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Extracellular fluid usually denotes all body fluid outside of cells. The remainder is called intracellular fluid.

In some animals, including mammals, the can be divided into 4 major subcompartments, interstitial fluid, plasma, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid,

In humans, the normal glucose concentration of extracellular fluid that is regulated by homeostasis is approximately 5 mM.

The pH of extracellular fluid is tightly regulated by buffers around 7.4.

Contents of ECFEdit

  • Main Cations:
    • Sodium (140 mM)
    • Potassium (4 mM)
    • Calcium (2 mM)
  • Main Anions:
    • Chloride (110 mM)
    • Hydrogen Carbonate (26 mM)

It is poorer in proteins compared to intracellular fluid

See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit



Additional materialEdit



External linksEdit

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