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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Traditionally, extrinsic motivation has been used to motivate employees:
- Tangible rewards such as payments, promotions (or punishments).
- Intangible rewards such as praise or public commendation.
Within economies transitioning from assembly lines to service industries, the importance of intrinsic motivation rises:
- The further jobs move away from pure assembly lines, the harder it becomes to measure individual productivity. This effect is most pronounced for knowledge workers and amplified in teamwork. A lack of objective or universally accepted criteria for measuring individual productivity may make individual rewards arbitrary.
Telic and Paratelic motivational modes Edit
Psychologist Michael Apter's studies of motivation led him to describe what he called the "telic" (from Greek telos or "goal") and "paratelic" motivational modes, or states. In the telic state, a person is motivated primarily by a particular goal or objective--such as earning payment for work done. In the paratelic mode, a person is motivated primarily by the activity itself--intrinsic motivation.
References & BibliographyEdit
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