991, 197-206.
  • Lazarov, N. E. (2007). Neurobiology of orofacial proprioception: Brain Research Reviews Vol 56(2) Dec 2007, 362-383.
  • Lee, C.-H., Kimura, S., Goto, A., & Furukawa, Y. (1995). The effect of dietary protein levels on the responses of the taste nerve to sodium chloride in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs): Chemical Senses Vol 20(3) Jun 1995, 345-348.
  • Lehman, C. D. (1992). The effect of anesthesia of the chorda tympani nerve on taste perception in humans: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lehman, C. D., Bartoshuk, L. M., Catalanotto, F. C., Kveton, J. F., & et al. (1995). Effect of anesthesia of the chorda tympani nerve on taste perception in humans: Physiology & Behavior Vol 57(5) May 1995, 943-951.
  • Lemon, C. H. (2001). Effects of electrical activation of the chorda tympani on taste responses recorded from the nucleus of the solitary tract of the rat. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Lemon, C. H., & Di Lorenzo, P. M. (2002). Effects of electrical stimulation of the chorda tympani nerve on taste responses in the nucleus of the solitary tract: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 88(5) Nov 2002, 2477-2489.
  • Li, C.-S., & Smith, D. V. (1997). Glutamate receptor antagonists block gustatory afferent input to the nucleus of the solitary tract: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 77(3) Mar 1997, 1514-1525.
  • Li, J., Goldberg, G., Munin, M. C., Wagner, A., & Zafonte, R. (2004). Post-traumatic bilateral facial palsy: A case report and literature review: Brain Injury Vol 18(3) Mar 2004, 315-320.
  • Lundy, R. F., & Contreras, R. J. (1993). Taste prestimulation increases the chorda tympani nerve response to menthol: Physiology & Behavior Vol 54(1) Jul 1993, 65-70.
  • Lundy, R. F., & Contreras, R. J. (1994). Neural responses of thermal-sensitive lingual fibers to brief menthol stimulation: Brain Research Vol 641(2) Apr 1994, 208-216.
  • Lundy, R. F., & Contreras, R. J. (1997). Temperature and amiloride alter taste nerve responses to Na-super(+), K-super(+), and NH-sub-4-super(+ ) salts in rats: Brain Research Vol 744(2) Jan 1997, 309-317.
  • Madura, T., Yamashita, T., Kubo, T., Tsuji, L., Hosokawa, K., & Tohyama, M. (2004). Changes in mRNA of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 2 following facial nerve transection: Molecular Brain Research Vol 123(1-2) Apr 2004, 76-80.
  • Maloney, S. R., Bell, W. L., Shoaf, S. C., Blair, D., Bastings, E. P., Good, D. C., et al. (2000). Measurement of lingual and palatine somatosensory evoked potentials: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 111(2) Feb 2000, 291-296.
  • Matsuo, R., Yamamoto, T., Ikehara, A., & Nakamura, O. (1994). Effect of salivation on neural taste responses in freely moving rats: Analyses of salivary secretion and taste responses of the chorda tympani nerve: Brain Research Vol 649(1-2) Jun 1994, 136-146.
  • McBride, M. G. (1983). Neurophysiology of the peripheral taste system in aged rats and implications for food intake in elderly humans: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McHenry, M. A., Minton, J. T., Wilson, R. L., & Post, Y. V. (1994). Intelligibility and nonspeech orofacial strength and force control following traumatic brain injury: Journal of Speech & Hearing Research Vol 37(6) Dec 1994, 1271-1283.
  • Minear, M. M., Hammack, S. E., Lundy, R. F., Jr., & Contreras, R. J. (1996). Amiloride inhibits taste nerve responses to NaCl and KCl in Sprague-Dawley and Fischer 344 rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 60(2) Aug 1996, 507-516.
  • Miyasaka, A., & Imoto, T. (1995). Electrophysiological characterization of the inhibitory effect of a novel peptide gurmarin on the sweet taste response in rats: Brain Research Vol 676(1) Apr 1995, 63-68.
  • Myers, W. E., Hettinger, T. P., & Frank, M. E. (1993). Inhibition of hamster chorda tympani neural response by copper chloride: Chemical Senses Vol 18(5) Oct 1993, 495-507.
  • Nachman, M., & Pfaffmann, C. (1963). Gustatory nerve discharge in normal and sodium-deficient rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 56(6) Dec 1963, 1007-1011.
