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Embedded Figures Test

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Social Processes: Methodology · Types of test


In embedded figures testing, the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) is an individually administered test which was developed to assess field dependence and field independence.

Testees are required to find the simple figure(s) embedded or hidden in a relatively complex figure. Field-independent people can get rid of the influence of the background image and find out the hidden figure, while field-dependent people will find it hard to finish the task

The preschool version was developed by Herman Witkin.[1]


Test descriptionEdit

In the test there are 24 figures which are presented in 2 sets of 12 cards with complex figures and a set of 8 cards with simple figures. Each complex figure includes an embedded simple figure, which the subject is to identify as quickly as possible. Presentation is timed with a three minute limit . According to Bonham (1987), the EFT was adapted from Gottschaldt's figures by adding colored patterns to increase complexity.


Reliability and ValidityEdit

Reported reliabilities range from .61-.92 depending on age and gender.


See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

  1. Coates S (1972). Preschool Embedded Figures Test. Palo Alto, GA: Consulting Psychologists Press

Key textsEdit

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Additional materialEdit

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