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m (Reverted edits by 68.60.175.8 (talk) to last version by Dr Joe Kiff)
 
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| LocusSupplementaryData = -q13.3
 
| LocusSupplementaryData = -q13.3
 
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'''Endothelins''' are 21-[[amino acid]] [[vasoconstriction|vasoconstricting]] [[peptide]]s produced primarily in the [[endothelium]] having a key role in [[smooth muscle|vascular homeostasis]]. Among the strongest vasoconstrictors known, endothelins are implicated in vascular diseases of several organ systems, including the heart, general circulation and brain<ref>Agapitov AV, Haynes WG. Role of endothelin in cardiovascular disease. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2002 Mar;3(1):1-15.[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11984741]</ref><ref>Schinelli S. Pharmacology and physiopathology of the brain endothelin system: an overview. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(6):627-38. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16529555]</ref>.
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'''Endothelins''' are 21-[[amino acid]] [[vasoconstriction|vasoconstricting]] [[peptide]]s produced primarily in the [[endothelium]] having a key role in [[smooth muscle|vascular homeostasis]]. Among the strongest vasoconstrictors known, endothelins are implicated in vascular diseases of several organ systems, including the heart, general circulation and brain<ref>Agapitov AV, Haynes WG. Role of endothelin in cardiovascular disease. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2002 Mar;3(1):1-15.[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11984741]</ref><ref>Schinelli S. Pharmacology and physiopathology of the brain endothelin system: an overview. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(6):627-38. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16529555]</ref>.
   
 
==Isoforms==
 
==Isoforms==
There are three [[isoform]]s with varying regions of expression and two key [[Receptor (biochemistry)|receptor]] types, [[Endothelin receptor|ET<sub>A</sub> and ET<sub>B</sub>]].
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There are three [[isoform]]s with varying regions of expression and two key [[Receptor (biochemistry)|receptor]] types, [[Endothelin receptor|ET<sub>A</sub> and ET<sub>B</sub>]].
* ET<sub>A</sub> receptors are not found in the [[smooth muscle]] tissue of [[blood vessel]]s, and binding of endothelin to ET<sub>A</sub> increases vasoconstriction (contraction of the blood vessel walls) and the [[retention]] of [[sodium]]. These lead to increased [[blood pressure]].
+
* ET<sub>A</sub> receptors are found in the [[smooth muscle]] tissue of [[blood vessel]]s, and binding of endothelin to ET<sub>A</sub> increases vasoconstriction (contraction of the blood vessel walls) and the [[retention]] of [[sodium]]. These lead to increased [[blood pressure]].
 
* ET<sub>B</sub> is primarily located on the [[Endothelium|endothelial]] cells that line the interior of the blood vessels. When endothelin binds to ET<sub>B</sub> receptors, this leads to increased [[natriuresis]] and [[diuresis]] (the production and elimination of urine) and the release of [[nitric oxide]] (also called "NO" or [[endothelium-derived relaxing factor]]), all mechanisms that lower the blood pressure.
 
* ET<sub>B</sub> is primarily located on the [[Endothelium|endothelial]] cells that line the interior of the blood vessels. When endothelin binds to ET<sub>B</sub> receptors, this leads to increased [[natriuresis]] and [[diuresis]] (the production and elimination of urine) and the release of [[nitric oxide]] (also called "NO" or [[endothelium-derived relaxing factor]]), all mechanisms that lower the blood pressure.
 
*Both types of ET receptor are found in the nervous system where they may mediate [[neurotransmission]] and vascular functions.
 
*Both types of ET receptor are found in the nervous system where they may mediate [[neurotransmission]] and vascular functions.
   
 
==Brain and nerves==
 
==Brain and nerves==
Widely distributed in the body, [[receptor]]s for endothelin are present in blood vessels and cells of the brain, [[choroid plexus]] and peripheral [[nerves]]. When applied directly to the brain of rats in picomolar quantities as an experimental model of [[stroke]], endothelin-1 caused severe metabolic stimulation and [[seizures]] with substantial decreases in blood flow to the same brain regions, both effects mediated by [[calcium channels]]<ref>Gross PM, Zochodne DW, Wainman DS, Ho LT, Espinosa FJ, Weaver DF. Intraventricular endothelin-1 uncouples the blood flow: metabolism relationship in periventricular structures of the rat brain: involvement of L-type calcium channels. Neuropeptides. 1992 Jul;22(3):155-65. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1331845]</ref>. A similar strong vasoconstrictor action of endothelin-1 was demonstrated in a [[peripheral neuropathy]] model in rats<ref>Zochodne DW, Ho LT, Gross PM. Acute endoneurial ischemia induced by epineurial endothelin in the rat sciatic nerve. Am J Physiol. 1992 Dec;263(6 Pt 2):H1806-10.[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1481904]</ref>.
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Widely distributed in the body, [[receptor]]s for endothelin are present in blood vessels and cells of the brain, [[choroid plexus]] and peripheral [[nerves]]. When applied directly to the brain of rats in picomolar quantities as an experimental model of [[stroke]], endothelin-1 caused severe metabolic stimulation and [[seizures]] with substantial decreases in blood flow to the same brain regions, both effects mediated by [[calcium channels]]<ref>Gross PM, Zochodne DW, Wainman DS, Ho LT, Espinosa FJ, Weaver DF. Intraventricular endothelin-1 uncouples the blood flow: metabolism relationship in periventricular structures of the rat brain: involvement of L-type calcium channels. Neuropeptides. 1992 Jul;22(3):155-65. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1331845]</ref>. A similar strong vasoconstrictor action of endothelin-1 was demonstrated in a [[peripheral neuropathy]] model in rats<ref>Zochodne DW, Ho LT, Gross PM. Acute endoneurial ischemia induced by epineurial endothelin in the rat sciatic nerve. Am J Physiol. 1992 Dec;263(6 Pt 2):H1806-10.[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1481904]</ref>.
   