  • Nagai, T., Yamamoto, T., Katayama, H., Adachi, M., & et al. (1992). A novel method to analyse response patterns of taste neurons by artificial neural networks: Neuroreport: An International Journal for the Rapid Communication of Research in Neuroscience Vol 3(9) Sep 1992, 745-748.
  • Ninomiya, Y. (1996). Salt taste responses of mouse chorda tympani neurons: Evidence for existence of two different amiloride-sensitive receptor components for NaCl with different temperature dependencies: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 76(5) Nov 1996, 3550-3554.
  • Ninomiya, Y., Bachmanov, A. A., Yatabe, A., & Beauchamp, G. K. (1998). NaCl-preferring NZB/B1NJ mice and NaCl-avoiding CBA/J mice have similar amiloride inhibition of chorda tympani responses to NaCl: Chemical Senses Vol 23(4) Aug 1998, 411-415.
  • Ninomiya, Y., Fukami, Y., Yamazaki, K., & Beauchamp, G. K. (1996). Amiloride inhibition of chorda tympani responses to NaCl and its temperature dependency in mice: Brain Research Vol 708(1-2) Feb 1996, 153-158.
  • Ninomiya, Y., & Kajiura, H. (1993). Enhancement of murine gustatory neural responses to D-amino acids by saccharin: Brain Research Vol 626(1-2) Oct 1993, 287-294.
  • Ninomiya, Y., Kajiura, H., Ishibashi, T., & Imai, Y. (1994). Different responsiveness of the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves to L-lysine in mice: Chemical Senses Vol 19(6) Dec 1994, 617-626.
  • Ninomiya, Y., Mizukoshi, T., & Funakoshi, M. (1981). Dynamic-static sensitivity of rat chorda tympani fibers to anodal current applied to the tongue: Brain Research Vol 214(1) Jun 1981, 190-195.
  • Ninomiya, Y., Nomura, T., & Katsukawa, H. (1992). Genetically variable taste sensitivity to D-amino acids in mice: Brain Research Vol 596(1-2) Nov 1992, 349-352.
  • Ninomiya, Y., Tanimukai, T., Yoshida, S., & Funakoshi, M. (1991). Gustatory neural responses in preweanling mice: Physiology & Behavior Vol 49(5) May 1991, 913-918.
  • Ninomiya, Y., Tonosaki, K., & Funakoshi, M. (1982). Gustatory neural response in the mouse: Brain Research Vol 244(2) Jul 1982, 370-373.
  • Nomura, S., & Mizuno, N. (1981). Central distribution of afferent and efferent components of the chorda tympani in the cat as revealed by the horseradish peroxidase method: Brain Research Vol 214(2) Jun 1981, 229-237.
  • Ogawa, K., & Caprio, J. (2000). Glossopharyngeal taste responses of the channel catfish to binary mixtures of amino acids: Chemical Senses Vol 25(5) Oct 2000, 501-506.
  • Ogawa, K., Marui, T., & Caprio, J. (1997). Quinine suppression of single facial taste fiber responses in the channel catfish: Brain Research Vol 769(2) Sep 1997, 263-272.
  • O'Keefe, G. B., Schumm, J., & Smith, J. C. (1994). Loss of sensitivity to low concentrations of NaCl following bilateral chorda tympani nerve sections in rats: Chemical Senses Vol 19(2) Apr 1994, 169-184.
  • Parlade, S. B. (2000). A case study of Tourette's syndrome, Moebius syndrome and developmental delays in a nineteen-year-old Hispanic female. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Peitersen, E. (2002). Bell's Palsy: The Spontaneous Course of 2,500 Peripheral Facial Nerve Palsies of Different Etiologies: Acta Oto-Laryngologica Vol 122(7,Suppl549) 2002, 4-30.
  • Perrotta, A., Serrao, M., Bartolo, M., Valletta, L., Locuratolo, N., Pujia, F., et al. (2005). Abnormal head nociceptive withdrawal reaction to facial nociceptive stimuli in Parkinson's disease: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 116(9) Sep 2005, 2091-2098.
  • Pfaffmann, C. (1952). Taste preference and aversion following lingual denervation: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 45(5) Oct 1952, 393-400.
  • Pfaffmann, C., & Bare, J. K. (1950). Gustatory nerve discharge in normal and adrenalectomized rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 43(4) Aug 1950, 320-324.
  • Phillips, L. M. (1997). Plasticity in the adult gustatory system. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Pittman, D., Crawley, M. E., Corbin, C. H., & Smith, K. R. (2007). Chorda tympani nerve transection impairs the gustatory detection of free fatty acids in male and female rats: Brain Research Vol 1151 Jun 2007, 74-83.
