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{{ExpPsy}}
 
{{ExpPsy}}
'''Facial Action Coding System''' (FACS) is a system originally developed by [[Paul Ekman]] and [[Wallace Friesen]] in 1976, to [[taxonomize]] every conceivable human [[facial expression]]. It is the most popular standard currently used to systematically categorize the physical expression of emotions, and it has proven useful both to [[psychologist]]s and to animators.
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'''Facial Action Coding System''' (FACS) is a system originally developed by [[Paul Ekman]] and [[Wallace Friesen]] in 1976, to [[taxonomize]] every conceivable human [[facial expression]] ({{cite book
  +
| last1 = Ekman
  +
| first1 = Paul
  +
| author1-link = Paul Ekman
  +
| last2 = Friesen
  +
| first2 = Wallace V.
  +
| author2-link = Wallace Friesen
  +
| title = Facial Action Coding System: A technique for the measurement of facial movement
  +
| publisher = [[Consulting Psychologist]]
  +
| date = 1976}}). It is the most popular standard currently used to systematically categorize the physical expression of emotions, and it has proven useful both to [[psychologist]]s and to [[animator]]s. FACS and its action units are based on the book of Carl-Herman Hjortsjö "Man's Face and Mimic [i.e. Facial] Language" (Swedish version: “Människans ansikte och mimiska språket”, 1969: Malmö, Studentlitteratur). Hjortsjö was professor of Anatomy at Lund University in Sweden.
   
It defines expressions as one of 46 "Action Units", which is a contraction or relaxation of one or more muscles. For example, it can be used to distinguish the two types of [[smile]]s as follows:
+
The original FACS was published in 1976 by Paul Ekman and Wallace V. Friesen. While using the system for several years in their lab and training new FACS coders, they updated the rules and definitions of the system. At first the changes were handed out to the new FACS coders in form of an addendum. However, as changes became more structural, a new version of FACS was needed.
   
* insincere and voluntary Pan American smile: contraction of zygomatic major alone
+
In 2002, a new version of FACS was finally published, with large contributions by [[Joseph Hager]] ({{cite book
* sincere and involuntary Duchenne smile: contraction of zygomatic major and inferior part of orbicularis oculi, and pars orbitalis
+
| last1 = Ekman
  +
| first1 = Paul
  +
| author1-link = Paul Ekman
  +
| last2 = Friesen
  +
| first2 = Wallace V.
  +
| author2-link = Wallace Friesen
  +
| last3 = Hager
  +
| first3 = Joseph
  +
| author3-link = Joseph Hager
  +
| title = Facial Action Coding System
  +
| publisher = [[A human face]]
  +
| date = 2002}}). Most co-occurrence rules were removed, a number of AUs were removed and some added, minimum requirements were eliminated and a novel intensity scoring definition was introduced. Unfortunately, the authors decided not to rename the system. It is still simply known as FACS, not as FACS2, FACS 2002 revision or FACS version 2. The website of [[Paul Ekman]]' lab refers to it as the "new" FACS.
   
Although the labeling of expressions currently requires trained experts, researchers have had some success in using computers to automatically identify FACS codes, and thus quickly identify emotions. [http://www.cs.wpi.edu/~matt/courses/cs563/talks/face_anim/ekman.html]
+
Using FACS, human coders can manually code nearly any anatomically possible facial expression, decomposing it into the specific AUs and their temporal segments that produced the expression. As AUs are independent of any interpretation, they can be used for any higher order decision making process including recognition of basic emotions, or pre-programmed commands for an ambient intelligent environment.
  +
  +
FACS defines 32 "Action Units" (AUs), which are a contraction or relaxation of one or more muscles. It also defines a number of Action Descriptors, which differ from AUs in that the authors of FACS have not specified the muscular basis for the action and have not distinguished specific behaviors as precisely as they have for the AUs.
  +
  +
For example, FACS can be used to distinguish two types of [[smile]]s as follows:
  +
  +
* insincere and voluntary Pan American smile: contraction of [[zygomatic major]] alone
  +
* sincere and involuntary [[Guillaume Duchenne | Duchenne]] smile: contraction of zygomatic major and inferior part of [[orbicularis oculi]].
  +
  +
Although the labeling of expressions currently requires trained experts, researchers have had some success in using computers to automatically identify FACS codes, and thus quickly identify emotions. <ref>[http://www.cs.wpi.edu/~matt/courses/cs563/talks/face_anim/ekman.html Facial Action Coding System.] Retrieved [[July 21]], [[2007]].</ref>
   
 
Computer graphical face models, such as [http://www.bk.isy.liu.se/candide/ CANDIDE] or [http://www.artnatomia.net/uk/index.html Artnatomy], allow expressions to be artificially posed by setting the desired action units.
 
Computer graphical face models, such as [http://www.bk.isy.liu.se/candide/ CANDIDE] or [http://www.artnatomia.net/uk/index.html Artnatomy], allow expressions to be artificially posed by setting the desired action units.
   
==Codes for common action units==
+
==Codes for action units==
   
 
''(Also see the [[List of muscles in the human body#The muscles of the head|list of facial muscles]].)''
 
