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(New page: {{BioPsy}} {{Infobox Anatomy | Name = Exocrine gland | Latin = | GraySubject = | GrayPage = | Image = Gray1026.png | Caption = Human submaxillar...)
 
 
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{{BioPsy}}
 
{{BioPsy}}
{{Infobox Anatomy |
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'''Exocrine glands''' are [[gland]]s that secrete their products (excluding hormones and other chemical messengers) into [[duct (anatomy)|duct]]s (duct glands) which lead directly into the external environment. They are the counterparts to [[endocrine glands]], which secrete their products ([[hormone]]s) directly into the [[blood]]stream (ductless glands) or release hormones ([[paracrine]]s) that affect only target cells nearby the release site.
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To the degree to which the activity of these cells is regulated by the nervous system may reflect the role psychological factors could have in the operation of these glands. Effects that might underpin the psychosomatic links with disorders of these systems.
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Caption = Human submaxillary gland. At the right is a group of mucous alveoli, at the left a group of serous alveoli.|
 
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'''Exocrine glands''' are [[gland]]s that secrete their products ([[enzyme]]s) into [[duct (anatomy)|duct]]s (duct glands). They are the counterparts to [[endocrine gland]]s, which secrete their products ([[hormone]]s) directly into the [[blood]]stream (ductless glands).
 
   
 
==Examples==
 
==Examples==
Typical exocrine glands include [[sweat gland]]s, [[salivary gland]]s, [[mammary gland]]s, [[stomach]], [[liver]] and the [[pancreas]].
+
Typical exocrine glands include [[sweat gland]]s, [[salivary gland]]s, [[mammary gland]]s, [[stomach]], [[liver]], [[pancreas]]. (Example of an endocrine gland is the [[adrenal gland]], which is found on top of the kidneys and secretes the hormone [[adrenaline]], among others).
   
 
==Types==
 
==Types==
There are multiple ways of classifying exocrine glands:
+
There are many ways of classifying exocrine glands:
   
 
===Structure===
 
===Structure===
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===Method of secretion===
 
===Method of secretion===
Exocrine glands are named [[apocrine gland]], [[holocrine gland]], or [[merocrine gland]] based on how their product is secreted.
+
Exocrine glands are named [[apocrine]] gland, [[holocrine]] gland, or [[merocrine]] gland based on how their product is secreted.
   
*'''[[Apocrine]] glands''' - a portion of the plasma membrane buds off the cell, containing the secretion. ''Apocrine gland'' is often used to refer to the [[apocrine sweat glands]] which use merocrine secretion.
+
*'''Apocrine glands''' - a portion of the plasma membrane buds off the cell, containing the secretion.
*'''[[Holocrine]] glands''' - the entire cell disintegrates to secrete its substance.
+
*'''Holocrine glands''' - the entire cell disintegrates to secrete its substance.
*'''[[Merocrine]] glands''' - cells secrete their substances by [[exocytosis]]. Also called "eccrine."
+
*'''Merocrine glands''' - cells secrete their substances by [[exocytosis]].
   
 
===Product secreted===
 
===Product secreted===
 
* Serous cells secrete [[protein]]s, often [[enzyme]]s. Examples include [[chief cells]] and [[Paneth cells]]
 
* Serous cells secrete [[protein]]s, often [[enzyme]]s. Examples include [[chief cells]] and [[Paneth cells]]
 
* Mucous cells secrete [[mucus]]. Examples include [[Brunner's glands]], [[esophageal glands]], and [[pyloric glands]]
 
* Mucous cells secrete [[mucus]]. Examples include [[Brunner's glands]], [[esophageal glands]], and [[pyloric glands]]
* Mixed glands secrete both protein and mucus. Examples include the [[salivary glands]], although [[parotid gland]] is predominantly serous, and [[sublingual gland]] is predominantly mucous.
+
* Mixed glands secrete both protein and mucus. Examples include the [[salivary glands]], although [[parotid gland]] is predominantly serous, the [[sublingual gland]] is predominantly mucous and the submandibular gland is both serous and mucous.
   
 
==List of exocrine glands==
 
==List of exocrine glands==
 
Glands typically may be referred to by two or more means, though some terms are rarely seen. The names of the [[anatomist]]s who first described them are often employed, as:
 
Glands typically may be referred to by two or more means, though some terms are rarely seen. The names of the [[anatomist]]s who first described them are often employed, as:
   
