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{{SocPsy}}
 
{{SocPsy}}
{{2otheruses|the mental state|the 2004 [[John Patrick Shanley]] play|Doubt (play)|the [[Jesus Jones]] album|Doubt (album)}}
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{{Emotion}}
 
{{Emotion}}
   
'''Doubt''', a status between [[belief]] and [[wikt:disbelief|disbelief]], involves [[uncertainty]] or [[distrust]] of a fact, an action, a motive, or a decision. It brings into question some notion of a perceived "[[reality]]", and may involve delaying relevant action out of concerns for mistakes or faults.
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'''Doubt''', a status between [[belief]] and [[wikt:disbelief|disbelief]], involves [[uncertainty]] or [[distrust]] or lack of sureness of an alleged [[fact]], an action, a motive, or a [[decision]]. Doubt brings into question some notion of a perceived "[[reality]]", and may involve delaying or rejecting relevant action out of concerns for mistakes or faults or appropriateness. Some definitions of doubt emphasize the state in which the mind remains suspended between two contradictory propositions and unable to assent to either of them<ref>
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See for example:
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{{cite news
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| first = Alfred
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| last = Sharpe
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| authorlink =
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| author =
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| coauthors =
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| title = Doubt
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| url = http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05141a.htm
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| agency =
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| work = The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 5
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| publisher = Robert Appleton
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| location = New York
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| id =
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| pages =
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| page =
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| date =
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| accessdate = 2008-10-21
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| accessdaymonth =
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| accessmonthday =
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| accessyear =
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| quote = A state in which the mind is suspended between two contradictory propositions and unable to assent to either of them.
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| archiveurl =
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| archivedate =
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}}
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</ref>
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(compare [[paradox]]). The term "to doubt" can also mean "to [[question]] one's circumstances and [[personal life| life]]-[[experience]]"{{Fact|date=June 2008}}.
   
The term "to doubt" can also mean "to [[question]] one's circumstances and [[personal life | life]]-[[experience]]".
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== Impact on society ==
   
==Impact on society ==
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Doubt sometimes tends to call on [[reason]]. It may encourage people to [[procrastination|hesitate]] before acting, and/or to apply more [[rigour|rigorous]] methods. Doubt may have particular importance as leading towards disbelief or non-acceptance.
Doubt sometimes tends to call on [[reason]]. It may cause people to [[procrastination|hesitate]] before acting, and/or to apply more [[rigour|rigorous]] methods. Doubt may have particular importance as leading towards disbelief.
 
   
[[Politics]], [[ethics]] and [[law]], faced with important decisions that often determine the course of individual [[personal life | life]], place great importance on doubt, and often foster elaborate [[adversarial process]]es to carefully sort through all the evidence to come to a [[decision]].
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[[Politics]], [[ethics]] and [[law]], faced with decisions that often determine the course of individual [[personal life| life]], place great importance on doubt, and often foster elaborate [[adversarial process]]es to carefully sort through all the evidence in an attempt to come to a [[decision]].
   
One view regards the [[scientific method]], and to a degree all of [[science]], as entirely motivated by doubt: rather than accepting existing theories, scientists [[experiment]] to test (and optimally disprove) them. Some commentators {{who?}} see [[technology]] as simply the expansion of the experiments to a wider user-base, which takes real [[risk]]s{{Fact|date=February 2008}} with it. Users may no longer doubt the applicability of the theory in play, but there remain doubts about how it interacts with the real world. The process of [[technology transfer | technology-transfer]] stages exploitation of science to ensure the minimization of doubt and danger.
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One view regards the [[scientific method]], and to a degree all of [[science]], as entirely motivated by doubt: rather than accepting existing [[theory| theories]], scientists express systematic or [[Habit (psychology)| habitual]] doubt ([[skepticism]]) and devise [[experiment]]s to test (and, optimally, to disprove) any theory. Some commentators {{who?}} see [[technology]] as simply the expansion of the experiments to a wider user-base, which takes real [[risk]]s{{Fact|date=February 2008}} with it. Users may no longer doubt the applicability of the theory in play, but there remain doubts about how it interacts with the real world ''qua'' whole. The process of [[technology transfer| technology-transfer]] stages exploitation of science to ensure the minimization of doubt and danger.
   
