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For Otheruses see Equilibrium (disambiguation)

Equilibrium is the maintenance of posture. Equilibrioception is the sense of balance that is used to maintain equilibrium.

In humans

In humans, equilibrioception is mainly sensed by the detection of acceleration, which occurs in the vestibular system. Other senses play roles as well, e.g. the visual system and proprioception. For instance, it is harder to stand on one foot with eyes closed than with eyes open.

Vestibular system

Main article: Vestibular system
File:Balance.JPG
File:Zuni-girl-with-jar2.png

In the vestibular system, equilibrioception is determined by the level of fluid properly called endolymph in the labyrinth - a complex set of tubing in the inner ear.

Disfunction

Main article: Balance disorder

When the sense of balance is interrupted it causes dizziness, disorientation and nausea. Balance can be upset by Meniere's disease, an inner ear infection, by a bad common cold affecting the head or a number of other medical conditions. It can also be temporarily disturbed by rapid and vigorous movement, for example riding on a merry-go-round. See also vertigo.

Most astronauts find that their sense of balance is impaired when in orbit, this causes a form of motion sickness called space sickness.

In animals

Some animals have better equilibrioception than humans, for example allowing a cat (as a quadruped using its inner ear and tail) to walk on a thin fence. http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/e/equilibrioception.htm

Equilibrioception in many marine animals is done with an entirely different organ, the statocyst, which detects the position of tiny calcareous stones to determine which way is "up".


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