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The [[prefrontal cortex]] (and in particular the [[left hemisphere]]) is also involved in the formation of new episodic memories (also known as episodic encoding). Patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex can learn new information, but tend to do so in a disordered fashion. For example, they might show normal [[recognition]] of an object they had seen in the past, but fail to [[recollection|recollect]] when or where it had been viewed ([http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2797412&query_hl=24 Janowsky et al., 1989]). Some researchers believe that the prefrontal cortex helps organize information for more efficient storage, drawing upon its role in [[executive function]]. Others believe that the prefrontal cortex underlies [[semantic]] strategies which enhance encoding, such as thinking about the [[meaning]] the study material or rehearsing it in [[working memory]] ([http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9448258&query_hl=29 Gabrieli et al., 1998]).
 
   
===The hippocampus's role in memory storage===
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===The role of the hippocampus in episodic memory===
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{{main|Episodic memory: Neurological basis}}
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The formation of new episodic memories requires the [[hippocampus]]. Without a hippocampus, one is able to form new [[procedural memory|procedural memories]] (such as playing the piano) but cannot remember the events during which they happened. See [[Hippocampus#Role_in_general_memory|The hippocampus and memory]].
 
Researchers do not agree about how long episodic memories are stored in the [[hippocampus]]. Some researchers believe that episodic memories always rely on the [[hippocampus]]. Others believe the [[hippocampus]] only stores episodic memories for a short time, after which the memories are [[memory consolidation|consolidated]] to the [[neocortex]]. The latter view is strengthened by recent evidence that [[neurogenesis]] in the adult [[hippocampus]] may ease the removal of old memories and increase the efficiency of forming new memories ([http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15157417&itool=iconabstr Deisseroth et al 2004]).
 
Researchers do not agree about how long episodic memories are stored in the [[hippocampus]]. Some researchers believe that episodic memories always rely on the [[hippocampus]]. Others believe the [[hippocampus]] only stores episodic memories for a short time, after which the memories are [[memory consolidation|consolidated]] to the [[neocortex]]. The latter view is strengthened by recent evidence that [[neurogenesis]] in the adult [[hippocampus]] may ease the removal of old memories and increase the efficiency of forming new memories ([http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15157417&itool=iconabstr Deisseroth et al 2004]).
   
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===The role of the frontal cortex in episodic memory===
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The [[prefrontal cortex]] (and in particular the [[left hemisphere]]) is also involved in the formation of new episodic memories (also known as episodic encoding). Patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex can learn new information, but tend to do so in a disordered fashion. For example, they might show normal [[recognition]] of an object they had seen in the past, but fail to [[recollection|recollect]] when or where it had been viewed ([http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2797412&query_hl=24 Janowsky et al., 1989]). Some researchers believe that the prefrontal cortex helps organize information for more efficient storage, drawing upon its role in [[executive function]]. Others believe that the prefrontal cortex underlies [[semantic]] strategies which enhance encoding, such as thinking about the [[meaning]] the study material or rehearsing it in [[working memory]] ([http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9448258&query_hl=29 Gabrieli et al., 1998]).
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
[[Episodic memory]]
 
[[Episodic memory]]

Latest revision as of 19:59, September 27, 2006


The role of the hippocampus in episodic memoryEdit

Main article: Episodic memory: Neurological basis

The formation of new episodic memories requires the hippocampus. Without a hippocampus, one is able to form new procedural memories (such as playing the piano) but cannot remember the events during which they happened. See The hippocampus and memory. Researchers do not agree about how long episodic memories are stored in the hippocampus. Some researchers believe that episodic memories always rely on the hippocampus. Others believe the hippocampus only stores episodic memories for a short time, after which the memories are consolidated to the neocortex. The latter view is strengthened by recent evidence that neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus may ease the removal of old memories and increase the efficiency of forming new memories (Deisseroth et al 2004).