 
== Psychology ==
 
== Psychology ==
   
[[Psychoanalysts]]{{who?}} often attribute doubt, which they may interpret as a symptom of a [[phobia]] emanating from the [[ego]], to the earlier stages of life, when the ego develops: i.e., [[childhood]]. Childhood experiences, these traditions maintain, can plant doubt about one's abilities and even about one's very [[identity]]. The influence of parents and other influential figures often carries heavy connotations onto the resultant [[self-image]] of the child/[[Ego, super-ego, and id|ego]], with doubts often included in such self-portrayals.{{Fact|date=February 2007}}
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[[Psychoanalysts]]{{who?}} often{{weasel-inline}} attribute doubt (which they may interpret as a symptom of a [[phobia]] emanating from the [[ego]]) to [[childhood]], when the ego develops. Childhood experiences, these traditions maintain, can plant doubt about one's abilities and even about one's very [[identity]] — let alone doubt about the operations of the [[tooth fairy]]. The influence of parents and other influential figures often carries heavy connotations onto the resultant [[self-image]] of the child/[[Ego, super-ego, and id|ego]], with doubts often included in such self-portrayals.{{Fact|date=February 2007}}
   
[[Cognitive]] mental as well as more [[spirituality|spiritual]] approaches abound in response to the wide variety of potential causes for doubt — sometimes seen as a "[[Bad Thing]]". [[Behavioral therapy]], in which a person systematically asks his own [[mind]] if the doubt has any real basis, uses rational, [[Socratic method]]s. Behavioral therapists claim that any constant confirmation leads to emotional detachment from the original doubt.{{Fact|date=February 2008}} This method contrasts to those of say, the [[Buddhist]] faith, which involve a more [[esoteric]] approach to doubt and inaction. Buddhism sees all{{Fact|date=February 2008}} doubt as a negative attachment to one's perceived past and future. To let go of the personal [[history]] of one's life and to affirm this release every day in [[meditation]] plays a central role in releasing the doubts — developed in and attached to — that history. Through much spiritual exertion, one can (if desired) dispel doubt, and live "only in the [[Present (time)|present]]".{{Fact|date=February 2007}}
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[[Cognitive]] mental as well as more [[spirituality|spiritual]] approaches abound in response to the wide variety of potential causes for doubt — sometimes seen as a "[[Bad Thing]]". [[Behavioral therapy]] in which a person systematically asks his own [[mind]] if the doubt has any real basis uses rational, [[Socratic method]]s. Behavioral therapists claim that any constant confirmation leads to emotional detachment from the original doubt.{{Fact|date=February 2008}} This method contrasts to those of say, the [[Buddhist]] faith, which involve a more [[esoteric]] approach to doubt and inaction. Buddhism sees all{{Fact|date=February 2008}} doubt as a negative attachment to one's perceived [[past]] and [[future]]. To let go of the personal [[history]] of one's life (affirming this release every day in [[meditation]]) plays a central role in releasing the doubts — developed in and attached to — that history. Through much spiritual exertion, one can (if desired) dispel doubt, and live "only in the present".{{Fact|date=February 2007}}
   
===Psychopathology===
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=== Psychopathology===
   
Many people{{who?}} associate "excessive" doubt with [[obsessive-compulsive disorder]], sometimes nicknamed a "disease of doubt".((fact}}
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Many people{{who?}} associate "excessive" doubt with [[obsessive-compulsive disorder]], sometimes nicknamed a "disease of doubt".{{Fact|date=June 2008}}
   
 
== Philosophy ==
 
== Philosophy ==
   
Anything that is questionable or causes doubt, especially an argument or a claim. <!-- (The intended meaning of the previous sentence fragment is incomplete and possibly unclear.) -->
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[[René Descartes| Descartes]] employed [[Cartesian doubt]] as a pre-eminent methodological tool in his fundamental philosophical investigations. One view suggests that Descartes' ideas in his ''[[Discourse on the Method]]'' may show the influence of the work of [[Al-Ghazali]] ("Algazel" to the West), whose method of doubting shares many similarities with Descartes' method.<ref name=Najm>
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{{citation|title=The Place and Function of Doubt in the Philosophies of Descartes and Al-Ghazali|first=Sami M.|last=Najm|journal=Philosophy East and West|volume=16|issue=3-4|date=July-October 1966|pages=133–41}}
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</ref>
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Branches of philosophy like [[logic]] devote much effort to distinguish the dubious, the [[probability| probable]] and the certain. Much of illogic rests on dubious assumptions, dubious data or dubious conclusions, with [[rhetoric]], [[whitewash (censorship)|whitewashing]], and [[deception]] playing their accustomed roles.
   
