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- Electromagnetic induction is not to be confused with "Magnetic induction", which usually refers to Magnetic field.
Michael Faraday is generally credited with having discovered the induction phenomenon in [1831 though it may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi in 1829.
In practice, this means that an electrical current will be induced in any closed circuit when the magnetic flux through a surface bounded by the conductor changes. This applies whether the field itself changes in strength or the conductor is moved through it.
Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction states that:
For the common, but special case, of a coil of wire, comprised of N loops with the same area, Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction states that
- is the electromotive force (emf) in volts
- N is the number of turns of wire
- ΦB is the magnetic flux in webers through a single loop.
Further, Lenz's law gives the direction of the induced emf, thus:
- The emf induced in an electric circuit always acts in such a direction that the current it drives around the circuit opposes the change in magnetic flux which produces the emf.
Lenz's law is therefore responsible for the minus sign in the above equation.
The principles of electromagnetic induction are applied in many devices and systems, including:
- Induction motors
- Electrical generators
- Electromagnetic forming
- Magnetic flow meters
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation
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