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Drug type
Drug usage
Drug abuse
Drug treatment

There are a large number of drugs associated with drug dependency, and addiction and stopping taking them can lead to withdrawal symptoms

Drugs that cause physical dependenceEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. Trang T, Sutak M, Quirion R, Jhamandas K (May 2002). The role of spinal neuropeptides and prostaglandins in opioid physical dependence. Br. J. Pharmacol. 136 (1): 37–48.
  2. Kozell L, Belknap JK, Hofstetter JR, Mayeda A, Buck KJ (July 2008). Mapping a locus for alcohol physical dependence and associated withdrawal to a 1.1 Mb interval of mouse chromosome 1 syntenic with human chromosome 1q23.2-23.3. Genes, Brain and Behavior 7 (5): 560–7.
  3. Sikdar S (July 1998). Physical dependence on zopiclone. Prescribing this drug to addicts may give rise to iatrogenic drug misuse. BMJ 317 (7151).
  4. Galloway GP, Frederick SL, Staggers FE, Gonzales M, Stalcup SA, Smith DE (January 1997). Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: an emerging drug of abuse that causes physical dependence. Addiction 92 (1): 89–96.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Tran KT, Hranicky D, Lark T, Jacob Nj (June 2005). Gabapentin withdrawal syndrome in the presence of a taper. Bipolar Disord 7 (3): 302–4.
  6. Hennessy MJ, Tighe MG, Binnie CD, Nashef L (November 2001). Sudden withdrawal of carbamazepine increases cardiac sympathetic activity in sleep. Neurology 57 (9): 1650–4.
  7. Lazarova M, Petkova B, Staneva-Stoycheva D (December 1999). Effects of the calcium antagonists verapamil and nitrendipine on carbamazepine withdrawal. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 21 (10): 669–71.
  8. Kora K, Kaplan P (2008). [Hypomania/mania induced by cessation of antidepressant drugs]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 19 (3): 329–33.
  9. Tint A, Haddad PM, Anderson IM (May 2008). The effect of rate of antidepressant tapering on the incidence of discontinuation symptoms: a randomised study. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 22 (3): 330–2.
  10. Quaglio G, Schifano F, Lugoboni F (September 2008). Venlafaxine dependence in a patient with a history of alcohol and amineptine misuse. Addiction 103 (9): 1572–4.
  11. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Drug abuse and dependence. URL accessed on 2008-12-21.
  12. Karachalios GN, Charalabopoulos A, Papalimneou V, et al. (May 2005). Withdrawal syndrome following cessation of antihypertensive drug therapy. Int. J. Clin. Pract. 59 (5): 562–70.
  13. Trenton AJ, Currier GW (2005). Behavioural manifestations of anabolic steroid use. CNS Drugs 19 (7): 571–95.
  14. Hartgens F, Kuipers H (2004). Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes. Sports Med 34 (8): 513–54.
  15. [1][dead link]
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