Branches of philosophy like [[logic]] devote much effort to distinguish the dubious, the probable and the certain. Much of illogic rests on dubious assumptions, dubious data or dubious conclusions, with [[rhetoric]], [[whitewash (censorship)|whitewashing]], and [[deception]] playing their accustomed roles.
 
 
=== Religion ===
 
 
Doubt that god(s) exist forms the basis of [[agnosticism]], as distinct from [[atheism]], the steadfast belief that god(s) do not exist. By extension, doubt as to the existence or intentions of the [[Christian God]] applies to the [[Christian Bible]] as well, bringing into question its alleged status as the [[religious text | word of God]], and propounding alternative explanations (such as a work of [[mythology]] like [[Homer]]'s ancient Greek epics the ''[[Iliad]]'' and the ''[[Odyssey]]''). Doubt of a religion itself brings into question the truth of its set of beliefs.
 
 
[[Christianity | Christian]]s{{who?}} often debate doubt in the contexts of [[salvation]] and eventual redemption in an [[afterlife]]. This issue has become particularly important in the [[Protestant]] version of the Christian faith, which requires ''only'' acceptance of [[Jesus]] as [[saviour]] and intermediary with [[God]] for a positive outcome. The debate appears less important in most other [[religion]]s and [[ethical tradition]]s.
 
 
=== Spirituality ===
 
 
In the context of [[spirituality]], people{{who?}} can see doubt is the opposite of [[faith]]. If faith represents a compulsion to follow a path, doubt blocks the path.{{Fact|date=February 2008}} People use doubts and faith everyday to choose the [[life path]] that they follow; for example: “I doubt that laziness will help me achieve my goals.”
 
 
Faith can serve to create individual [[illusion]]s to shield the [[vision]] of an unpleasant outcome. “I doubt anyone will catch me if I rob this store.” Depending upon the energy put into the doubt, when used in this way, doubt itself has little impact on events and merely blocks the individual from seeing [[possibility | possibilities]].
 
 
==References ==
 
Hein, David (Winter 2006). "Faith and Doubt in Rose Macaulay's ''[[The Towers of Trebizond]]''". ''Anglican Theological Review'' 88 (1): 47-68. ISSN 0003-3286.
 
 
=== Further reading===
 
''[[Doubt: A History]]'', a 2003 book by [[Jennifer Michael Hecht]], traces the role of doubt throughout time, all over the world, particularly regarding religion.
 
   
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
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* [[Fear, uncertainty and doubt|FUD]]
{{wikiquote}}
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* [[Mental confusion]]
{{wiktionarypar|doubt|dubious}}
 
 
* [[Doubting Thomas]]
 
* [[FUD]]
 
* [[list of ethics topics]]
 
 
* [[Methodic doubt]]
 
* [[Methodic doubt]]
* [[question]]
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* [[Philosophical skepticism]]
* [[satire]] may arouse doubts
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* [[Skepticism]]
* [[skepticism]]
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* [[Suspicion]]
* [[The realm of possibility]]
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* [[Uncertainty]]
 
 
==Bibliography==
 
Hein, David (Winter 2006). "Faith and Doubt in Rose Macaulay's ''The Towers of Trebizond''". ''Anglican Theological Review'' 88 (1): 47-68. ISSN 0003-3286.
 
 
===Further reading===
 
''Doubt: A History'', a 2003 book by [[Jennifer Michael Hecht]], traces the role of doubt throughout time, all over the world, particularly regarding religion.
 
