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Dual loyalty is a term used in the field of ethics to describe, a situation where a person has loyalty to two separate interests which potentially conflict with each other.
A frequently cited example of the term "dual loyalty" is used in connection with physicians who must balance, on the one hand, the physician's loyalty to a patient (and/or the regulations that govern the physician-patient relationship), and on the other hand, the institution or country for which the physician serves.
For example, a doctor who is asked by a government to assess a prisoner's fitness to withstand torture faces an enormous ethical dillema because of the competing loyalties of the doctor to the state versus the physican's code of ethics and his/her commitment to a patient's human rights. 
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