Individual differences |
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Exhalation has a complementary relationship to inhalation; the cycling between these two efforts define respiration.
During forced exhalation, as when blowing out a candle, expiratory muscles including the abdominal muscles and internal intercostal muscles, generate abdominal and thoracic pressure, which forces air out of the lungs.
Respiratory system, physiology: respiratory physiology
lung volumes - vital capacity - functional residual capacity - respiratory minute volume - closing capacity - dead space - spirometry - body plethysmography - peak flow meter - thoracic independent volume - bronchial challenge test
ventilation/perfusion ratio (V/Q) and scan - zones of the lung - gas exchange - pulmonary gas pressures - alveolar gas equation - hemoglobin - oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve (2,3-DPG, Bohr effect, Haldane effect) - carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift) - oxyhemoglobin - respiratory quotient - arterial blood gas - diffusion capacity - Dlco
|Control of respiration|
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