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Hoche (1910) had observed that therapists were cultists rather than scientists, peddling their approaches on the basis of questionable assumptions .
Until the 1970s the efficacy of psychotherapy approaches was largely assumed and untested, attested too by subjective report of therapists rather than through objective measures by independent observers. Early studies that were conducted were badly designed, lacking controls groups etc.
- Zubin, J. (1953).Evaluation of thearapeutic outcome in mental disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 117, 95-111.