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Endel Tulving

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Biographical informationEdit

Endel Tulving (born May 26 1927) is a Canadian neuroscientist, born in Estonia, whose speciality is episodic memory.

EducationEdit

PositionsEdit

He is a professor emeritus at the University of Toronto.

Main areas of interestEdit

Many would agree that he is the most creative and insightful theoretician the field of memory has ever known. In this regard, his theory of "encoding specificity" may be his most significant contribution. The theory emphasizes the fact that memories are retrieved from long-term memory by means of retrieval cues. For example, a very large number of memories stored in ones brain are not currently active, but the word "Disneyland" might instantly call to mind a trip to that amusement park. The theory of encoding specificity states that the most effective retrieval cues are those that were stored along with the memory of the experience itself. Thus, the words "amusement park" might not serve to retrieve the memory of a trip to Disneyland because, while there, the park was not specifically thought of as an "amusement park." Instead, it was thought of as Disneyland. As such, that is the cue that retrieves the appropriate memory from the vast ocean of memories that are stored in one's brain. This theory of how memories are retrieved almost seems obvious once it is explained, but it was not at all obvious before Endel Tulving explained it and then demonstrated its validity in a series of seminal studies.

Funded grantsEdit

HonorsEdit

In 1979, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. In 1992, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. In 2005 he won a Gairdner Foundation International Award, Canada's leading prize in biology and medicine.[1]

