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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return. It can be a form of social punishment.
It is common to distinguish between internal exile, i.e., forced resettlement within the country of residence, and external exile, deportation outside the country of residence.  Although most commonly used to describe an individual situation, the term is also used for groups (especially ethnic or national groups), or for an entire government. Terms such as diaspora and refugee describe group exile, both voluntary and forced, and government in exile describes a government of a country that has been forced to relocate and argue its legitimacy from outside that country.
Exile can also be a self-imposed departure from one's homeland. Self-exile is often depicted as a form of protest by the person that claims it, to avoid persecution or legal matters (such as tax or criminal allegations), an act of shame or repentance, or isolating oneself to be able to devote time to a particular thing.
Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that, "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile."
Exiled heads of state Edit
Avoiding tax or legal matters Edit
- Main article: Tax exile
In some cases a person voluntarily lives in exile to avoid legal issues, such as litigation or criminal prosecution. An example of this was Asil Nadir, who fled to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus for 17 years rather than face prosecution in connection with the failed £1.7 bn company Polly Peck in the United Kingdom.
Avoiding violence or persecution, or in the aftermath of war Edit
- Iraqi academics asked to return home "from exile" to help rebuild Iraq in 2009.
- Jews who fled persecution in Nazi Germany and Arab countries.
- People undertaking a religious or civil liberties role in society may be forced into exile due to threat of persecution. For example, nuns were exiled following the Communist coup d'état of 1948 in Czechoslovakia.
For groups, nations and governmentsEdit
Nation in exileEdit
- Main article: Diaspora
When large groups, or occasionally a whole people or nation is exiled, it can be said that this nation is in exile, or Diaspora. Nations that have been in exile for substantial periods include the Jews, who were deported by Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II in 597 BCE and again following the destruction of the second Temple in Jerusalem in the year AD 70. Similarly, though an Armenian Diaspora had existed for centuries, the Western Armenians were exiled "en masse" following the events surrounding the Armenian Genocide in 1915. Survivors were scattered throughout countries in Europe, the Middle East and the Americas. Their descendants number approximately 2 million people today and are actively militant for the Armenian cause.
After the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, and following the uprisings (like Kościuszko Uprising, November Uprising and January Uprising) against the partitioning powers (Russian Empire, Prussia and Austro-Hungary), many Poles have chosen – or been forced – to go into exile, forming large diasporas (known as Polonia), especially in France and the United States.The entire population of Crimean Tatars (200,000) that remained in their homeland Crimea was exiled on 18 May 1944 to Central Asia as a form of ethnic cleansing and collective punishment on false accusations. At Diego Garcia, between 1967 and 1973 the British Government forcibly removed some 2,000 Chagossian resident islanders to make way for a military base today jointly operated by the US and UK.
Since the Cuban Revolution over one million Cubans have left Cuba. Most of these self-identify as exiles as their motivation for leaving the island is political in nature. It is to be noted that at the time of the Cuban Revolution, Cuba only had a population of 6.5 million, and was not a country that had a history of significant emigration, it being the sixth largest recipient of immigrants in the world as of 1958. Most of the exiles' children also consider themselves to be Cuban exiles. It is to be noted that under Cuban law, children of Cubans born abroad are considered Cuban Citizens.
- Exiles by nationality
- Penal transportation
- Right of asylum (political asylum)
- ↑ Hobbes, Thomas (1886). Leviathan; Or, The Matter, Form and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil, George Routledge and Sons.
- ↑ What happens to deposed leaders? - BBC News magazine, 14 April 2011
- ↑ Template:Err Iraq Appeals Anew to Exiled Academics to Return Home. Reuters via chronicle.com. URL accessed on 2011-04-17.
- ↑ Rocker, Simon Libyan exile plan for UK's frozen assets. The Jewish Chronicle. URL accessed on 2011-04-17.
- ↑ Fisher, Dan (1990-01-20). For Exiled Nuns, It's Too Late : Banished by the Communist regime, Czechoslovakia's sisters of Bila Voda were symbols of persecution. Now most are too old or weak to benefit from the revolution. articles.latimes.com. URL accessed on 2011-04-17.
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