  • Pittman, D. W., & Contreras, R. J. (2002). Rearing on basal or high dietary NaCl modifies chorda tympani nerve responses in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 77(2-3) 2002, 277-289.
  • Potegal, M., Blau, A. D., & Miller, S. (1980). Preliminary observations with a technique for measuring current spread in the rat brain: Physiology & Behavior Vol 25(5) Nov 1980, 769-773.
  • Pritchard, T. C., & Scott, T. R. (1982). Amino acids as taste stimuli: I. Neural and behavioral attributes: Brain Research Vol 253(1-2) Dec 1982, 81-92.
  • Pritchard, T. C., & Scott, T. R. (1982). Amino acids as taste stimuli: II. Quality coding: Brain Research Vol 253(1-2) Dec 1982, 93-104.
  • Przekop, P. R. (1994). A "sensitive period" for taste. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Rice, F. L. (1984). Neonatal facial nerve extirpations fail to produce alterations in the barrel field in the primary somatosensory cortex of mice: Brain Research Vol 322(2) Nov 1984, 393-395.
  • Robinson, V. (1907). Review of Pathologie du sourire: Psychological Bulletin Vol 4(7) Jul 1907, 222-223.
  • Sako, N., Harada, S., & Yamamoto, T. (2000). Gustatory information of umami substances in three major taste nerves: Physiology & Behavior Vol 71(1-2) Oct 2000, 193-198.
  • Sako, N., Ninomiya, Y., & Fukami, Y. (1996). Analysis of concentration-response relationship for enhanced sugar responses of the chorda tympani nerve in the diabetic dbdb mouse: Chemical Senses Vol 21(1) Feb 1996, 59-63.
  • Sako, N., Shimura, T., Komure, M., Mochizuki, R., & et al. (1994). Differences in taste responses to Polycose and common sugars in the rat as revealed by behavioral and electrophysiological studies: Physiology & Behavior Vol 56(4) Oct 1994, 741-745.
  • Sako, N., Tokita, K. i., Sugimura, T., & Yamamoto, T. (2003). Synergistic responses of the chorda tympani to mixtures of umami and sweet substances in rats: Chemical Senses Vol 28(3) Mar 2003, 261-266.
  • Santibanez-H, G., Espinoza-V, B., Astorga-O, L., & Strozzi-V, L. (1974). Macroelectrodic activity of the facial nucleus of the cat: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis Vol 34(2) 1974, 265-276.
  • Sapin, S. O., Miller, A. A., & Bass, H. N. (2005). Neonatal Asymmetric Crying Facies: A New Look at an Old Problem: Clinical Pediatrics Vol 44(2) Mar 2005, 109-119.
  • Schafe, G. E., & Bernstein, I. L. (1997). Development of the enhanced neural response to NaCl in Fischer 344 rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 61(5) May 1997, 775-778.
  • Schicatano, E. J., Mantzouranis, J., Peshori, K. R., Partin, J., & Evinger, C. (2002). Lid restraint evokes two types of motor adaptation: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 22(2) Jan 2002, 569-576.
  • Schiffman, S. S., Suggs, M. S., Losee, M. L., Gatlin, L. A., & et al. (1995). Effect of lipid-derived second messengers on electrophysiological taste responses in the gerbil: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 52(1) Sep 1995, 49-58.
  • Schiffman, S. S., Suggs, M. S., & Simon, S. A. (1992). Astringent compounds suppress taste responses in gerbil: Brain Research Vol 595(1) Nov 1992, 1-11.
  • Schiffman, S. S., Suggs, M. S., Sostman, A. L., & Simon, S. A. (1992). Chorda tympani and lingual nerve responses to astringent compounds in rodents: Physiology & Behavior Vol 51(1) Jan 1992, 55-63.
  • Serova, O. N., & Esakov, A. I. (1986). The effect of taste deafferentation on the preference for sucrose, saccharin, and salt solutions in rats: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 36(1) Jan-Feb 1986, 150-155.
  • Serpe, C. J., Byram, S. C., Sanders, V. M., & Jones, K. J. (2005). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor supports facial motoneuron survival after facial nerve transection in immunodeficient mice: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Vol 19(2) Mar 2005, 173-180.
  • Serpe, C. J., Coers, S., Sanders, V. M., & Jones, K. J. (2003). CD4+ T, but not CD8+ or B, lymphocytes mediate facial motoneuron survival after facial nerve transection: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Vol 17(5) Oct 2003, 393-402.