Editorial board/consulting editorEdit

Association affiliationsEdit

See alsoEdit

PublicationsEdit

BooksEdit


Book ChaptersEdit

  • Tulving, E. (2002). Chronesthesia: Awareness of subjective time. In D. T. Stuss and R. C. Knight (Eds.) Principles of frontal lobe functions(pp. 311-325). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Tulving, E. (2001). The origin of autonoesis in episodic memory. In H. L. Roediger, J. S. Nairne, I. Neath, & A. M. Suprenant (Eds.), The nature of remembering: Essays in honor of Robert G. Crowder(pp. 17-34). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
  • Tulving, E. (2000). Memory: Overview. In A. Kazdin (ed.), Encyclopedia of Psychology, Vol 5(pp. 161-162). New York: American Psychologica Association and Oxford University Press.
  • Tulving, E. (2000). Introduction to Memory. In M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The New Cognitive Neurosciences, 2nd Ed. (pp. 727-732). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Tulving, E., & Lepage, M. (2000). Where in the brain is awareness of one's past? In D. L. Schacter & E. Scarry (Eds), Memory, brain, and belief(pp. 208-228). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Tulving, E. (2000). Concepts of memory. In E. Tulving & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory(pp. 33-43). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Tulving, E. (1999). On the uniqueness of episodic memory. In L.-G. Nilsson & H. J. Markowitsch (Eds), Cognitive neuroscience of memory(pp. 11-42). Gottingen: Hogrefe & Huber.
  • Tulving, E. (1998). Neurocognitive processes of human memory. In C. von Euler, I. Lundberg, and R. Llinas (Eds), Basic mechanisms in cognition and language (pp. 261-281). Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1998.
  • Tulving, E. (1998). Brain/mind correlates of human memory. In M. Sabourin, F. Craik, & M. Robert (Eds.), Advances in psychological science, Vol 2: Biological and cognitive aspects, pp. 441-460. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
  • Tulving, E. Study of memory: processes and systems. (1998). In J. K. Foster & M. Jelicic (Eds.), Memory: Systems, Process, or Function?(pp. 11-30). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Tulving, E. (1995). Organization of memory: Quo vadis? In M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences (pp. 839-847) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Tulving, E. (1995). Introduction to the Section on Memory. In M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences (pp. 751-753). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Buckner, R., & Tulving, E. (1995). Neuroimaging studies of memory: Theory and recent PET results. In F. Boller & J. Grafman (Eds.), Handbook of Neuropsychology, Vol. 10 (pp.439-466). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Schacter, D. L., & Tulving, E. (1994). What are the memory systems of 1994? In D. L. Schacter & E. Tulving, E. (Eds), Memory System 1994(pp. 1-38). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Tulving, E. (1994). Foreword. In J. Metcalfe & A. P. Shimamura (Eds.), Metacognition: Knowing about Knowing(pp. vii-x). Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
  • Tulving, E. (1993). Self-knowledge of an amnesic individual is represented abstractly. In T. K. Srull & R. S. Wyer, Jr. (Eds.), The mental representation of trait and autobiographical knowledge about the self(pp. 147-156). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Tulving, E. (1993). Varieties of consciousness and levels of awareness in memory. In A. Baddeley and L. Weiskrantz (Eds.), Attention: Selection, awareness and control. A tribute to Donald Broadbent(pp. 283-299). London: Oxford University Press.
  • Tulving, E. (1993). Human memory. In P. Andersen, O. Hvalby, O. Paulsen, & B. Hokfelt (Eds), Memory concepts 1993: Basic and clinical aspects(pp. 27-45). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Tulving, E., & Schacter, D. L. (1992). Priming and memory systems. In B. Smith & G. Adelman (Eds.), Neuroscience Year: Supplement 2 to the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience(pp. 130-133). Boston, MA: Birkhauser.
  • Tulving, E. (1992). Hermann Ebbinghaus. In L. Squire (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Learning and Memory(pp. 151-154). New York: Macmillan.
  • Tulving, E. (1992). Episodic memory. In L. Squire (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Learning and Memory(pp. 161-163). New York: Macmillan.
  • Tulving, E. (1991). Ben Murdock and complexities of memory. In W. E. Hockley & S. Lewandowsky (Eds.), Relating theory and data: Essays on human memory in honor of Bennet B. Murdock(pp. 387-396). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
  • Tulving, E. (1991). Concepts of human memory. In L. Squire, G. Lynch, N. M. Weinberger, & J. L. McGaugh (Eds.), Memory: Organization and locus of change(pp. 3-32). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Tulving, E. (1990). Episodic memory. In M. W. Eysenck (Ed.), The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology(pp. 137-139). Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Tulving, E. (1990). Encoding operations in memory. In M. W. Eysenck (Ed.), The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology(pp. 134-135). Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Tulving, E. (1990). Encoding specificity principle. In M. W. Eysenck (Ed.), The Blacwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology(pp. 135-137). Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Tulving, E. (1990). Memory systems. In M. W. Eysenck (Ed.), The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology(pp. 222-223). Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Tulving, E. (1987). Memory experiments: A strategy for research. In H. S. Levin, H. M. Eisenberg and J. Grafman (Eds.), Neurobehavioral recovery from head injury(pp. 341-351). London: Oxford University Press.
  • Tulving, E. (1985). On the classification problem in learning and memory. In L-G. Nilsson and T. Archer (Eds.), Perspectives in learning and memory(pp. 67- 94). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
  • Tulving, E., & Press, S. J. (1984). A proposal for the development of a National Memory Inventory. In T. B. Jabine, M. L. Straf, J. M. Tanur and R. Tourangeau (Eds.), Cognitive aspects of survey methodology: Building a bridge between disciplines(pp. 44-60). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  • Tulving, E. (1984). Multiple learning and memory systems. In K. M. J. Lagerspetz & P. Niemi (Eds.), Psychology in the 1990's(pp. 163-184). North Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
  • Schacter, D. L., & Tulving, E. (1982). Amnesia and memory research. In L. S. Cermak (Ed.), Human memory and amnesia(pp. 1-32). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
  • Schacter, D. L., & Tulving, E. (1982). Memory, amnesia, and the episodic/semantic distinction. In R. L. Isaacson & N. E. Spear (Eds.), Expression of knowledge (pp. 33-65). New York: Plenum.
  • Tulving, E. (1979). Memory research: What kind of progress? In L-G Nilsson (Ed), Perspectives in memory research(pp. 19-34). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
  • Tulving, E. (1979). Relation between encoding specificity and levels of processing. In L. S. Cermak & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory (pp. 405-428). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
  • Tulving, E. (1976). Ecphoric processes in recall and recognition. In J. Brown (Ed.), Recall and recognition (pp. 37-73). London: Wiley.
  • Tulving, E. (1976). Role de la memoire semantique dans le stockage et la recuperation de l'information episodique. In S. Ehrlich and E. Tulving (Eds.), La memoire semantique. Paris: Bulletin de Psychologie, numero special.
  • Tulving, E., & Bower, G. H. (1974). The logic of memory representation. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 8, pp. 265-301). New York: Academic Press.
  • Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving and W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of Memory (pp. 381-403). New York: Academic Press.
  • Tulving, E. (1970). Short- and long-term memory: Different retrieval mechanisms. In D. E. Broadbent and K. H. Pribram (Eds.), Biology of memory (pp. 7-9). New York: Academic Press.
  • Tulving, E. (1968). Theoretical issues in free recall. In T. R. Dixon and D. L. Horton (Eds.), Verbal behavior and general behavior theory (pp. 2-36). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
  • Tulving, E. (1968). Organized retention and cued recall. In H. J. Klausmeier and G. T. O'Hearn (Eds.), Research and development toward the improvement of education (pp. 3-13). Madison, WI: Dembar Educational Research Services.

PapersEdit

Endel Tulving: Papers


External linksEdit

External linksEdit

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