''(Also see the [[List of muscles in the human body#The muscles of the head|list of facial muscles]].)''
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*17 Chin Raiser -- [[Mentalis]]
 
*17 Chin Raiser -- [[Mentalis]]
 
*18 Lip Puckerer -- [[Incisivii labii superioris]] and [[Incisivii labii inferioris]]
 
*18 Lip Puckerer -- [[Incisivii labii superioris]] and [[Incisivii labii inferioris]]
*19 Tongue Show
 
 
*20 Lip stretcher -- [[Risorius]] w/ [[platysma]]
 
*20 Lip stretcher -- [[Risorius]] w/ [[platysma]]
 
*21 Neck Tightener
 
*21 Neck Tightener
Line 41: Line 40:
 
*27 Mouth Stretch -- [[Pterygoids]], [[Digastric]]
 
*27 Mouth Stretch -- [[Pterygoids]], [[Digastric]]
 
*28 Lip Suck -- [[Orbicularis oris]]
 
*28 Lip Suck -- [[Orbicularis oris]]
*29 Jaw Thrust
 
*30 Jaw Sideways
 
 
*31 Jaw Clencher
 
*31 Jaw Clencher
*32 Bite
 
*33 Blow
 
*34 Puff
 
*35 Suck
 
*36 Bulge
 
*37 Lip Wipe
 
 
*38 Nostril Dilator
 
*38 Nostril Dilator
 
*39 Nostril Compressor
 
*39 Nostril Compressor
*41 Lid droop -- Relaxation of [[Levator palpebrae superioris]]
 
*42 Slit -- [[Orbicularis oculi]]
 
 
*43 Eyes Closed -- Relaxation of [[Levator palpebrae superioris]]; [[Orbicularis oculi]] ([[pars palpebralis]])
 
*43 Eyes Closed -- Relaxation of [[Levator palpebrae superioris]]; [[Orbicularis oculi]] ([[pars palpebralis]])
*44 Squint -- [[Orbicularis oculi]] ([[pars palpebralis]])
 
 
*45 Blink -- Relaxation of [[Levator palpebrae superioris]]; [[Orbicularis oculi]] ([[pars palpebralis]])
 
*45 Blink -- Relaxation of [[Levator palpebrae superioris]]; [[Orbicularis oculi]] ([[pars palpebralis]])
 
*46 Wink -- Relaxation of [[Levator palpebrae superioris]]; [[Orbicularis oculi]] ([[pars palpebralis]])
 
*46 Wink -- Relaxation of [[Levator palpebrae superioris]]; [[Orbicularis oculi]] ([[pars palpebralis]])
   
===Other action units===
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===Action Descriptors===
  +
*19 Tongue Out
  +
*29 Jaw Thrust
  +
*30 Jaw Sideways
  +
*32 Lip Bite
  +
*33 Cheek Blow
  +
*34 Cheek Puff
  +
*35 Cheek Suck
  +
*36 Tongue Bulge
  +
*37 Lip Wipe
 
*51 Head turn left
 
*51 Head turn left
 
*52 Head turn right
 
*52 Head turn right

Latest revision as of 16:31, September 13, 2007

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Facial Action Coding System (FACS) is a system originally developed by Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen in 1976, to taxonomize every conceivable human facial expression ( (1976) Facial Action Coding System: A technique for the measurement of facial movement, Consulting Psychologist.). It is the most popular standard currently used to systematically categorize the physical expression of emotions, and it has proven useful both to psychologists and to animators. FACS and its action units are based on the book of Carl-Herman Hjortsjö "Man's Face and Mimic [i.e. Facial] Language" (Swedish version: “Människans ansikte och mimiska språket”, 1969: Malmö, Studentlitteratur). Hjortsjö was professor of Anatomy at Lund University in Sweden.

The original FACS was published in 1976 by Paul Ekman and Wallace V. Friesen. While using the system for several years in their lab and training new FACS coders, they updated the rules and definitions of the system. At first the changes were handed out to the new FACS coders in form of an addendum. However, as changes became more structural, a new version of FACS was needed.

In 2002, a new version of FACS was finally published, with large contributions by Joseph Hager ( (2002) Facial Action Coding System, A human face.). Most co-occurrence rules were removed, a number of AUs were removed and some added, minimum requirements were eliminated and a novel intensity scoring definition was introduced. Unfortunately, the authors decided not to rename the system. It is still simply known as FACS, not as FACS2, FACS 2002 revision or FACS version 2. The website of Paul Ekman' lab refers to it as the "new" FACS.

Using FACS, human coders can manually code nearly any anatomically possible facial expression, decomposing it into the specific AUs and their temporal segments that produced the expression. As AUs are independent of any interpretation, they can be used for any higher order decision making process including recognition of basic emotions, or pre-programmed commands for an ambient intelligent environment.

FACS defines 32 "Action Units" (AUs), which are a contraction or relaxation of one or more muscles. It also defines a number of Action Descriptors, which differ from AUs in that the authors of FACS have not specified the muscular basis for the action and have not distinguished specific behaviors as precisely as they have for the AUs.

For example, FACS can be used to distinguish two types of smiles as follows:

Although the labeling of expressions currently requires trained experts, researchers have had some success in using computers to automatically identify FACS codes, and thus quickly identify emotions. [1]

Computer graphical face models, such as CANDIDE or Artnatomy, allow expressions to be artificially posed by setting the desired action units.

Codes for action unitsEdit

(Also see the list of facial muscles.)

Action units involving facial musclesEdit

Action DescriptorsEdit

  • 19 Tongue Out
  • 29 Jaw Thrust
  • 30 Jaw Sideways
  • 32 Lip Bite
  • 33 Cheek Blow
  • 34 Cheek Puff
  • 35 Cheek Suck
  • 36 Tongue Bulge
  • 37 Lip Wipe
  • 51 Head turn left
  • 52 Head turn right
  • 53 Head up
  • 54 Head down
  • 55 Head tilt left
  • 56 Head tilt right
  • 57 Head forward
  • 58 Head back
  • 61 Eyes turn left
  • 62 Eyes turn right
  • 63 Eyes up
  • 64 Eyes down
  • 65 Walleye
  • 66 Cross-eye

See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit

BooksEdit

P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen, Facial Action Coding System, Consulting Psychologist Press, 1977.

PapersEdit

Additional materialEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

External linksEdit

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found

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