  • Sessle, B. J. (1996). Mechanisms of trigeminal and occipital pain: Pain Reviews Vol 3(2) Jul 1996, 91-116.
  • Shimatani, Y., Grabauskiene, S., & Bradley, R. M. (2002). Long-term recording from the chorda tympani nerve in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 76(1) May 2002, 143-149.
  • Shimizu, Y., Yamazaki, M., Nakanishi, K., Sakurai, M., Sanada, A., Takewaki, T., et al. (2003). Enhanced Responses of the Chorda Tympani Nerve to Sugars in the Ventromedial Hypothalamic Obese Rat: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 90(1) Jul 2003, 128-133.
  • Singer, S., Popko, S., & Cohn, R. (1999). Facial nerve palsy as a sign of child abuse: Clinical Pediatrics Vol 38(10) Oct 1999, 621.
  • Siucinska, E., Kossut, M., & Stewart, M. G. (1999). GABA immunoreactivity in mouse barrel field after aversive and appetitive classical conditioning training involving facial vibrissae: Brain Research Vol 843(1-2) Oct 1999, 62-70.
  • Slotnick, B. M., Sheelar, S., & Rentmeister-Bryant, H. (1991). Transection of the chorda tympani and insertion of ear pins for stereotaxic surgery: Equivalent effects on taste sensitivity: Physiology & Behavior Vol 50(6) Dec 1991, 1123-1127.
  • Smith, D. V., Bealer, S. L., & Van Buskirk, R. L. (1978). Adaptation and recovery of the rat chorda tympani response to NaCl: Physiology & Behavior Vol 20(5) May 1978, 629-636.
  • Smith, J. C., Miller, I. J., Krimm, R. F., Nejad, M. S., & et al. (1988). A comparison of the effects of bilateral sections of the chorda tympani nerve and extirpation of the submaxillary and sublingual salivary glands on the eating and drinking patterns of the rat: Physiology & Behavior Vol 44(4-5) 1988, 435-444.
  • Sollars, S. I. (1995). The role of the chorda tympani nerve in the sodium chloride aversion of Fischer 344 rats. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Sollars, S. I., & Bernstein, I. L. (1992). Sodium appetite after transection of the chorda tympani nerve in Wistar and Fischer 344 rats: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 106(6) Dec 1992, 1023-1027.
  • Sollars, S. I., & Bernstein, I. L. (1996). Neonatal chorda tympani transection alters adult preference for ammonium chloride in the rat: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 110(3) Jun 1996, 551-558.
  • Sollars, S. I., & Hill, D. L. (1998). Taste responses in the greater superficial petrosal nerve: Substantial sodium salt and amiloride sensitivities demonstrated in two rat strains: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 112(4) Aug 1998, 991-1000.
  • Sollars, S. I., Sollars, P. J., & Bernstein, I. L. (1991). Reversal of the sodium chloride aversion of Fischer 344 rats by chorda tympani nerve transection: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 105(4) Aug 1991, 603-605.
  • Somenarain, L., DiBennardo, R. A., & Jakinovich, W. (1992). Single neuron gustatory responses of the gerbil chorda tympani to a variety of stimuli (recorded by a new method): Brain Research Vol 594(1) Oct 1992, 1-9.
  • Spector, A. C., Travers, S. P., & Norgren, R. (1993). Taste receptors on the anterior tongue and nasoincisor ducts of rats contribute synergistically to behavioral responses to sucrose: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 107(4) Aug 1993, 694-702.
  • Sprenger, T., Berthele, A., Romanovic, V., & Tolle, T. R. (2006). Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias - A new primary headache group in the IHS-classification: Nervenheilkunde: Zeitschrift fur interdisziplinaere Fortbildung Vol 25(10) 2006, 825-830.
  • St John, S. J., Markison, S., & Spector, A. C. (1997). Chorda tympani nerve transection disrupts taste aversion learning to potassium chloride, but not sodium chloride: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 111(1) Feb 1997, 188-194.
  • St John, S. J., & Spector, A. C. (1996). Combined glossopharyngeal and chorda tympani nerve transection elevates quinine detection thresholds in rats (Rattus norvegicus): Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 110(6) Dec 1996, 1456-1468.
  • St. John, S. J. (1998). Chorda tympani transection impairs selected taste-based discriminations involving quinine in rats: Implications for current theories of taste quality coding. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • St. John, S. J., Garcea, M., & Spector, A. C. (1994). Combined, but not single, gustatory nerve transection substantially alters taste-guided licking behavior to quinine in rats: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 108(1) Feb 1994, 131-140.
