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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
This is a background article. See also:
- Main article: Psychological aspects of drawing
- Main article: Development of drawing ability
Drawing is a visual art which makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. Common instruments include graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, pastels, markers, stylus, or various metals like silverpoint. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draftsman or draughtsman.
A small amount of material is released onto the two dimensional medium which leaves a visible mark; the process is similar to that of painting. The most common medium for use with drawing is paper although other materials such as cardboard, plastic, leather, canvas and board amongst others. The medium has also become increasingly popular as part of graffiti art, because of the easy availiabilty of paint and permanent markers, which are a suitable alternative to the far less conspicuous spray can.
Drawing is a form of visual expression and is one of the major forms within the visual arts.
The word 'drawing' is used as both a verb and a noun:
- Drawing (verb) is the act of making marks on a surface so as to create an image, form or shape.
- The produced image is also called a drawing (noun). A quick, unfinished drawing may be defined as a sketch (see sketch (drawing))
Drawing is distinct from painting. The techniques of "drawing" and "painting" can be confused, because similar tools can perform both tasks; the operations are distinct in that painting involves the application of pigments, usually by means of a brush, onto cloth or prepared surfaces, whereas drawing is generally concerned with the marking of lines onto paper.
The term drawing also suggests a process that is distinct from the traditional act of painting. Drawing is often exploratory, with considerable emphasis on observation, problem solving and composition. In contrast, traditional painting is often a means of execution or finishing an artwork once a drawing has been completed. It is fair to note that modern painters often incorporate methods of drawing in their painting process.
Drawings may be representational, depicting objects or scenes which the artist views, remembers, or imagines. They may be realistic to the point of lifelike resemblance (e.g. traditional portraits),architectural drawing or looser approximations of reality (e.g. sketches), and highly stylized (e.g. cartoons, caricatures), or abstract (e.g. automatic drawing, entoptic graphomania). Underdrawings are preparatory drawings for a painting, which are covered over in the course of work.
The medium is the means by which ink, pigment, or color are delivered onto the drawing surface. Most drawing media are either dry (e.g. graphite, charcoal, pastels, Conté, silverpoint), or water-based (marker, pen and ink). Watercolor pencils can be used dry like ordinary pencil, then moistened with a wet brush to get various painterly effects. Very rarely, artists have drawn with (usually decoded) invisible ink.
Paper comes in a variety of different sizes and qualities, ranging from newspaper grade for practice up to high quality and relatively expensive paper sometimes sold as individual sheets. Papers can vary in texture, hue, acidity, and strength when wet. Smooth paper is good for rendering fine detail, but a more "toothy" paper will hold the drawing material better. Thus a more coarse material is useful for producing deeper contrast.
For pen and ink work, typing paper is often used for practice drawings, but heavier paper holds up better. Bristol board makes a hard surface that is especially good for ink or fine detailed graphite drawing. Coldpressed watercolor paper is sometimes favored for ink drawing due to its texture. Tracing vellum is often used for experimenting on top of a pencil drawing, prior to committing a technique to the final page.
Various tools are routinely used in the process of drawing. These include a pencil sharpener, sandpaper, kneaded eraser, blending stumps, and chamois. Other tools that sometimes prove useful are tracing paper, a circle compass, ruler, frisket film, fixative, and drafting tape. The use of an easel or slanted table reduces the distorting effects of perspective.
Aspects of the drawing processEdit
Prior to working on an image, the artist will likely want to gain an understanding of how the various media will work. The different drawing implements can be tried on practice sheets in order to determine value and texture, and how to apply the implement in order to produce various effects.
The stroke of the drawing implement can be used to control the appearance of the image. Ink drawings typically use hatching, which consists of groups of parallel lines. Cross-hatching uses hatching in two or more different directions to create a darker tone. Broken hatching, or lines with intermittent breaks, is used to form lighter tones, and by controlling the density of the breaks a graduation of tone can be achieved. Finally stippling, or random placement of dots on a page, can also be used to produce a texture or shade.
Sketch drawings use similar techniques, although with pencils and drawing sticks continuous variations in tone can be achieved. For best results the lines in a sketch are typically drawn to follow the contour curves of the surface, thus producing a depth effect. When drawing hair, the lines of the sketch follow the direction of the hair growth.
Typically a drawing will be filled in based on which hand the artist favors. A right-handed artist will want to draw from left to right in order to avoid smearing the image. Sometimes the artist will want to leave a section of the image blank while filling in the remainder of the picture. A frisket can be used for this purpose. The shape of the area to be preserved is cut out of the frisket, and the resulting shape is then applied to the drawing surface. This will protect the surface from receiving any stray marks before it is ready to be filled in.
Another method to preserve a section of the image is to apply a spray-on fixative to the surface. This will hold loose material more firmly to the sheet and prevent it from smearing. However the fixative spray typically uses chemicals that can negatively affect the respiratory system, so it should be employed in a well-ventilated area such as outdoors.
Shading is the technique of varying the tonal values on the paper to represent the shade of the material as well as the placement of the shadows. Careful attention to reflected light, shadows, and highlights can result in a very realistic rendition of the image.
Blending uses an implement to move the drawing material on the paper so as to hide the original drawing strokes. This can only be done when drawing with a material such as graphite or charcoal that is not permanently attached once applied. When shading and blending is needed, the artist can employ a combination of a tortillon blending stump, soft tissue, and a specialized putty-rubber eraser. The chamois cloth in particular is useful for creating smooth textures, and for removing material to lighten the tone.
