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Dysesthesia (dysaesthesia) comes from the Greek word "dys", meaning "not-normal" and "aesthesis", which means "sensation" (abnormal sensation).[1] It is defined as an unpleasant, abnormal sense of touch. It often presents as pain[2] but may also present as an inappropriate, but not discomforting, sensation. It is caused by lesions of the nervous system, peripheral or central, and it involves sensations, whether spontaneous or evoked, such as burning, wetness, itching, electric shock, and pins and needles.[2] Dysesthesia can include sensations in any bodily tissue, including most often the mouth, scalp, skin, or legs.[2]

It is sometimes described as feeling like acid under the skin. Burning dysesthesia might accurately reflect an acidotic state in the synapses and perineural space. Some ion channels will open to a low pH, and the acid sensing ion channel has been shown to open at body temperature, in a model of nerve injury pain. Inappropriate, spontaneous firing in pain receptors has also been implicated as a cause of dysesthesia.

Patients suffering from dysesthesia can become incapacitated with pain, despite no apparent damage to the skin or other tissue. Patients suffering from dysesthesia also often suffer from psychological disorders.

Types of dysesthesiaEdit

Dysesthesia can generally be described as a class of neurological disorders. It can be further classified depending on where it manifests in the body, and by the type of sensation that it provokes.

Cutaneous dysesthesia is characterized by discomfort or pain from touch to the skin by normal stimuli, including clothing. The unpleasantness can range from a mild tingling to blunt, incapacitating pain.

Scalp dysesthesia is characterized by pain or burning sensations on or under the surface of the cranial skin. Scalp dysesthesia may also present as excessive itching of the scalp.

Occlusal dysesthesia, or "phantom bite," is characterized by the feeling of a biting sensation in the absence of any apparent damage to oral or maxillofacial structures or tissue, usually in patients that have undergone recent dental surgery.[3]

CausesEdit

  • Dysesthesia is commonly seen in diabetic patients, and can be relieved by using creams containing capsaicin.
  • Dysthsethia may be seen in patients suffering from Guillain–Barré syndrome.
  • Dysesthesia is among symptoms of neuropathy (along with paresthesias, gait disturbance, weakness, and absent DTRS).
  • Dysesthesia, along with polyneuropathy can be a symptom of nerve damage caused by Lyme Disease.[4] The dysesthetic sensations continue after the successful antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease.
  • Dysesthesia is a common symptom of a withdrawal from alcohol or other drugs.
  • Dysesthesia is also a common symptom of Multiple Sclerosis, or MS. It is an effect of spinal cord injury.[5]
  • Many patients suffering from occlusal dysesthesia have reported recent oral surgery before the onset of dysesthetic pain.[6]
  • Late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis may also present as burning dysesthesia.[7]
  • In trials for the drug oxaliplatin, reversible transient acute dysesthesia was observed in patients. It is possible that other chemotherapy drugs may cause dysesthetic side-effects.[8]

Comparison to phantom limb and other disordersEdit

Although dysesthesia is similar to phantom limb syndrome, they should not be confused. In phantom limb, the sensation is present in an amputated or absent limb, while dysesthesia refers to discomfort or pain in a tissue that has not been removed or amputated. The dysesthetic tissue may also not be part of a limb, but part of the body, such as the abdomen. The majority of individuals with both phantom limb and dysesthesia experience painful sensations.

Phantom pain refers to dysesthetic feelings in individuals who are paralyzed or who were born without limbs. It is caused by the improper innervation of the missing limbs by the nerves that would normally innervate the limb. Dysesthesia is caused by damage to the nerves themselves, rather than by an innervation of absent tissue.

Dysesthesia should not be confused with anesthesia or hypesthesia, which refer to a loss of sensation, or paresthesia which refers to a distorted sensation. Dysesthesia is distinct in that it can, but not necessarily, refer to spontaneous sensations in the absence of stimuli. In the case of an evoked dysesthetic sensation, such as by the touch of clothing, the sensation is characterized not simply by an exaggeration of the feeling, but rather by a completely inappropriate sensation such as burning.

StudiesEdit

  • Bennett et al. produced an artificial peripheral mononeuropathy in rats by surgically constricting the sciatic nerve.[9] These rats showed an increased response to noxious radiant heat, were nocifensive when placed on a cold metal floor, protected their hind paws, and had suppressed appetite. Additionally, the paws of many of these rats were inappropriately warm or cool to the touch, and many of the rats overgrew claws on the affected paws as well. These results indicate that the rats exhibited hyperalgesia, allodynia, and dysesthesia.
  • In a study in which researchers cut spinal nerves in rats, researchers found these rats exhibited a longer duration in spontaneous foot lifting, hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli, allodynia, and hyperalgesia.[10] Additionally, the receptive field neurons in this nerve pathway showed spontaneous firing in low-threshold nociceptors, suggesting that nerve damage can cause dysesthesia.
  • In women suffering from chronic pain or itchy scalps without any apparent physical cause, about half were suffering from psychiatric disorders. For the majority of these women, their symptoms of scalp dysesthesia were alleviated or removed by treatment with low doses of antidepressants.[11]
  • Landerholm et al. hypothesized that dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) might be the hyperbole of dynamic mechanical dysesthesia (DMD), mediated by peripheral nerves. When the researchers artificially blocked nerves in patients suffering from peripheral neuropthic pain or central post-stroke pain, DMA symptoms in many of the patients transitioned into DMD symptoms. Additionally, the researchers determined that the number of mechanocreceptive fibers associated with the nociceptive system was responsible for the differentiation of DMA to DMD.[12]
  • Ochoa et al. recorded intraneural signals in subjects with post-ischaemic paraesthesiae. The researchers found the signals to be spontaneous. The frequency of the signals paralleled the intensity and timing of the paresthetic sensations reported by the patients. These results suggest that paresthetic sensations are the result of inappropriate firing frequency and timing by impulses from sensory cells.[13]
  • Tuskiyama et al. assessed occlusal dysesthesia patients using an interdental thickness discrimination test and a psychological examination. The researchers found that occlusal dysesthesia patients could not discriminate the thickness of material in their bite any better than normal dental patients, but that the occlusal dysesthesia patients were significantly more likely to exhibit psychological disorders.[14]

