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#redirect[[Exocrine glands]]
'''Exocrine glands''' are [[gland]]s that secrete their products (excluding hormones and other chemical messengers) into [[duct (anatomy)|duct]]s (duct glands) which lead directly into the external environment. They are the counterparts to [[endocrine glands]], which secrete their products ([[hormone]]s) directly into the [[blood]]stream (ductless glands) or release hormones ([[paracrine]]s) that affect only target cells nearby the release site.
 
 
To the degree to which the activity of these cells is regulated by the nervous system may reflect the role psychological factors could have in the operation of these glands. Effects that might underpin the psychosomatic links with disorders of these systems.
 
 
==Examples==
 
Typical exocrine glands include [[sweat gland]]s, [[salivary gland]]s, [[mammary gland]]s, [[stomach]], [[liver]], [[pancreas]]. (Example of an endocrine gland is the [[adrenal gland]], which is found on top of the kidneys and secretes the hormone [[adrenaline]], among others).
 
 
==Types==
 
There are many ways of classifying exocrine glands:
 
 
===Structure===
 
Exocrine glands contain a glandular portion and a duct portion, the structures of which can be used to classify the gland.
 
* The duct portion may be branched (called ''compound'') or unbranched (called ''simple'').
 
* The glandular portion may be tubular, [[acinus|acinar]], or may be a mix of the two (called tubuloacinar). If the glandular portion branches, then the gland is called a branched gland.
 
 
===Method of secretion===
 
Exocrine glands are named [[apocrine]] gland, [[holocrine]] gland, or [[merocrine]] gland based on how their product is secreted.
 
 
*'''Apocrine glands''' - a portion of the plasma membrane buds off the cell, containing the secretion.
 
*'''Holocrine glands''' - the entire cell disintegrates to secrete its substance.
 
*'''Merocrine glands''' - cells secrete their substances by [[exocytosis]].
 
 
===Product secreted===
 
* Serous cells secrete [[protein]]s, often [[enzyme]]s. Examples include [[chief cells]] and [[Paneth cells]]
 
* Mucous cells secrete [[mucus]]. Examples include [[Brunner's glands]], [[esophageal glands]], and [[pyloric glands]]
 
* Mixed glands secrete both protein and mucus. Examples include the [[salivary glands]], although [[parotid gland]] is predominantly serous, the [[sublingual gland]] is predominantly mucous and the submandibular gland is both serous and mucous.
 
 
==List of exocrine glands==
 
Glands typically may be referred to by two or more means, though some terms are rarely seen. The names of the [[anatomist]]s who first described them are often employed, as:
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! Name(s)
 
! Location
 
! Product
 
! Structure
 
|-
 
| [[Apocrine sweat glands]]
 
| [[skin]]
 
|
 
| coiled tubular
 
|-
 
| [[Bartholin's glands]], Tiedmann's glands, vulvovaginal glands
 
| [[vulva]], [[vagina]]
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Anterior lingual glands|Bauhin's glands]], anterior lingual glands
 
| [[tongue]], near tip
 
| nonserous or mixed
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Brunner's glands]], duodenal glands
 
| [[duodenum]]
 
| mucous
 
| compound tubular
 
|-
 
| [[Bulbourethral glands]], Cowper's glands, Mery's glands
 
| [[penis]], base
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Ciaccio's glands]], accessory [[lacrimal glands]]
 
| [[eye]]
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Cobelli's glands]]
 
| [[esophagus]], just above the [[cardia]], in the [[mucosa]]
 
| mucous
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Duverney's gland]]
 
| [[vagina]], on either side
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Ebner's glands]]
 
| [[tongue]]
 
| serous
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Eccrine sweat glands]]
 
| [[skin]]
 
|
 
| coiled tubular
 
|-
 
| [[Esophageal glands]]
 
| [[esophagus]]
 
| mucous
 
| racemose
 
|-
 
| [[Exocrine pancreas]]
 
| [[pancreas]]
 
| serous
 
| tubulo-acinar
 
|-
 
| [[Fränkel's glands]]
 
| [[vocal cords]], below the edge
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Gastric chief cell]], Wasmann's glands
 
| [[stomach]]
 
| serous
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Glomus coccygeum]], coccygeal gland, Luschka's gland or ganglion
 
| [[coccyx]], near the tip
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Goblet cells]]
 