There are a number of methods for producing texture in the picture. In addition to choosing a suitable paper, the type of drawing material and the drawing technique will result in different textures.
Texture can be made to appear more realistic when it is drawn next to a contrasting texture. Thus a coarse texture placed next to a smoothly blended area will appear more notable. A similar effect can be achieved by drawing different tones in close proximity. A light edge next to a dark background will stand out to the eye, and almost appear to float above the surface.
Measuring the dimensions of a subject while blocking in the drawing is an important step in producing a realistic rendition of the actual subject. A straight drawing implement held horizontally or vertically can be used to measure the angles of different sides. These angles can be reproduced on the drawing surface and then rechecked to make sure they are accurate. Another form of measurement is to compare the relative sizes of different parts of the subject with each other. A finger placed at a point along the drawing implement can be used to compare that dimension with other parts of the image.
When attempting to draw a complicated shape such as a human figure, it is helpful at first to represent the form with a set of primitive shapes. Almost any form can be represented by some combination of the cube, sphere, cylinder, and cone. Once these basic shapes have been assembled into a likeness, then the drawing can be refined into a more accurate and polished form. The lines of the primitive shapes are removed and replaced by the final likeness.
A more refined art of figure drawing relies upon the artist possessing a deep understanding of anatomy and the human proportions. A trained artist is familiar with the skeleton structure, joint location, muscle placement, tendon movement, and how the different parts work together during movement. This allows the artist to render more natural poses that do not appear artificially stiff. The artist is also familiar with how the proportions vary depending on the age of the subject, particularly when drawing a portrait.
Linear perspective is a method of portraying objects on a flat surface so that the dimensions shrink with distance. The parallel, straight edges of any object, whether a building or a table, will follow lines that eventually converge at infinity. Typically this point of convergence will be along the horizon, as buildings are built level with the flat surface. When multiple structures are aligned with each other, such as buildings along a street, the horizontal tops and bottoms of the structures will all typically converge at a vanishing point.
When both the fronts and sides of a building are drawn, then the parallel lines forming a side converge at a second point along the horizon (which may be off the drawing paper.) This is a "two-point perspective". Converging the vertical lines to a point in the sky then produces a "three-point perspective".
Depth can also be portrayed by several techniques in addition to the perspective approach above. Objects of similar size should appear ever smaller the further they are from the viewer. Thus the back wheel of a cart will appear slightly smaller than the front wheel. Depth can be portrayed through the use of texture. As the texture of an object gets further away it becomes more compressed and busy, taking on an entirely different character than if it was close. Depth can also be portrayed by reducing the amount of contrast of more distant objects, and also by making the colors more pale. This will reproduce the effect of atmospheric haze, and cause the eye to focus primarily on objects drawn in the foreground.
The composition of the image is an important element in producing an interesting work of artistic merit. The artist plans the placement of elements in the art in order to communicate ideas and feelings with the viewer. The composition can determine the focus of the art, and result in a harmonious whole that is aesthetically appealing and stimulating.
The illumination of the subject is also a key element in creating an artistic piece, and the interplay of light and shadow is a valuable method in the artist's toolbox. The placement of the light sources can make a considerable difference in the type of message that is being presented. Multiple light sources can wash out any wrinkles in a person's face, for instance, and give a more youthful appearance. In contrast, a single light source, such as harsh daylight, can serve to highlight any texture or interesting features.
When drawing an object or figure, the skilled artist pays attention to both the area within the silhouette and what lies outside. The exterior is termed the negative space, and can be as important in the representation as the figure. Objects placed in the background of the figure should appear properly placed wherever they can be viewed.
A study is a draft drawing that is made in preparation for a planned final image. Studies can be used to determine the appearance of specific parts of the completed image, or for experimenting with the best approach for accomplishing the end goal. However a well-crafted study can be a piece of art onto itself, and many hours of careful work can go into completing a study.
History: masters of drawingEdit
People have made drawings since prehistoric times. This art form first gained widespread popularity among European artists during the 1400s, when paper became generally available, although underdrawing for paintings already existed. Since that time, each century has produced artists who have created great drawings.
- Masters of drawing in the 1400s and 1500s included Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Dürer, Michelangelo, and Raphael.
- During the 1600s, Claude, Nicolas Poussin, Rembrandt, Guercino, and Peter Paul Rubens created important drawings.
- In the 1700s, great drawings were produced by Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Francisco Goya, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, and Antoine Watteau.
- The masters of drawing during the 1800s included Paul Cézanne, Jacques Louis David, Pierre-Paul Prud'hon, Edgar Degas, Theodore Gericault, Jean Ingres, Odilon Redon, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Honore Daumier, and Vincent van Gogh.
- Great drawings in the 1900s have been created by Max Beckmann, Jean Dubuffet, Arshile Gorky, Paul Klee, Oscar Kokoschka, Jules Pascin, and Pablo Picasso.
- Main article: digital illustration
Drawing may also be done on a computer. Computer illustration or digital illustration is the use of digital tools to produce images under the direct manipulation of the artist, usually through a pointing device such as a tablet or a mouse. It is distinguished from computer-generated art, which is produced by a computer using mathematical models created by the artist. It is also distinct from digital manipulation of photographs, in that it is an original construction "from scratch". (Photographic elements may be incorporated into such works, but they are not the primary basis or source for them.)
- Art therapy
- Blind contour drawing
- Color theory
- Computer-aided design
- Drawing skills and blindness
- Figure drawing
- Franck Drawing Completion Test
- Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test
- Kinetic family drawing
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