 
==Balance==
 
==Balance==
In a healthy individual, a delicate balance between vasoconstriction and [[vasodilation]] is maintained by endothelin, [[calcitonin]] and other vasoconstrictors on the one hand and nitric oxide, [[prostacyclin]] and other vasodilators on the other.
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In a healthy individual, a delicate balance between vasoconstriction and [[vasodilation]] is maintained by endothelin, [[calcitonin]] and other vasoconstrictors on the one hand and nitric oxide, [[prostacyclin]] and other vasodilators on the other.
   
Overproduction of endothelin in the lungs may cause [[pulmonary hypertension]], which can sometimes be treated by the use of an [[endothelin receptor antagonist]], such as [[bosentan]] or [[sitaxsentan]]. The latter drug selectively blocks endothelin A receptors, decreasing the vasoconstrictive actions and allowing for increased beneficial effects of endothelin B stimulation, such as nitric oxide production. The precise effects of endothelin B receptor activation depends on the type of cells involved.
+
Overproduction of endothelin in the lungs may cause [[pulmonary hypertension]], which can sometimes be treated by the use of an [[endothelin receptor antagonist]], such as [[bosentan]] or [[sitaxsentan]]. The latter drug selectively blocks endothelin A receptors, decreasing the vasoconstrictive actions and allowing for increased beneficial effects of endothelin B stimulation, such as nitric oxide production. The precise effects of endothelin B receptor activation depends on the type of cells involved.
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
{{Reflist|2}}
+
{{Reflist|2}}
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
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* {{MeshName|Endothelins}}
 
* {{MeshName|Endothelins}}
   
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[[Category:Peptides]]
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[[Category:Hormones]]
   
   
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{{enWP|Endothelin]]
 
{{enWP|Endothelin]]
[[Category:Peptides]]
 
[[Category:Hormones]]
 

Latest revision as of 22:37, March 7, 2010

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Endothelin 1
Symbol(s): EDN1
Locus: 6 p23 -p24
EC number [5]
EntrezGene 1906
OMIM 131240
RefSeq NM_001955
UniProt P05305
Endothelin 2
Symbol(s): EDN2
Locus: 1 p34
EC number [6]
EntrezGene 1907
OMIM 131241
RefSeq NM_001956
UniProt P20800
Endothelin 3
Symbol(s): EDN3
Locus: 20 q13.2 -q13.3
EC number [7]
EntrezGene [8]
OMIM 131242
RefSeq NM_000114
UniProt P14138

Endothelins are 21-amino acid vasoconstricting peptides produced primarily in the endothelium having a key role in vascular homeostasis. Among the strongest vasoconstrictors known, endothelins are implicated in vascular diseases of several organ systems, including the heart, general circulation and brain[1][2].

IsoformsEdit

There are three isoforms with varying regions of expression and two key receptor types, ETA and ETB.

Brain and nervesEdit

Widely distributed in the body, receptors for endothelin are present in blood vessels and cells of the brain, choroid plexus and peripheral nerves. When applied directly to the brain of rats in picomolar quantities as an experimental model of stroke, endothelin-1 caused severe metabolic stimulation and seizures with substantial decreases in blood flow to the same brain regions, both effects mediated by calcium channels[3]. A similar strong vasoconstrictor action of endothelin-1 was demonstrated in a peripheral neuropathy model in rats[4].

BalanceEdit

In a healthy individual, a delicate balance between vasoconstriction and vasodilation is maintained by endothelin, calcitonin and other vasoconstrictors on the one hand and nitric oxide, prostacyclin and other vasodilators on the other.

Overproduction of endothelin in the lungs may cause pulmonary hypertension, which can sometimes be treated by the use of an endothelin receptor antagonist, such as bosentan or sitaxsentan. The latter drug selectively blocks endothelin A receptors, decreasing the vasoconstrictive actions and allowing for increased beneficial effects of endothelin B stimulation, such as nitric oxide production. The precise effects of endothelin B receptor activation depends on the type of cells involved.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Agapitov AV, Haynes WG. Role of endothelin in cardiovascular disease. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2002 Mar;3(1):1-15.[1]
  2. Schinelli S. Pharmacology and physiopathology of the brain endothelin system: an overview. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(6):627-38. [2]
  3. Gross PM, Zochodne DW, Wainman DS, Ho LT, Espinosa FJ, Weaver DF. Intraventricular endothelin-1 uncouples the blood flow: metabolism relationship in periventricular structures of the rat brain: involvement of L-type calcium channels. Neuropeptides. 1992 Jul;22(3):155-65. [3]
  4. Zochodne DW, Ho LT, Gross PM. Acute endoneurial ischemia induced by epineurial endothelin in the rat sciatic nerve. Am J Physiol. 1992 Dec;263(6 Pt 2):H1806-10.[4]

External linksEdit


{{enWP|Endothelin]]

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