{| class="sortable wikitable"
+
{| class="wikitable"
| '''name(s)''' || '''location''' || '''product''' || '''structure'''
+
|-
|-
+
! Name(s)
| [[apocrine sweat glands]] || [[skin]] || - || coiled tubular
+
! Location
|-
+
! Product
| [[Bartholin's glands]], Tiedmann's glands, vulvovaginal glands || [[vulva]], [[vagina]] || - || -
+
! Structure
|-
+
|-
| [[anterior lingual glands|Bauhin's glands]], anterior lingual glands || [[tongue]], near tip || nonserous or mixed || -
+
| [[Apocrine sweat glands]]
|-
+
| [[skin]]
| [[Brunner's glands]], duodenal glands || [[duodenum]] || mucous || compound tubular
+
|
|-
+
| coiled tubular
| [[bulbourethral glands]], Cowper's glands, Mery's glands || [[penis]], base || - || -
+
|-
|-
+
| [[Bartholin's glands]], Tiedmann's glands, vulvovaginal glands
| [[Ciaccio's glands]], accessory [[lacrimal glands]] || [[eye]] || - || -
+
| [[vulva]], [[vagina]]
|-
+
|
| [[Cobelli's glands]] || [[esophagus]], just above the [[cardia]], in the [[mucosa]] || mucous || -
+
|
|-
+
|-
| [[Duverney's gland]] || [[vagina]], on either side || - || -
+
| [[Anterior lingual glands|Bauhin's glands]], anterior lingual glands
|-
+
| [[tongue]], near tip
| [[Ebner's glands]] || [[tongue]] || serous || -
+
| nonserous or mixed
|-
+
|
| [[eccrine sweat glands]] || [[skin]] || - || coiled tubular
+
|-
|-
+
| [[Brunner's glands]], duodenal glands
| [[esophageal glands]] || [[esophagus]] || mucous || racemose
+
| [[duodenum]]
|-
+
| mucous
| [[exocrine pancreas]] || [[pancreas]] || serous || tubulo-acinar
+
| compound tubular
|-
+
|-
| [[Fränkel's glands]] || [[vocal cords]], below the edge || - || -
+
| [[Bulbourethral glands]], Cowper's glands, Mery's glands
|-
+
| [[penis]], base
| [[gastric chief cell]], Wasmann's glands || [[stomach]] || serous || -
+
|
|-
+
|
| [[glomus coccygeum]], coccygeal gland, Luschka's gland or ganglion || [[coccyx]], near the tip || - || -
+
|-
|-
+
| [[Ciaccio's glands]], accessory [[lacrimal glands]]
| [[goblet cells]] || [[digestive tract]], [[respiratory tract]] || mucous || simple unicellular
+
| [[eye]]
|-
+
|
| [[Crypts of Henle|Henle's glands]] || [[eyelids]], in the [[conjuctiva]] || - || tubular
+
|
|-
+
|-
| [[Huguier's glands]] || [[vagina]] || - || -
+
| [[Cobelli's glands]]
|-
+
| [[esophagus]], just above the [[cardia]], in the [[mucosa]]
| [[Krause's glands]] || [[conjunctiva]], middle portion || mucous || -
+
| mucous
|-
+
|
| [[Lieberkuhn's gland]]s || [[intestines]], surface of [[mucous membrane]] || - || simple tubular
+
|-
|-
+
| [[Duverney's gland]]
| [[Littré's glands]], Morgagni's glands || [[spongy portion of the urethra]] || - || [[racemose]]
+
| [[vagina]], on either side
|-
+
|
| [[mammary gland]] || [[breast]] || - || compound tubulo-acinar
+
|
|-
+
|-
| [[Meibomian gland]] || [[eyelids]] || sebaceous || -
+
| [[Ebner's glands]]
|-
+
| [[tongue]]
| [[Glands of Moll|Moll's glands]] || [[eyelids]] || - || -
+
| serous
|-
+
|
| [[Montgomery's glands]] || mammary [[areola]] || sebaceous || -
+
|-
|-
+
| [[Eccrine sweat glands]]
| [[Naboth's glands]] || [[cervix]] and [[os uteri]] || mucous || -
+
| [[skin]]
|-
+
|
| [[olfactory glands]], Bowman's glands || [[nose]], [[olfactory]] region || - || -
+
| coiled tubular
|-
+
|-
| [[Paneth cells]] || [[small intestine]] || serous || -
+
| [[Esophageal glands]]
|-
+
| [[esophagus]]
| [[parathyroid glands]], Gley's glands, Sandstroem's glands || [[thyroid]], on surface || - || -
+
| mucous
|-
+
| racemose
| [[parotid gland]] || [[mouth]] || serous || tubulo-alveolar
+
|-
|-
+
| [[Exocrine pancreas]]
| [[Peyer's patches]] (or glands) || [[ileum]], [[lymphatic]] glands || - || -
+
| [[pancreas]]
|-
+
| serous
| [[pyloric glands]] || [[stomach]] || mucous || simple branched tubular
+
| tubulo-acinar
|-
+
|-
