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Ependyma is the thin epithelial membrane lining the ventricular system of the brain and the spinal cord. Ependyma is one of the four types of neuroglia in the central nervous system. It is involved in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
The ependyma is made up of ependymal cells. These are the
epithelial cells that line the CSF-filled ventricles in the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord. The cells are cuboidal/columnar. Their apical surfaces are covered in a layer of cilia, which circulate CSF around the central nervous system. Their apical surfaces are also covered with microvilli, which absorb CSF. Within the brain's ventricles, a population of modified ependymal cells and capillaries together form a system called the choroid plexus, which produces the CSF.
Ependymoma is a tumor of the ependyma.
Jonas Frisén and his colleagues at the
Karolinska Institute in Stockholm believe that ependyma is the prime candidate for the location of neural stem cells.
Johansson CB, Momma S, Clarke DL, Risling M, Lendahl U, Frisen J (1999). Identification of a neural stem cell in the adult mammalian central nervous system.. Cell 96 (1): 25-34. PMID 9989494.
Histology: nervous tissue
Neurons ( gray matter)
soma, axon ( axon hillock, axoplasm, axolemma, neurofibril/neurofilament), dendrite ( Nissl body, dendritic spine, apical dendrite, basal dendrite) types ( bipolar, pseudounipolar, multipolar, pyramidal, Purkinje, granule)
Afferent nerve/ Sensory nerve/ Sensory neuron
GSA, GVA, SSA, SVA, fibers ( Ia, Ib or Golgi, II or Aβ, III or Aδ or fast pain, IV or C or slow pain)
Efferent nerve/ Motor nerve/ Motor neuron
GSE, GVE, SVE, Upper motor neuron, Lower motor neuron ( α motorneuron, γ motorneuron)
neuropil, synaptic vesicle, neuromuscular junction, electrical synapse - Interneuron ( Renshaw)
Free nerve ending, Meissner's corpuscle, Merkel nerve ending, Muscle spindle, Pacinian corpuscle, Ruffini ending, Olfactory receptor neuron, Photoreceptor cell, Hair cell, Taste bud
astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, ependymal cells, microglia, radial glia
Myelination ( white matter)
Schwann cell, oligodendrocyte, nodes of Ranvier, internode, Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, neurolemma
Related connective tissues
epineurium, perineurium, endoneurium, nerve fascicle, meninges