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Individual differences |
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Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
In biology, energy balance is the biological homeostasis of energy in living systems. It is measured with the following equation:
Energy intake = internal heat produced + external work + storage. It is also an aspect of bioenergetics, concerning energy flow through living systems.
Energy expenditure is mainly a sum of internal heat produced and external work.
External work may be estimated by measuring physical activity level (PAL).
Imbalance between intake and expenditureEdit
- Further information: Nutrition disorder
A gaining energy imbalance is a result of energy intake being higher than what is consumed in external work and other bodily means of energy expenditure.
The main preventable causes are:
- Overeating, resulting in increased energy intake
- Sedentary lifestyle, resulting in decreased energy expenditure through external work
A losing energy imbalance is a result of energy intake being less than what is consumed in external work and other bodily means of energy expenditure.
Normal energy requirement, and therefore normal energy intake, depends mainly on age, sex and physical activity level (PAL).
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has compiled a detailed report on human energy requirements: Human energy requirements (Rome, 17–24 October 2001) An older but commonly used and fairly accurate method is the Harris-Benedict equation.
Yet, there are currently ongoing studies to show if calorie restriction to below normal values have beneficial effects, and even though they are showing positive indications in primates it is still not certain if calorie restriction has a positive effect on longevity for primates and humans. Calorie restriction may be viewed as attaining energy balance at a lower intake and expenditure, and is, in this sense, not generally an energy imbalance, except for an initial imbalance where decreased expenditure hasn't yet matched the decreased intake.
- Dynamic Energy Budget, a theory making explicit use of energy, mass and time balances.
- Dietary Reference Values
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Anderson RM, Shanmuganayagam D, Weindruch R (2009). Caloric restriction and aging: studies in mice and monkeys. Toxicol Pathol 37 (1): 47–51.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Rezzi S, Martin FP, Shanmuganayagam D, Colman RJ, Nicholson JK, Weindruch R (May 2009). Metabolic shifts due to long-term caloric restriction revealed in nonhuman primates. Exp. Gerontol. 44 (5): 356–62.
- Daily energy requirement calculator
- BodyEngine - Visual fitness tool which calculates RMR (resting metabolic rate ), EER and BMI
Nutritional pathology (E40-68, 260-269)
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