| [[sebaceous gland]] || [[skin]] || sebum || acinar - branched
+
| [[Fränkel's glands]]
|-
+
| [[vocal cords]], below the edge
| [[Skene's glands]], Guérin's glands || [[vagina]] || - || -
+
|
|-
+
|
| [[sublingual gland]], Rivini's gland || [[mouth]] || mucus (primarily) || tubulo-alveolar
+
|-
|-
+
| [[Gastric chief cell]], Wasmann's glands
| [[submandibular gland]] || [[mouth]] || mixed (M+S) || tubulo-alveolar
+
| [[stomach]]
|-
+
| serous
| [[sudoriparous glands]], Boerhaave's glands || [[skin]] || - || -
+
|
|-
+
|-
| [[Sigmund's glands]] || [[epitrochlear]] [[lymph node]]s || - || -
+
| [[Glomus coccygeum]], coccygeal gland, Luschka's gland or ganglion
|-
+
| [[coccyx]], near the tip
| [[Suzanne's gland]] || mouth, beneath the [[alveolingual]] groove || mucous || -
+
|
|-
+
|
| [[Weber's glands]] || [[tongue]] || mucous || tubular
+
|-
|-
+
| [[Goblet cells]]
| [[Glands of Zeis]] || [[eyelids]], free edges || sebaceous || -
+
| [[digestive tract]], [[respiratory tract]]
  +
| mucous
  +
| simple unicellular
  +
|-
  +
| [[Crypts of Henle|Henle's glands]]
  +
| [[eyelids]], in the [[conjuctiva]]
  +
|
  +
| tubular
  +
|-
  +
| [[Huguier's glands]]
  +
| [[vagina]]
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[Krause's glands]]
  +
| [[conjunctiva]], middle portion
  +
| mucous
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[Lieberkuhn's gland]]s
  +
| [[intestines]], surface of [[mucous membrane]]
  +
|
  +
| simple tubular
  +
|-
  +
| [[Littré's glands]], Morgagni's glands
  +
| [[spongy portion of the urethra]]
  +
|
  +
| [[racemose]]
  +
|-
  +
| [[Mammary gland]]
  +
| [[breast]]
  +
|
  +
| compound tubulo-acinar
  +
|-
  +
| [[Meibomian gland]]
  +
| [[eyelids]]
  +
| sebaceous
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[Glands of Moll|Moll's glands]]
  +
| [[eyelids]]
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[Montgomery's glands]]
  +
| mammary [[areola]]
  +
| sebaceous
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[Naboth's glands]]
  +
| [[cervix]] and [[os uteri]]
  +
| mucous
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[Olfactory glands]], Bowman's glands
  +
| [[nose]], [[olfactory]] region
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[Paneth cells]]
  +
| [[small intestine]]
  +
| serous
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| Gley's glands, Sandstroem's glands
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[parotid gland]]
  +
| [[mouth]]
  +
| serous
  +
| tubulo-alveolar
  +
|-
  +
| [[Peyer's patches]] (or glands)
  +
| [[ileum]], [[lymphatic]] glands
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[Prostate]]
  +
| surrounds the [[urethra]] just below the [[urinary bladder]]
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[Pyloric glands]]
  +
| [[stomach]]
  +
| mucous
  +
| simple branched tubular
  +
|-
  +
| [[Sebaceous gland]]
  +
| [[skin]]
  +
| sebum
  +
| acinar - branched
  +
|-
  +
| [[Skene's glands]], Guérin's glands
  +
| [[vagina]]
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[Sublingual gland]], Rivini's gland
  +
| [[mouth]]
  +
| mucus (primarily)
  +
| tubulo-alveolar
  +
|-
  +
| [[Submandibular gland]]
  +
| [[mouth]]
  +
| mixed (M+S)
  +
| tubulo-alveolar
  +
|-
  +
| [[Sudoriparous glands]], Boerhaave's glands
  +
| [[skin]]
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[Sigmund's glands]]
  +
| [[epitrochlear]] [[lymph node]]s
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[Suzanne's gland]]
  +
| mouth, beneath the [[alveolingual]] groove
  +
| mucous
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
| [[Weber's glands]]
  +
| [[tongue]]
  +
| mucous
  +
| tubular
  +
|-
  +
| [[Glands of Zeis]]
  +
| [[eyelids]], free edges
  +
| sebaceous
  +
|
 
