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Educational Psychology: Assessment · Issues · Theory & research · Techniques · Techniques X subject · Special Ed. · Pastoral
 Main article: acalculia

Dyscalculia is defined as a specific learning difficulty affecting a person's ability to understand and/or manipulate numbers. Like dyslexia, dyscalculia can be caused by a visual perceptual deficit. Dyscalculia is often used to refer specifically to the inability to perform operations in math or arithmetic, but is defined by some educational professionals as a more fundamental inability to conceptualize numbers themselves as an abstract concept of comparative quantities. It is a lesser known disability, much like dyslexia and dyspraxia. In fact, it is considered by some to be a variation of dyslexia. Dyscalculia occurs in people across the whole IQ range, but means they often have specific problems with mathematics, time, measurement, etc. Dyscalculia (in its more general definition) is not rare. Many of those with dyslexia or dyspraxia have dyscalculia as well. There is also some evidence to suggest that this type of SpLD is partially hereditary, although there are scholars who remind us that dyscalculia, like many other learning differences, may be a socially constructed concept.
Potential symptomsEdit
 Frequent difficulties with numbers, confusing the signs: +, , / and x, reversing or transposing numbers etc.
 Inability to say which of two numbers is the larger.
 Reliance on 'countingon' strategies, often using fingers, rather than any more efficient mental arithmetic strategies.
 Difficulty with timestables, mental arithmetic, measurements, etc.
 Good in subjects like science and geometry until a higher level requiring calculations is needed.
 Difficulty with conceptualising time and judging the passing of time.
 Difficulty with everyday tasks like checking change and reading analogue clocks.
 Inability to comprehend financial planning or budgeting, sometimes even at a basic level, for example estimating the cost of the items in a shopping basket.
 Inability to grasp and remember maths concepts, rules, formulae, sequences.
 Difficulty keeping score during games.
 The condition may lead in extreme cases to a phobia of mathematics and mathematical devices (i.e. numbers)
Potential causesEdit
 Neurological: Dyscalculia has been associated with lesions to the supramarginal and angular gyri at the junction between the temporal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex^{[1]}^{[2]}.
 Deficits in Working Memory: Adams and Hitch^{[3]} argue that working memory is a major factor in mental addition. From this base, Geary^{[4]} conducted a study that suggested there was a working memory deficit for those who suffered with dyscalculia. However, working memory problems are confounded with general learning difficulties, thus Geary's findings may not be specific to dyscalculia but rather may reflect a greater learning deficit.
Dealing with students having dyscalculiaEdit
 Give them extra time for numerical problems.
 Make sure that the student has actually understood the problem.
 Attempt to determine whether the learning style of the student is primarily visual, auditory or kinaesthetic.
 Encourage students to "visualize" the quantities involved in mathematics problems.
 Be aware that students may use nonstandard methods to solve problems. If their method is helpful, encourage it.
 Where appropriate have the student read problems out loud and listen carefully.
 Provide plenty of examples and try to relate problems to reallife situations.
 Provide uncluttered worksheets.
 Dyscalculic students will probably need to spend considerable extra time memorizing mathematical facts. Repetition is greatly important. Rhythm or music may help the process.
 Severely dyscalculic students, particularly if they are also dyslexic, may in fact have too poor a memory to memorise by rote at all. In this case, they should first concentrate on strengthening the basic numerical bonds and then use of calculation strategies.
 Do not scold or pity the student.
 Where appropriate, seek the advice of the SENCO or Ed. Psych.
See alsoEdit
 Gerstmann syndrome: dyscalculia is but one symptom.
 The DSMIV diagnosis mathematics disorder can be applied to people whose mathematical abilities are well below the expected level for their age.
External linksEdit
 Nature Article
 Guardian Article
 Mathematics and Dyslexia
 The Danish Dyscalculia Association
 LD Online
 DyscalculiaForum.com
 Dyscalculia or acalculia
 Dyscalculia.org Symptoms of dyscalcula
Further readingEdit
 Henderson Anne, Came Fil, Brough Mel. "Working with Dyscalculia." [5] Learning Works International Ltd, 2003, ISBN: 0953105520)
 Butterworth, Brian. "Dyscalculia Guidance: Helping Pupils With Specific Learning Difficulties in Maths." (David Fulton Pub, 2004, ISBN: 0708711529)
 Chinn, Steve. "The Trouble with Maths: A Practical Guide to Helping Learners with Numeracy Difficulties." (RoutledgeFalmer, 2004, ISBN: 041532498X)
 Attwood, Tony. "Dyscalculia in Schools: What It Is and What You Can Do." (First and Best in Education Ltd, 2002, ISBN: 1860836143)
 Abeel, Samantha. "My Thirteenth Winter." (Orchard Books, 2003, ISBN: 0439339049)
ReferencesEdit
 Template:Anb Levy LM, Reis IL, Grafman J. Metabolic abnormalities detected by 1HMRS in dyscalculia and dysgraphia. Neurology. 1999;53(3):639—41. PMID 10449137
 Template:Anb Mayer E, Martory MD, Pegna AJ, Landis T, Delavelle J, Annoni JM. Free Full Text A pure case of Gerstmann syndrome with a subangular lesion. Brain. 1999;122(6):1107—20. PMID 10356063
 Template:Anb Adams JW, Hitch GJ. Working memory and children's mental addition. J Exp Child Psychol. 1997;67(1),21—38. PMID 9344485
 Template:Anb Geary DC. Mathematical disabilities: cognition, neuropsychological and genetic components. Psychol Bull. 1993;114(2) 345—62. PMID 8416036
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