   
   
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== References ==
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{{reflist}}
   
{{Emotion-footer}}
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== External links ==
   
[[Category:Core issues in ethics]]
 
[[Category:Emotion]]
 
[[Category:Cognition]]
 
   
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[[Category:Emotional states]]
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[[Category:Epistemology]]
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[[Category:Skepticism]]
   
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[[eo:Dubo]]
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[[fr:Doute]]
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[[gl:Dúbida]]
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[[ko:의심]]
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[[is:Efi]]
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[[it:Dubbio]]
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[[nl:Twijfel]]
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[[ja:疑念]]
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[[pt:Dúvida]]
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[[sq:Dyshimi]]
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[[scn:Dubbiu]]
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[[simple:Doubt]]
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[[sv:Tvivel]]
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[[tr:Şüphe]]
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[[uk:Сумнів]]
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-->
 
{{enWP|Doubt}}
 
{{enWP|Doubt}}

Latest revision as of 08:22, December 18, 2008

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Doubt, a status between belief and disbelief, involves uncertainty or distrust or lack of sureness of an alleged fact, an action, a motive, or a decision. Doubt brings into question some notion of a perceived "reality", and may involve delaying or rejecting relevant action out of concerns for mistakes or faults or appropriateness. Some definitions of doubt emphasize the state in which the mind remains suspended between two contradictory propositions and unable to assent to either of them[1] (compare paradox). The term "to doubt" can also mean "to question one's circumstances and life-experience"[How to reference and link to summary or text].

Impact on society Edit

Doubt sometimes tends to call on reason. It may encourage people to hesitate before acting, and/or to apply more rigorous methods. Doubt may have particular importance as leading towards disbelief or non-acceptance.

Politics, ethics and law, faced with decisions that often determine the course of individual life, place great importance on doubt, and often foster elaborate adversarial processes to carefully sort through all the evidence in an attempt to come to a decision.

One view regards the scientific method, and to a degree all of science, as entirely motivated by doubt: rather than accepting existing theories, scientists express systematic or habitual doubt (skepticism) and devise experiments to test (and, optimally, to disprove) any theory. Some commentators Template:Who? see technology as simply the expansion of the experiments to a wider user-base, which takes real risks[How to reference and link to summary or text] with it. Users may no longer doubt the applicability of the theory in play, but there remain doubts about how it interacts with the real world qua whole. The process of technology-transfer stages exploitation of science to ensure the minimization of doubt and danger.

Psychology Edit

PsychoanalystsTemplate:Who? oftenTemplate:Weasel-inline attribute doubt (which they may interpret as a symptom of a phobia emanating from the ego) to childhood, when the ego develops. Childhood experiences, these traditions maintain, can plant doubt about one's abilities and even about one's very identity — let alone doubt about the operations of the tooth fairy. The influence of parents and other influential figures often carries heavy connotations onto the resultant self-image of the child/ego, with doubts often included in such self-portrayals.[How to reference and link to summary or text]Cognitive mental as well as more spiritual approaches abound in response to the wide variety of potential causes for doubt — sometimes seen as a "Bad Thing". Behavioral therapy — in which a person systematically asks his own mind if the doubt has any real basis — uses rational, Socratic methods. Behavioral therapists claim that any constant confirmation leads to emotional detachment from the original doubt.[How to reference and link to summary or text] This method contrasts to those of say, the Buddhist faith, which involve a more esoteric approach to doubt and inaction. Buddhism sees all[How to reference and link to summary or text] doubt as a negative attachment to one's perceived past and future. To let go of the personal history of one's life (affirming this release every day in meditation) plays a central role in releasing the doubts — developed in and attached to — that history. Through much spiritual exertion, one can (if desired) dispel doubt, and live "only in the present".[How to reference and link to summary or text]

PsychopathologyEdit

Many peopleTemplate:Who? associate "excessive" doubt with obsessive-compulsive disorder, sometimes nicknamed a "disease of doubt".[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Philosophy Edit

Descartes employed Cartesian doubt as a pre-eminent methodological tool in his fundamental philosophical investigations. One view suggests that Descartes' ideas in his Discourse on the Method may show the influence of the work of Al-Ghazali ("Algazel" to the West), whose method of doubting shares many similarities with Descartes' method.[2] Branches of philosophy like logic devote much effort to distinguish the dubious, the probable and the certain. Much of illogic rests on dubious assumptions, dubious data or dubious conclusions, with rhetoric, whitewashing, and deception playing their accustomed roles.


See also Edit


References Edit

  1. See for example: includeonly>Sharpe, Alfred. "Doubt", The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 5, Robert Appleton. Retrieved on 2008-10-21. “A state in which the mind is suspended between two contradictory propositions and unable to assent to either of them.”
  2. Najm, Sami M. (July-October 1966), "The Place and Function of Doubt in the Philosophies of Descartes and Al-Ghazali", Philosophy East and West 16 (3-4): 133–41 

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