Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Electrical injuries occur as a result of electric shock.
The perception of electric shock can be different depending on the voltage, duration, current, path taken, frequency, etc. Current entering the hand has a threshold of perception of about 5 to 10 mA (milliampere) for DC and about 1 to 10 mA for AC at 60 Hz. Shock perception declines with increasing frequency, ultimately disappearing at frequencies above 15-20 kHz.
Heating due to resistance can cause extensive and deep burns. Voltage levels of (> 500 to 1000 V) shocks tend to cause internal burns due to the large energy (which is proportional to the duration multiplied by the square of the voltage) available from the source. Damage due to current is through tissue heating. In some cases 16 volts might be fatal to a human being when the electricity passes through organs such as the heart.
A low-voltage (110 to 220 V), 50 or 60-Hz AC current travelling through the chest for a fraction of a second may induce ventricular fibrillation at currents as low as 60mA. With DC, 300 to 500 mA is required. If the current has a direct pathway to the heart (e.g., via a cardiac catheter or other kind of electrode), a much lower current of less than 1 mA, (AC or DC) can cause fibrillation. Fibrillations are usually lethal because all the heart muscle cells move independently. Above 200mA, muscle contractions are so strong that the heart muscles cannot move at all.
Current can cause interference with nervous control, especially over the heart and lungs. Repeated or severe electric shock which does not lead to death has been shown to cause neuropathy.
When the current path is through the head, it appears that, with sufficient current, loss of consciousness almost always occurs swiftly. (This is borne out by some limited self-experimentation by early designers of the electric chair and by research from the field of animal husbandry, where electric stunning has been extensively studied) .
- Ammar, A. N. (2004). Memory and attentional functioning in electrically injured patients with and without PTSD symptomology. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Barrash, J., Kealey, G. P., & Janus, T. J. (1996). Neurobehavioral sequelae of high voltage electrical injuries: Comparison with traumatic brain injury: Applied Neuropsychology Vol 3(2) May 1996, 75-81.
- Bianchini, K., Love, J. M., Greve, K. W., & Adams, D. (2005). Detection and diagnosis of malingering in electrical injury: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 20(3) May 2005, 365-373.
- Bier, M., Chen, W., Bodnar, E., & Lee, R. C. (2005). Biophysical injury mechanisms associated with lightning injury: NeuroRehabilitation Vol 20(1) 2005, 53-62.
- Bloomingdale, E. C., & Bloomingdale, L. M. (1991). The diagnosis and treatment of a "dead man." American Journal of Forensic Psychology Vol 9(3) 1991, 15-29.
- Bunch, M. E. (1935). Certain effects of electric shock in learning a stylus maze: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 20(2) Oct 1935, 211-242.
- Burandt, C. A. (2006). Detecting incomplete effort on the MMPI-2: An examination of the Fake-Bad Scale in electrical injury. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Caksen, H., Yuca, S. A., Demirtas, I., Odabas, D., Cesur, Y., & Demirok, A. (2004). Right thalamic hemorrhage resulting from high-voltage electrical injury: A case report: Brain & Development Vol 26(2) Mar 2004, 134-136.
- Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M. (2005). Roadblocks to return to work after electrical trauma: NeuroRehabilitation Vol 20(1) 2005, 49-52.
- Cherington, M. (2005). Neurorehabilitation of the multifaceted and complicated neurologic problems associated with lightning and electrical injuries: NeuroRehabilitation Vol 20(1) 2005, 1-2.
- Cooper, M. A., & Marshburn, S. (2005). Lightning Strike and Electric Shock Survivors, International: NeuroRehabilitation Vol 20(1) 2005, 43-47.
- Crews, W. D., Jr., Barth, J. T., Brelsford, T. N., Francis, J. P., & McArdle, P. A. (1997). Neuropsychological dysfunction in severe accidental electrical shock: Two case reports: Applied Neuropsychology Vol 4(4) 1997, 208-219.
- Daniel, M., & et al. (1985). Neuropsychological and emotional consequences of accidental, high-voltage electrical shock: International Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 7(2) 1985, 102-106.
- Ghaemi, S. N., & Irizarry, M. C. (1995). Parasomnias as neuropsychiatric complications of electrical injury: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 36(4) Jul-Aug 1995, 416.
- Gourbiere, E., Corbut, J.-P., & Bazin, Y. (1994). Functional consequence of electrical injury. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
- Grindal, A. B., & Suter, C. (1975). "Alpha-pattern coma" in high voltage electrical injury: Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 38(5) May 1975, 521-526.
- Grumet, G. W. (1989). Attempted suicide by electrocution: Review and case report: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic Vol 53(6) Nov 1989, 512-521.
- Hare, C. C. (1940). Effects of Electric Shock on the Central Nervous System. Compressed Air Illness (Caisson Disease). Cerebral Fat Embolism. Cerebral Air Embolism. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins Co.
- Heilbronner, R. L. (1994). Rehabilitation of the neuropsychological sequelae associated with electrical trauma. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
- Heilbronner, R. L., & Pliskin, N. H. (1999). Psychological issues in the neurorehabilitation of electrical injuries: NeuroRehabilitation Vol 13(2) 1999, 127-132.
- Hilton, C. (2007). An exploration of the patient's experience of electro-convulsive therapy in mid-twentieth century creative literature: A historical study with implications for practice today: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 97(1-3) Jan 2007, 5-12.
- Hopewell, C. A. (1983). Serial neuropsychological assessment in a case of reversible electrocution encephalopathy: Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 5(2) 1983, 61-65.
