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Individual differences |
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Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Drugs that cause physical dependenceEdit
- All µ-opioids with any (even slight) agonist effect, such as (partial list) morphine, heroin, codeine, oxycodone, buprenorphine, nalbuphine, methadone, and fentanil, but not agonists specific to non-µ opioid receptors, such as salvinorin A (a k-opioid agonist), nor opioid antagonists or inverse agonists, such as naltrexone (a universal opioid inverse agonist)
- All GABA agonists and positive allosteric modulators of both the GABA-A ionotropic receptor and GABA-B metabotropic receptor subunits, of which the following drugs are examples (partial list):
- alcohols such as ethyl alcohol (alcoholic beverage) (cf. alcohol dependence, alcohol withdrawal, delirium tremens)
- barbiturates such as phenobarbital, sodium thiopental and secobarbital
- benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and alprazolam (Xanax) (see benzodiazepine dependence and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome)
- nonbenzodiazepines (z-drugs) such as zopiclone and zolpidem.
- gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and 1,4-butanediol
- carisoprodol (Soma) and related carbamates (tybamate and meprobamate)
- baclofen (Lioresal) and its non-chlorinated analogue phenibut
- chloral hydrate
- methaqualone (Quaalude)
- gabapentin (Neurontin) and pregabalin (Lyrica), calcium channel modifiers that affect GABA
- antiepileptic drugs such as valproate, lamotrigine, tiagabine, vigabatrin, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, and topiramate
- possibly neuroleptic drugs such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, haloperidol, thioridazine, etc.
- commonly prescribed antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (cf. SSRI/SNRI withdrawal syndrome)
- blood pressure medications, including beta blockers such as propanolol and alpha-adrenergic agonists such as clonidine
- androgenic-anabolic steroids
- Addiction recovery groups
- Alcohol withdrawal syndrome
- Benzodiazepine dependence
- Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome
- Discontinuation syndrome
- Drug and Alcohol Dependence
- Drug tolerance
- Drugs of addiction
- Rebound insomnia
- Substance dependence
- ↑ Trang T, Sutak M, Quirion R, Jhamandas K (May 2002). The role of spinal neuropeptides and prostaglandins in opioid physical dependence. Br. J. Pharmacol. 136 (1): 37–48.
- ↑ Kozell L, Belknap JK, Hofstetter JR, Mayeda A, Buck KJ (July 2008). Mapping a locus for alcohol physical dependence and associated withdrawal to a 1.1 Mb interval of mouse chromosome 1 syntenic with human chromosome 1q23.2-23.3. Genes, Brain and Behavior 7 (5): 560–7.
- ↑ Sikdar S (July 1998). Physical dependence on zopiclone. Prescribing this drug to addicts may give rise to iatrogenic drug misuse. BMJ 317 (7151).
- ↑ Galloway GP, Frederick SL, Staggers FE, Gonzales M, Stalcup SA, Smith DE (January 1997). Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: an emerging drug of abuse that causes physical dependence. Addiction 92 (1): 89–96.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Tran KT, Hranicky D, Lark T, Jacob Nj (June 2005). Gabapentin withdrawal syndrome in the presence of a taper. Bipolar Disord 7 (3): 302–4.
- ↑ Hennessy MJ, Tighe MG, Binnie CD, Nashef L (November 2001). Sudden withdrawal of carbamazepine increases cardiac sympathetic activity in sleep. Neurology 57 (9): 1650–4.
- ↑ Lazarova M, Petkova B, Staneva-Stoycheva D (December 1999). Effects of the calcium antagonists verapamil and nitrendipine on carbamazepine withdrawal. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 21 (10): 669–71.
- ↑ Kora K, Kaplan P (2008). [Hypomania/mania induced by cessation of antidepressant drugs]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 19 (3): 329–33.
- ↑ Tint A, Haddad PM, Anderson IM (May 2008). The effect of rate of antidepressant tapering on the incidence of discontinuation symptoms: a randomised study. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 22 (3): 330–2.
- ↑ Quaglio G, Schifano F, Lugoboni F (September 2008). Venlafaxine dependence in a patient with a history of alcohol and amineptine misuse. Addiction 103 (9): 1572–4.
- ↑ MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Drug abuse and dependence. URL accessed on 2008-12-21.
- ↑ Karachalios GN, Charalabopoulos A, Papalimneou V, et al. (May 2005). Withdrawal syndrome following cessation of antihypertensive drug therapy. Int. J. Clin. Pract. 59 (5): 562–70.
- ↑ Trenton AJ, Currier GW (2005). Behavioural manifestations of anabolic steroid use. CNS Drugs 19 (7): 571–95.
- ↑ Hartgens F, Kuipers H (2004). Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes. Sports Med 34 (8): 513–54.
- ↑ [dead link]
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