| [[digestive tract]], [[respiratory tract]]
 
| mucous
 
| simple unicellular
 
|-
 
| [[Crypts of Henle|Henle's glands]]
 
| [[eyelids]], in the [[conjuctiva]]
 
|
 
| tubular
 
|-
 
| [[Huguier's glands]]
 
| [[vagina]]
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Krause's glands]]
 
| [[conjunctiva]], middle portion
 
| mucous
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Lieberkuhn's gland]]s
 
| [[intestines]], surface of [[mucous membrane]]
 
|
 
| simple tubular
 
|-
 
| [[Littré's glands]], Morgagni's glands
 
| [[spongy portion of the urethra]]
 
|
 
| [[racemose]]
 
|-
 
| [[Mammary gland]]
 
| [[breast]]
 
|
 
| compound tubulo-acinar
 
|-
 
| [[Meibomian gland]]
 
| [[eyelids]]
 
| sebaceous
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Glands of Moll|Moll's glands]]
 
| [[eyelids]]
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Montgomery's glands]]
 
| mammary [[areola]]
 
| sebaceous
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Naboth's glands]]
 
| [[cervix]] and [[os uteri]]
 
| mucous
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Olfactory glands]], Bowman's glands
 
| [[nose]], [[olfactory]] region
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Paneth cells]]
 
| [[small intestine]]
 
| serous
 
|
 
|-
 
| Gley's glands, Sandstroem's glands
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[parotid gland]]
 
| [[mouth]]
 
| serous
 
| tubulo-alveolar
 
|-
 
| [[Peyer's patches]] (or glands)
 
| [[ileum]], [[lymphatic]] glands
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Prostate]]
 
| surrounds the [[urethra]] just below the [[urinary bladder]]
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Pyloric glands]]
 
| [[stomach]]
 
| mucous
 
| simple branched tubular
 
|-
 
| [[Sebaceous gland]]
 
| [[skin]]
 
| sebum
 
| acinar - branched
 
|-
 
| [[Skene's glands]], Guérin's glands
 
| [[vagina]]
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Sublingual gland]], Rivini's gland
 
| [[mouth]]
 
| mucus (primarily)
 
| tubulo-alveolar
 
|-
 
| [[Submandibular gland]]
 
| [[mouth]]
 
| mixed (M+S)
 
| tubulo-alveolar
 
|-
 
| [[Sudoriparous glands]], Boerhaave's glands
 
| [[skin]]
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Sigmund's glands]]
 
| [[epitrochlear]] [[lymph node]]s
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Suzanne's gland]]
 
| mouth, beneath the [[alveolingual]] groove
 
| mucous
 
|
 
|-
 
| [[Weber's glands]]
 
| [[tongue]]
 
| mucous
 
| tubular
 
|-
 
| [[Glands of Zeis]]
 
| [[eyelids]], free edges
 
| sebaceous
 
|
 
|}
 
 
==See also==
 
* [[Pheromones]]
 
* [[Wikipedia:MeSH A10#MeSH A10.336 --- exocrine glands]]
 
 
==Additional images==
 
<gallery>
 
Image:Gray1033.png|Section of the human esophagus. Moderately magnified.
 
Image:gray1172.png|Dissection of a lactating breast.
 
</gallery>
 
 
==References==
 
{{reflist}}
 
 
==External links==
 
* [http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/histology_mh/glands.html Diagram at mhhe.com]
 
* {{eMedicineDictionary|gland}}
 
 
{{Glands}}
 
 
[[Category:Exocrine system| ]]
 
[[Category:Glands]]
 
 
<!--
 
[[ar:غدة قنوية]]
 
[[de:Exokrine Drüse]]
 
[[es:Glándula exocrina]]
 
[[fr:Glande exocrine]]
 
[[is:Útkirtietethhethetll]]
 
[[he:בלוטה אקסוקרינית]]
 
[[ja:外分泌腺]]
 
[[pt:Glândula exócrina]]
 
[[ru:Железа внешней секреции]]
 
[[sl:Žleza z zunanjim izločanjem]]
 
[[fi:Avorauhanen]]
 
[[tr:Dış salgı bezleri]]
 
-->
 
{{enWP|Exocrine gland}}
 

Latest revision as of 00:14, March 2, 2010

  1. redirectExocrine glands

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