Living with dysesthesiaEdit

A patient suffering from dysesthesia can find it to be unbearable at times. Dysesthetic burning has been called "Dante-esque" pain. The terminology used to describe it is usually interchangeable with descriptions of Hell in classic literature. It is the "bluntest" pain of which the human body is capable, and is characterized by the absence of accurate discriminative information.

Temperature change and heat both affect the sensation and raise the level of the steady pain. This pain upgrades with tonic light touch, phasic rubbing, or rough textures to become evoked pain.

The patient often cannot endure the touch of clothing. His or her entire life becomes an exercise in avoiding evoked pain. It causes difficulty in obtaining rest because bed-clothing contacts the skin. It drives the patient to a hysterical search for relief of the pain, which ends in some degree of resignation and frequent depression. Patients indicate that it has robbed them of their identity, since their values and mental priorities are so consumed by its avoidance.[15]

Chronic anxiety is often associated with dysesthesia.[16] Patients suffering from this anxiety may experience numbness or tingling in the face. In one study, those patients that were examined psychologically had symptoms of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, or somatoform disorder.[6]

TreatmentEdit

Daily oral muscle physical therapy, or the administration of antidepressants have been reported as effective therapy for occlusal dysesthesia patients.[6] Tooth grinding, and the replacement or removal of all dental work should be avoided in patients with occlusal dysesthesia,[6] despite the frequent requests for further surgery often requested by these patients.

Antidepressants are also often prescribed for scalp dysesthesia.

Prakash et al. found that many patients suffering from burning mouth syndrome (BMS), one variant of occlusal dysesthesia, also report painful sensations in other parts of the body. Many of the patients suffering from BMS met the cclassification of restless leg syndrome (RLS). About half of these patients also had a family history of RLS. These results suggest that some BMS symptoms may be caused by the same pathway as RLS in some patients, indicating that dopaminergic drugs regularly used to treat RLS may be effective in treating BMS as well.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Answers.com.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 IASP Pain Terminology.
  3. Toyofuku, A. & Kikuta, T. (2006). Treatment of phantom bite syndrome with milnacripran - a case series. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 2(3): 387-390.
  4. Klempner, M. S., Hu, L. T., Evans, J., Schmid, C. H., Johnson, G. M., Trevino, R. P., . . . Weinstein, A. (2001). Two controlled trials of antibiotic treatment in patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(2), 85-92.
  5. [1].
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Hara_et_al._occlusal_dysesthesia_review
  7. Chow, G. C. S., Clarke, J. T. R., & Banwell, B. L. (2001). Late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis presenting as burning dysesthesias. Pediatric Neurology, 25(1).
  8. Raymond, E., Chaney, S. G., Taamma, A., & Cvitkovic, E. (1998). Oxaliplatin: A review of preclinical and clinical studies. Annals of Oncology, 9(10), 1053-1071.
  9. Bennett, G. J., & Xie, Y. K. (1988). A PERIPHERAL MONONEUROPATHY IN RAT THAT PRODUCES DISORDERS OF PAIN SENSATION LIKE THOSE SEEN IN MAN. Pain, 33(1).
  10. Djouhri, L., Fang, X., Koutsikou, S., & Lawson, S. N. (2012). Partial nerve injury induces electrophysiological changes in conducting (uninjured) nociceptive and nonnociceptive DRG neurons: Possible relationships to aspects of peripheral neuropathic pain and paresthesias. Pain, 153(9).
  11. Hoss, D., & Segal, S. (1998). Scalp dysesthesia. Archives of Dermatology, 134(3). doi: 10.1001/archderm.134.3.327
  12. Landerholm, A. H., & Hansson, P. T. (2011). Mechanisms of dynamic mechanical allodynia and dysesthesia in patients with peripheral and central neuropathic pain. European Journal of Pain, 15(5).
  13. Ochoa, J. L., & Torebjork, H. E. (1980). PARAESTHESIAE FROM ECTOPIC IMPULSE GENERATION IN HUMAN SENSORY NERVES. Brain, 103(DEC).
  14. Tsukiyama, Y., Yamada, A., Kuwatsuru, R., & Koyano, K. (2012). Bio-psycho-social assessment of occlusal dysaesthesia patients. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 39(8).
  15. [Copyright © 2001 by David Berg http://www.painonline.org/dyses.htm].
  16. [2].

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