The role of the frontal cortex in episodic memoryEdit

The prefrontal cortex (and in particular the left hemisphere) is also involved in the formation of new episodic memories (also known as episodic encoding). Patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex can learn new information, but tend to do so in a disordered fashion. For example, they might show normal recognition of an object they had seen in the past, but fail to recollect when or where it had been viewed (Janowsky et al., 1989). Some researchers believe that the prefrontal cortex helps organize information for more efficient storage, drawing upon its role in executive function. Others believe that the prefrontal cortex underlies semantic strategies which enhance encoding, such as thinking about the meaning the study material or rehearsing it in working memory (Gabrieli et al., 1998).

See alsoEdit

Episodic memory


References & BibliographyEdit

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BooksEdit

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Memory
Types of memory
Articulatory suppression‎ | Auditory memory | Autobiographical memory | Collective memory | Early memories | Echoic Memory | Eidetic memory | Episodic memory | Episodic-like memory  | Explicit memory  |Exosomatic memory | False memory |Flashbulb memory | Iconic memory | Implicit memory | Institutional memory | Long term memory | Music-related memory | Procedural memory | Prospective memory | Repressed memory | Retrospective memory | Semantic memory | Sensory memory | Short term memory | Spatial memory | State-dependent memory | Tonal memory | Transactive memory | Transsaccadic memory | Verbal memory  | Visual memory  | Visuospatial memory  | Working memory  |
Aspects of memory
Childhood amnesia | Cryptomnesia |Cued recall | Eye-witness testimony | Memory and emotion | Forgetting |Forgetting curve | Free recall | Levels-of-processing effect | Memory consolidation |Memory decay | Memory distrust syndrome |Memory inhibition | Memory and smell | Memory for the future | Memory loss | Memory optimization | Memory trace | Mnemonic | Memory biases  | Modality effect | Tip of the tongue | Lethologica | Memory loss |Priming | Primacy effect | Reconstruction | Proactive interference | Prompting | Recency effect | Recall (learning) | Recognition (learning) | Reminiscence | Retention | Retroactive interference | Serial position effect | Serial recall | Source amnesia |
Memory theory
Atkinson-Shiffrin | Baddeley | CLARION | Decay theory | Dual-coding theory | Interference theory |Memory consolidation | Memory encoding | Memory-prediction framework | Forgetting | Recall | Recognition |
Mnemonics
Method of loci | Mnemonic room system | Mnemonic dominic system | Mnemonic learning | Mnemonic link system |Mnemonic major system | Mnemonic peg system | [[]] |[[]] |
Neuroanatomy of memory
Amygdala | Hippocampus | prefrontal cortex  | Neurobiology of working memory | Neurophysiology of memory | Rhinal cortex | Synapses |[[]] |
Neurochemistry of memory
Glutamatergic system  | of short term memory | [[]] |[[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |[[]] |
Developmental aspects of memory
Prenatal memory | |Childhood memory | Memory and aging | [[]] | [[]] |
Memory in clinical settings
Alcohol amnestic disorder | Amnesia | Dissociative fugue | False memory syndrome | False memory | Hyperthymesia | Memory and aging | Memory disorders | Memory distrust syndrome  Repressed memory  Traumatic memory |
Retention measures
Benton | CAMPROMPT | Implicit memory testing | Indirect tests of memory | MAS | Memory tests for children | MERMER | Rey-15 | Rivermead | TOMM | Wechsler | WMT | WRAML2 |
Treating memory problems
CBT | EMDR | Psychotherapy | Recovered memory therapy |Reminiscence therapy | Memory clinic | Memory training | Rewind technique |
Prominant workers in memory|-
Baddeley | Broadbent |Ebbinghaus  | Kandel |McGaugh | Schacter  | Treisman | Tulving  |
Philosophy and historical views of memory
Aristotle | [[]] |[[]] |[[]] |[[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |
Miscellaneous
Journals | Learning, Memory, and Cognition |Journal of Memory and Language |Memory |Memory and Cognition | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |


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