|}
 
|}
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
  +
* [[Pheromones]]
 
* [[Wikipedia:MeSH A10#MeSH A10.336 --- exocrine glands]]
 
* [[Wikipedia:MeSH A10#MeSH A10.336 --- exocrine glands]]
 
Prostate gland is an exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. It secretes a clear and basic fluid that constitutes 1/3 of the volume of semen.
 
   
 
==Additional images==
 
==Additional images==
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
Image:Gray1033.png|Section of the human esophagus. Moderately magnified.
 
Image:Gray1033.png|Section of the human esophagus. Moderately magnified.
Image:Gray1172.png|Dissection of a lactating breast.
+
Image:gray1172.png|Dissection of a lactating breast.
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
  +
  +
==External links==
 
* [http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/histology_mh/glands.html Diagram at mhhe.com]
 
* [http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/histology_mh/glands.html Diagram at mhhe.com]
* {{eMedicineDictionary|Exocrine+gland}}
+
* {{eMedicineDictionary|gland}}
* {{UCDavisOrganology|termscells&tissues/epithelial/exocrinegland/exocrinegland}} - "Exocrine gland (LM, Low)"
 
   
 
{{Glands}}
 
{{Glands}}
   
  +
[[Category:Exocrine glands]]
 
[[Category:Glands]]
 
[[Category:Glands]]
[[Category:Integumentary system]]
 
   
 
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Latest revision as of 00:15, March 2, 2010

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Exocrine glands are glands that secrete their products (excluding hormones and other chemical messengers) into ducts (duct glands) which lead directly into the external environment. They are the counterparts to endocrine glands, which secrete their products (hormones) directly into the bloodstream (ductless glands) or release hormones (paracrines) that affect only target cells nearby the release site.

To the degree to which the activity of these cells is regulated by the nervous system may reflect the role psychological factors could have in the operation of these glands. Effects that might underpin the psychosomatic links with disorders of these systems.

ExamplesEdit

Typical exocrine glands include sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, stomach, liver, pancreas. (Example of an endocrine gland is the adrenal gland, which is found on top of the kidneys and secretes the hormone adrenaline, among others).

TypesEdit

There are many ways of classifying exocrine glands:

StructureEdit

Exocrine glands contain a glandular portion and a duct portion, the structures of which can be used to classify the gland.

  • The duct portion may be branched (called compound) or unbranched (called simple).
  • The glandular portion may be tubular, acinar, or may be a mix of the two (called tubuloacinar). If the glandular portion branches, then the gland is called a branched gland.

Method of secretionEdit

Exocrine glands are named apocrine gland, holocrine gland, or merocrine gland based on how their product is secreted.

  • Apocrine glands - a portion of the plasma membrane buds off the cell, containing the secretion.
  • Holocrine glands - the entire cell disintegrates to secrete its substance.
  • Merocrine glands - cells secrete their substances by exocytosis.

Product secretedEdit

List of exocrine glandsEdit

Glands typically may be referred to by two or more means, though some terms are rarely seen. The names of the anatomists who first described them are often employed, as:

Name(s) Location Product Structure
Apocrine sweat glands skin coiled tubular
Bartholin's glands, Tiedmann's glands, vulvovaginal glands vulva, vagina
Bauhin's glands, anterior lingual glands tongue, near tip nonserous or mixed
Brunner's glands, duodenal glands duodenum mucous compound tubular
Bulbourethral glands, Cowper's glands, Mery's glands penis, base
Ciaccio's glands, accessory lacrimal glands eye
Cobelli's glands esophagus, just above the cardia, in the mucosa mucous
Duverney's gland vagina, on either side
Ebner's glands tongue serous
Eccrine sweat glands skin coiled tubular
Esophageal glands esophagus mucous racemose
Exocrine pancreas pancreas serous tubulo-acinar
Fränkel's glands vocal cords, below the edge
Gastric chief cell, Wasmann's glands stomach serous
Glomus coccygeum, coccygeal gland, Luschka's gland or ganglion coccyx, near the tip
Goblet cells digestive tract, respiratory tract mucous simple unicellular
Henle's glands eyelids, in the conjuctiva tubular
Huguier's glands vagina
Krause's glands conjunctiva, middle portion mucous
Lieberkuhn's glands intestines, surface of mucous membrane simple tubular
Littré's glands, Morgagni's glands spongy portion of the urethra racemose
Mammary gland breast compound tubulo-acinar
Meibomian gland eyelids sebaceous
Moll's glands eyelids
Montgomery's glands mammary areola sebaceous
Naboth's glands cervix and os uteri mucous
Olfactory glands, Bowman's glands nose, olfactory region
Paneth cells small intestine serous
Gley's glands, Sandstroem's glands
parotid gland mouth serous tubulo-alveolar
Peyer's patches (or glands) ileum, lymphatic glands
Prostate surrounds the urethra just below the urinary bladder
Pyloric glands stomach mucous simple branched tubular
Sebaceous gland skin sebum acinar - branched
Skene's glands, Guérin's glands vagina
Sublingual gland, Rivini's gland mouth mucus (primarily) tubulo-alveolar
Submandibular gland mouth mixed (M+S) tubulo-alveolar
Sudoriparous glands, Boerhaave's glands skin
Sigmund's glands epitrochlear lymph nodes
Suzanne's gland mouth, beneath the alveolingual groove mucous
Weber's glands tongue mucous tubular
Glands of Zeis eyelids, free edges sebaceous

See alsoEdit

Additional imagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit


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