  • St. John, S. J., Garcea, M., & Spector, A. C. (2003). The Time Course of Taste Bud Regeneration after Glossopharyngeal or Greater Superficial Petrosal Nerve Transection in Rats: Chemical Senses Vol 28(1) Jan 2003, 33-43.
  • St. John, S. J., Markison, S., Guagliardo, N. A., Hackenberg, T. D., & Spector, A. C. (1997). Chorda tympani transection and selective desalivation differentially disrupt two-lever salt discrimination performance in rats: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 111(2) Apr 1997, 450-459.
  • Stedman, H. M., Bradley, R. M., Mistretta, C. M., & Bradley, B. E. (1980). Chemosensitive responses from the cat epiglottis: Chemical Senses Vol 5(3) 1980, 233-245.
  • Stratford, J. M., Curtis, K. S., & Contreras, R. J. (2006). Chorda tympani nerve transection alters linoleic acid taste discrimination by male and female rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 89(3) Oct 2006, 311-319.
  • Tabuchi, E., Uwano, T., Kondoh, T., Ono, T., & Torii, K. (1996). Contribution of chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves to taste preferences of rat for amino acids and NaCl: Brain Research Vol 739(1-2) Nov 1996, 139-155.
  • Tanzer, L., & Jones, K. J. (2004). Neurotherapeutic action of testosterone on hamster facial nerve regeneration: Temporal window of effects: Hormones and Behavior Vol 45(5) May 2004, 339-344.
  • Tetzlaff, J., Tanzer, L., & Jones, K. J. (2007). Exogenous androgen treatment delays the stress response following hamster facial nerve injury: Journal of Neuroendocrinology Vol 19(5) May 2007, 383-389.
  • Tonosaki, K., & Uebayashi, H. (1993). The effect of bilateral sectioning of the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves on the sweet taste in the mouse: Physiology & Behavior Vol 53(4) Apr 1993, 667-670.
  • Toyoda, H., Ohno, K., Yamada, J., Ikeda, M., Okabe, A., Sato, K., et al. (2003). Induction of NMDA and GABA-sub(A) Receptor-Mediated Ca-super(2+) Oscillations With KCC2 mRNA Downregulation in Injured Facial Motoneurons: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 89(3) Mar 2003, 1353-1362.
  • Tran, T. T., de Costa, B. R., & Matsumoto, R. R. (1998). Microinjection of sigma ligands into cranial nerve nuclei produces vacuous chewing in rats: Psychopharmacology Vol 137(2) May 1998, 191-200.
  • Travers, J. B., Grill, H. J., & Norgren, R. (1987). The effects of glossopharyngeal and chorda tympani nerve cuts on the ingestion and rejection of sapid stimuli: An electromyographic analysis in the rat: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 25(3) Sep 1987, 233-246.
  • VanderMaelen, C. P., & Aghajanian, G. K. (1980). Intracellular studies showing modulation of facial motoneurone excitability by serotonin: Nature Vol 287(5780) Sep 1980, 346-347.
  • Wong, V. (1995). Outcome of facial nerve palsy in 24 children: Brain & Development Vol 17(4) Jul-Aug 1995, 294-296.
  • Yamamoto, T., Matsuo, R., Fujimoto, Y., Fukunaga, I., & et al. (1991). Electrophysiological and behavioral studies on the taste of umami substances in the rat: Physiology & Behavior Vol 49(5) May 1991, 919-925.
  • Yanagisawa, K., Bartoshuk, L. M., Catalanotto, F. A., Karrer, T. A., & Kveton, J. F. (1998). Anesthesia of the chorda tympani nerve and taste phantoms: Physiology & Behavior Vol 63(3) Feb 1998, 329-335.
  • Ye, Q., Heck, G. L., & DeSimone, J. A. (1993). Voltage dependence of the rat chorda tympani response to Na-super(+ ) salts: Implications for the functional organization of taste receptor cells: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 70(1) Jul 1993, 167-178.
  • Zachariah, S. B., Jimenez, L., Zachariah, B., & Prockop, L. D. (1990). Pseudotumour cerebri with focal neurological deficit: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 53(4) Apr 1990, 360-361.

Animal studiesEdit

External linksEdit

de:Nervus facialis

es:Nervio facial fr:Nerf facial lt:Veidinis nervasnl:Nervus facialis no:Nervus facialispt:Nervo facial zh:顏面神經

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki