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{{BioPsy}}
 
{{BioPsy}}
The terms '''empathogen''' and '''entactogen''' are different terms used to describe a class of [[psychoactive drug]]s that produce distinctive emotional and social effects similar to [[methylenedioxymethamphetamine|MDMA]] ("ecstasy"). Other members of this class are [[3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine|MDA]], [[MDEA]], [[MBDB]], and [[alpha-ethyltryptamine|AET]]. When referring to MDMA and related analogs the term 'MDxx' is often used. Entactogens are often incorrectly referred to as [[psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants|hallucinogens]] or [[stimulant]]s. The [[chemical structure]] of most entactogens contains a substituted [[amphetamine]] core.
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The terms '''empathogen''' and '''entactogen''' are used to describe a class of [[psychoactive drug]]s that produce distinctive emotional and social effects similar to those of [[MDMA]] (ecstasy). Putative members of this class include [[2C-B]], [[2C-I]], [[MDMA]], [[3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine|MDA]], [[Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine|MDEA]], [[MBDB]], [[2C-T-7]], and [[2C-T-2]], among others. The [[chemical structure]] of many entactogens contains a [[substituted amphetamine]] core, and most belong to the [[phenethylamine]] class of psychoactive drugs, although several (AET and [[alpha-methyltryptamine|AMT]]) are [[tryptamine]]s. When referring to MDMA and its counterparts, the term '[[MDxx]]' is often used with the exception of [[MDPV]]. Entactogens are sometimes incorrectly referred to as major [[hallucinogens]] or [[stimulant]]s, which is often thought to be incorrect although their effects are often somewhat similar.
   
The term "'''empathogen'''" was coined in [[1983]] by [[Ralph Metzner]] to denote chemical agents inducing feelings of [[empathy]].
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==Etymology==
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The term "'''empathogen'''" was coined in 1983 by [[Ralph Metzner]] to denote chemical agents inducing feelings of [[empathy]]. "'''Entactogen'''" was coined by [[David E. Nichols]] as an alternative to "empathogen", attempting to avoid the potential for improper association of the latter with negative connotations related to the Greek root "pathos" (''suffering''); Nichols also thought the word was limiting, and did not cover other therapeutic uses for the drugs that go beyond instilling feelings of empathy. The word "entactogen" is derived from the roots "en" ({{lang-el|within}}), "tactus" ({{lang-la|touch}}) and "gen" (Greek: ''produce'') (Nichols 1986: 308). Neither term is dominant in usage, and, despite their difference in connotation, they are essentially interchangeable, as they refer to precisely the same chemicals.
   
"'''Entactogen'''" was coined by [[David E. Nichols]] as an alternative to "empathogen", attempting to avoid the potential for improper association of the latter with negative concepts related to the Greek root "pathos" (''suffering''); Nichols also thought the word was limiting, and did not cover other therapeutic uses for the drugs which go beyond instilling feelings of empathy. The word "entactogen" is derived from the roots "en" ([[Greek language|Greek]]: ''within''), "tactus" ([[Latin]]: ''touch'') and "gen" (Greek: ''produce''). Neither term is dominant in usage, and despite their difference in connotation are essentially interchangeable as they refer to precisely the same chemicals.
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==Psychological effects==
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These drugs appear to produce a different spectrum of psychological effects from major [[stimulants]] such as [[methamphetamine]] and [[amphetamine]] or from major [[psychedelic drug]]s such as [[LSD]] or [[psilocybin]]. As implied by the category names, users of entactogens say the drugs often produce feelings of empathy, love, and emotional closeness to others. Which is not to say [[LSD]] or [[psilocybin]] are incapable of producing such responses, but rather they are not so specifically characterized by these qualities. However, there have been only very preliminary comparisons of these different drugs in humans in properly-controlled laboratory studies.
   
These drugs appear to produce a different spectrum of psychological effects from [[stimulants]] such as methamphetamine and [[amphetamine]] or from [[psychedelic drug]]s such as [[LSD]] or [[Psilocybin]]. As implied by the category names, users of entactogens say the drugs often produce feelings of empathy, love, and emotional closeness to others. However, there have been only very preliminary comparisons of these different drugs in humans in properly controlled laboratory studies.
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==Examples==
   
If MDMA is taken as a representative entactogen, the pharmacological mechanisms of this class appear to resemble those of methamphetamine. Extracellular dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine are all increased by both MDMA and methamphetamine. However, entactogens other than MDMA have received relatively little scientific attention, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the mechanisms of entactogens in general. It is also unknown why entactogens might produce emotional effects that differ from stimulants.
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The chemicals below have a varying degree of entactogenic effects. Some of the chemicals have a minimal entactogenic effect while others may have a strong entactogenic effect. These substances possess other effects including [[serenic]] effects, [[stimulant]] effects, [[antidepressant]] effects, [[anxiolytic]] effects, and [[psychedelic]] effects.
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* [[4-Fluoroamphetamine]] ("Flux")
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* [[4-methylthioamphetamine]] (4-MTA; "Flatliners")
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* [[5-APB]]
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* [[5-APDB]]
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* [[5-Methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine]] (5-MeO-DiPT; "Foxy" or "Foxy Methoxy")
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* [[6-APB]] ("Benzo Fury")
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* [[6-APDB]]
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* [[alpha-ethyltryptamine]] (αET; Monase)
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* [[bk-MBDB]] (Butylone)
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* [[indanylaminopropane]] (IAP)
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* [[methylenedioxyaminoindane]] (MDAI)
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* [[methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine]] (MBDB; "Eden")
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* [[methylenedioxyamphetamine]] (MDA; "Mellow Drug of America"; "Sassafras")
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* [[methylenedioxyethylamphetamine]] (MDEA; "Eve")
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* [[methylenedioxymethamphetamine]] (MDMA; "Ecstasy"; "E", "X", "XTC", "Rolls", "Pills", "Adam", "Molly")
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* [[mephedrone]] ("Meow", "MCAT", "Molly's little sister", and "Shrimp")
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* [[methylone]] ("Explosion", "Ease," and "Bubbles")
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* [[methoxymethylamphetamine]] (MMA)
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* [[paramethoxyamphetamine]] (PMA)
   
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
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{{Reflist|2}}
 
* Nichols, D.E., Hoffman, A.J., Oberlender, R.A., Jacob P 3rd & [[Alexander Shulgin|Shulgin A.T.]] ''Derivatives of 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine: representatives of a novel therapeutic class'' 1986 J Med Chem 29 2009-15
 
* Nichols, D.E., Hoffman, A.J., Oberlender, R.A., Jacob P 3rd & [[Alexander Shulgin|Shulgin A.T.]] ''Derivatives of 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine: representatives of a novel therapeutic class'' 1986 J Med Chem 29 2009-15
 
* Nichols, D.E. ''Differences between the mechanism of action of MDMA, MBDB, and the classic [[Psychedelics, Dissociatives and Deliriants|hallucinogen]]s. Identification of a new therapeutic class: entactogens'' 1986 J Psychoactive Drugs 18 305-13
 
* Nichols, D.E. ''Differences between the mechanism of action of MDMA, MBDB, and the classic [[Psychedelics, Dissociatives and Deliriants|hallucinogen]]s. Identification of a new therapeutic class: entactogens'' 1986 J Psychoactive Drugs 18 305-13
 
== See also ==
 
 
*
 
* [[Phenethylamine]]
 
* [[Entheogen]]
 
   
 
== External links ==
 
== External links ==
 
 
* [http://www.erowid.org/references/refs_view.php?ID=815 Nichols 1986: Abstract and full text online]
 
* [http://www.erowid.org/references/refs_view.php?ID=815 Nichols 1986: Abstract and full text online]
 
* [http://www.maps.org/news-letters/v04n2/04247eed.html The Great Entactogen - Empathogen Debate] from [http://www.maps.org/ MAPS] newsletter
 
* [http://www.maps.org/news-letters/v04n2/04247eed.html The Great Entactogen - Empathogen Debate] from [http://www.maps.org/ MAPS] newsletter
   
 
{{Entactogens}}
 
{{Entactogens}}
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{{Antidepressants}}
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{{Anxiolytics}}
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{{Adrenergics}}
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{{Dopaminergics}}
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{{Serotonergics}}
   
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Empathogen-Entactogen}}
 
[[Category:Entactogens and Empathogens]]
 
[[Category:Entactogens and Empathogens]]
[[Category:Psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants|Empathogen-Entactogen]]
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[[Category:Psychedelic drugs]]
   
:de:Entaktogen
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[[he:אמפתוגן-אנטקטוגן]]
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[[lv:Empatogēni]]
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[[no:Empatogen-entaktogen]]
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[[pl:Empatogeny]]
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[[pt:Empatógeno]]
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[[ru:Эмпатоген]]
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{{enWP|Empathogen-entactogen}}
 
{{enWP|Empathogen-entactogen}}

Latest revision as of 22:54, November 2, 2012

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The terms empathogen and entactogen are used to describe a class of psychoactive drugs that produce distinctive emotional and social effects similar to those of MDMA (ecstasy). Putative members of this class include 2C-B, 2C-I, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, MBDB, 2C-T-7, and 2C-T-2, among others. The chemical structure of many entactogens contains a substituted amphetamine core, and most belong to the phenethylamine class of psychoactive drugs, although several (AET and AMT) are tryptamines. When referring to MDMA and its counterparts, the term 'MDxx' is often used with the exception of MDPV. Entactogens are sometimes incorrectly referred to as major hallucinogens or stimulants, which is often thought to be incorrect although their effects are often somewhat similar.

EtymologyEdit

The term "empathogen" was coined in 1983 by Ralph Metzner to denote chemical agents inducing feelings of empathy. "Entactogen" was coined by David E. Nichols as an alternative to "empathogen", attempting to avoid the potential for improper association of the latter with negative connotations related to the Greek root "pathos" (suffering); Nichols also thought the word was limiting, and did not cover other therapeutic uses for the drugs that go beyond instilling feelings of empathy. The word "entactogen" is derived from the roots "en" (Greek: within

), "tactus" (Latin: touch ) and "gen" (Greek: produce) (Nichols 1986: 308). Neither term is dominant in usage, and, despite their difference in connotation, they are essentially interchangeable, as they refer to precisely the same chemicals.

Psychological effectsEdit

These drugs appear to produce a different spectrum of psychological effects from major stimulants such as methamphetamine and amphetamine or from major psychedelic drugs such as LSD or psilocybin. As implied by the category names, users of entactogens say the drugs often produce feelings of empathy, love, and emotional closeness to others. Which is not to say LSD or psilocybin are incapable of producing such responses, but rather they are not so specifically characterized by these qualities. However, there have been only very preliminary comparisons of these different drugs in humans in properly-controlled laboratory studies.

ExamplesEdit

The chemicals below have a varying degree of entactogenic effects. Some of the chemicals have a minimal entactogenic effect while others may have a strong entactogenic effect. These substances possess other effects including serenic effects, stimulant effects, antidepressant effects, anxiolytic effects, and psychedelic effects.

References Edit

  • Nichols, D.E., Hoffman, A.J., Oberlender, R.A., Jacob P 3rd & Shulgin A.T. Derivatives of 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine: representatives of a novel therapeutic class 1986 J Med Chem 29 2009-15
  • Nichols, D.E. Differences between the mechanism of action of MDMA, MBDB, and the classic hallucinogens. Identification of a new therapeutic class: entactogens 1986 J Psychoactive Drugs 18 305-13

External links Edit



Antidepressants (ATC N06A) edit
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) Harmaline, Iproclozide, Iproniazid, Isocarboxazid, Nialamide, Phenelzine, Selegiline, Toloxatone, Tranylcypromine
Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) Brofaromine, Moclobemide
Dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DARI) Amineptine, Phenmetrazine, Vanoxerine, Modafinil
Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors Bupropion
Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) or (NARI) Atomoxetine, Maprotiline, Reboxetine, Viloxazine
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) Duloxetine, Milnacipran, Venlafaxine
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Alaproclate, Etoperidone, Citalopram, Escitalopram, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Paroxetine, Sertraline, Zimelidine
Selective serotonin reuptake enhancer (SSRE) Tianeptine
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Butriptyline, Clomipramine, Desipramine, Dibenzepin, Dothiepin, Doxepin, Imipramine, Iprindole, Lofepramine, Melitracen, Nortriptyline, Opipramol, Protriptyline, Trimipramine
Tetracyclic antidepressants Maprotiline, Mianserin, Nefazodone, Trazodone
Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) Mirtazapine
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