- Jost, W. H., Schonrock, L. M., & Cherington, M. (2005). Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in lightning and electrical injuries: NeuroRehabilitation Vol 20(1) 2005, 19-23.
- Kelley, K. M., Pliskin, N. H., Meyer, G. J., & Lee, R. C. (1994). Neuropsychiatric aspects of electrical injury: The nature of psychiatric disturbance. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
- Khanna, R., Nizamie, S. H., & Das, A. (1991). Electrical trauma, nonictal EEG changes, and mania: A case report: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 52(6) Jun 1991, 280.
- Kowalski-Trakofler, K., & Barrett, E. (2007). Reducing non-contact electric arc injuries: An investigation of behavioral and organizational issues: Journal of Safety Research Vol 38(5) 2007, 597-608.
- Lammertse, D. P. (2005). Neurorehabilitation of spinal cord injuries following lightning and electrical trauma: NeuroRehabilitation Vol 20(1) 2005, 9-14.
- Lee, R. C., Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M., & Kelley, K. M. (1994). Electrical injury: A multidisciplinary approach to therapy, prevention, and rehabilitation. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
- Lim, E. C. H., & Seet, R. C. S. (2007). Segmental dystonia following electrocution in childhood: Neurological Sciences Vol 28(1) Mar 2007, 38-41.
- Lindenmayer, J.-P., & Pappenheim, E. (1973). A case of accidental electrocution: A clinical pathological report: Psychiatric Quarterly Vol 47(2) 1973, 218-227.
- Malina, A. C. (1998). Neurocognitive effects on electrical trauma. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Marquart, M. S. (2004). Metamemory in electrical injury patients: Impact of depressive symptoms and executive function. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Martin, T. A., Salvatore, N. F., & Johnstone, B. (2003). Cognitive decline over time following electrical injury: Brain Injury Vol 17(9) Sep 2003, 817-823.
- Mellen, P. F., Weedn, V. W., & Kao, G. (1992). Electrocution: A review of 155 cases with emphasis on human factors: Journal of Forensic Sciences Vol 37(4) Jul 1992, 1016-1022.
- Miller, L. (1993). Toxic torts: Clinical, neuropsychological, and forensic aspects of chemical and electrical injuries: Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation Vol 11(1) Jan-Feb 1993, 6-18.
- Morse, J. S., & Morse, M. S. (2005). Diffuse electrical injury: Comparison of physical and neuropsychological symptom presentation in males and females: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 58(1) Jan 2005, 51-54.
- Murray, R. W., & Tedin, K. L. (1989). Public knowledge of outdoor electrical hazards: Forensic Reports Vol 2(2) Spr 1989, 107-118.
- Paivinen, M. (2006). Electricians' perception of work-related risks in cold climate when working on high places: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics Vol 36(7) Jul 2006, 661-670.
- Pliskin, N. H. (2005). Electrical Injury, or "My Day at the Beach". New York, NY: Guilford Press.
- Pliskin, N. H., Ammar, A. N., Fink, J. W., Hill, S. K., Malina, A. C., Ramati, A., et al. (2006). Neuropsychological changes following electrical injury: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society Vol 12(1) Jan 2006, 17-23.
- Pliskin, N. H., Meyer, G. J., Dolske, M. C., Heilbronner, R. L., Kelley, K. M., & Lee, R. C. (1994). Neuropsychiatric aspects of electrical injury: A review of neuropsychological research. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
- Primeau, M. (2005). Neurorehabilitation of behavioral disorders following lightning and electrical trauma: NeuroRehabilitation Vol 20(1) 2005, 25-33.
- Ramati, A. (2006). Working memory in electrically injured patients: A functional neuroimaging study. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Ressijac, R. H. (1986). High voltage electrical injuries: Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing Vol 9(6) 1986, 383-389.
- Rivera, L. P. (2002). Rehabilitation for encephalopathy following an electric shock: Minerva Psichiatrica Vol 43(4) Dec 2002, 281-285.
- Salvanto, M. (2005). Neurocognitive effects of chronic exposure to power lines. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Selvaggi, G., Monstrey, S., Van Landuyt, K., Hamdi, M., & Blondeel, P. (2005). Rehabilitation of burn injured patients following lightning and electrical trauma: NeuroRehabilitation Vol 20(1) 2005, 35-42.
- Stoddard, F. J., Chedekel, D. S., & Remensnyder, J. P. (1984). Psychological reactions of a boy to severe electrical burns including the loss of his penis: Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry Vol 23(2) Mar 1984, 219-221.
- Thaventhiran, J., O'Leary, M. J., Coakley, J. H., Rose, M., Nagendran, K., & Greenwood, R. (2001). Pathogenesis and recovery of tetrapelgia after electrical injury: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 71(4) Oct 2001, 535-537.
- van Duijne, F. H., Kanis, H., Hale, A. R., & Green, B. S. (2008). Risk perception in the usage of electrically powered gardening tools: Safety Science Vol 46(1) Jan 2008, 104-118.
- van Zomeren, A. H., ten Duis, H.-J., Minderhoud, J. M., & Sipma, M. (1998). Lightning stroke and neuropsychological impairment: Cases and questions: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 64(6) Jun 1998, 763-770.
- Williamson, A., & Feyer, A.-M. (1998). The causes of electrical fatalities at work: Journal of Safety Research Vol 29(3) Fal 1998, 187-196.
- Yarnell, P. R. (2005). Neurorehabilitation of cerebral disorders following lightning and electrical trauma: NeuroRehabilitation Vol 20(1) 2005, 15-18.