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Pregnancy when coupled with domestic violence is a form of intimate partner violence (IPV) where health risks may be amplified. Abuse during pregnancy, whether physical, verbal or emotional, produces many adverse physical and psychological effects for both the mother and fetus. Domestic violence during pregnancy is categorized as abusive behavior towards a pregnant woman, where the pattern of abuse can often change in terms of severity and frequency of violence. Abuse may be a long-standing problem in a relationship that continues after a woman becomes pregnant or it may commence in pregnancy.[1] Although female-to-male partner violence occurs in these settings, the overwhelming form of domestic violence is perpetrated by men against women.[2]

TriggersEdit

Domestic abuse can be triggered by pregnancy for a number of reasons. Pregnancy itself can be used a form of coercion and the phenomenon of preventing one’s reproductive choice is referred to as reproductive coercion. Studies on birth control sabotage performed by males against female partners have indicated a strong correlation between domestic violence and birth control sabotage.[3] Pregnancy can also lead to a hiatus of domestic violence when the abuser does not want to harm the unborn child. The risk of domestic violence for pregnant women is greatest immediately after childbirth.[4]

Birth control sabotageEdit

Main article: Birth control sabotage

Birth control sabotage, or reproductive coercion, is a form of coercion where someone manipulates another person's use of birth control - weakening efforts to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. Replacing birth control pills with fakes, puncturing condoms, and threats and violence are examples of prevention of an individual's attempt to avoid pregnancy. Pregnancy-promoting behavior of abusive male partners is one method of domestic violence and is associated with unwanted pregnancy, particularly in adolescents.[5] Reproductive coercion itself is a form of domestic violence because it results from unwanted sexual activity and hinders a woman’s ability to control her body. Forced pregnancy can also be a form of financial abuse when a woman becomes trapped in a relationship because the pregnancy has led to economic dependence for new mothers.[6]

Unintended pregnancies are 2 to 3 times more likely to be associated with abuse than intended pregnancies.[7] Research among adolescent populations shows females who experience IPV use condoms at low rates and are fearful of negotiating the use of condoms.[8] In a study of sexually experienced women 15-19 in Uganda, surveys found that fourteen percent of women’s first sexual intercourse had been coerced. Of those fourteen percent, the women were far more likely to be having unprotected sex without the use of modern contraceptives and to have had unintended pregnancies within the last six months compared to women who had not been sexually coerced.[9] In Egypt, over 80% of rural women believe that beatings are sometimes justified[10] and one of the most common reasons given as a just cause for beatings is refusing a man sex.[11][12] This affects the ability of women to protect themselves from unwanted sexual contact and the consequences of sexual intercourse, such as pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.[13]

A study conducted by the Center for Impact Research on young mothers classified birth control sabotage into two categories: verbal and behavioral. Verbal sabotage is verbal or emotional pressure not to use birth control, or pressure to become pregnant. Behavioral sabotage is the use of force to prevent the use of birth control, or to have unprotected sexual intercourse.[14]

MechanismsEdit

In most cases, domestic violence can be prompted by or intensified by pregnancy, but in some cases domestic violence ends during pregnancy because the abuser makes a conscious effort to not harm the fetus.[15]

Decreased violenceEdit

Domestic violence does not always increase during pregnancy and can even lead to a hiatus in violence. This phenomenon can provide protection for both the woman and child.[16] Because this can lead to decreased violence, some women use pregnancy as a means of protection against domestic abuse. Since abuse generally restarts after the pregnancy ends, women may get pregnant intentionally to prevent violence. However, since women who have been abused before getting pregnant are more likely to experience violence during pregnancy, this is not a reliable means of protection.[17]

Increased violenceEdit

Although for some women, pregnancy can be a protective period, either in terms of a hiatus of pre-existing violence, for others it is a risk period during which abuse may begin or escalate. Women with violent partners have a hard time protecting themselves from unintended pregnancy and sexual violence can directly lead to pregnancy.[18] Studies consistently indicate that domestic violence is more common in large families.[19] and a recent study in Nicaragua found that in 80% of families with domestic violence, the abuse was present in the first four years of marriage showing that violence may lead to an elevated number of unplanned pregnancies. However, international studies show that 25% of women are abused for the first time during pregnancy.[20]

In one study conduct by Campbell et al., women were asked to speculate on why they thought they were abused during their pregnancies. The answers were categorized into four categories:[21]

  • Jealousy towards the unborn child
  • Anger towards the unborn child
  • Pregnancy specific violence not directed toward the child
  • “Business as usual."

EffectsEdit

There are many dangerous effects that violence during pregnancy can cause for both the mother and child. A violent pregnancy is considered high risk because verbal, emotional, and physical abuse all lead to adverse health consequences for both the mother and fetus.[22] Violence during pregnancy has been associated with miscarriage, late prenatal care, stillbirth, preterm birth, fetal injury (including bruising, broken and fractured bones, and stab wounds[23] and low birth weight.[24] Violence during pregnancy also leads to additional risks for the mother such as increased mental health problems, suicide attempts, worsening of chronic illness, injury, substance abuse, anxiety, stress, chronic pain, and gynecological problems.[25] Women battered during pregnancy were more frequently and severely beaten throughout the course of their relationship compared to women who were not abused during pregnancy.[26] IPV also accounts for a large portion of maternal mortality. Homicide is the second leading cause of injury related deaths in pregnant and post-partum women in the United States[27] and a study conducted in hospital in India found that 16% of all deaths during pregnancy were a result of partner violence.[28] Studies have also found a correlation between domestic violence and increased use of abortion.[29] Pregnant abused women are less likely to report abuse or leave their abuser because of added financial and housing security concerns[30]

Risk factorsEdit

Certain women are more likely to be abused during pregnancy than others. Women who have been abused before getting pregnant are at higher risk of violence during pregnancy.[31] Abuse is not restricted to a specific socio-economic or demographic group of women or to a specific period in a woman’s reproductive life.[32]

In general, the rate of physical violence during pregnancy decreases as household income increases. Women whose total household income was less than $16,000 were much more likely to experience physical or sexual violence during pregnancy than women with a total household income over $16,000.[33]

Partner violence in a relationship increases the chances of unintended pregnancy. A Canadian study that outlined causes of physical abuse identified “social instability” (e.g. low age, unmarried, lower level of education, and unemployment) as a trigger for violence and used unplanned pregnancies as an example. This suggests that partner violence can lead to increased unintended pregnancies which, in turn, increases physical abuse.[34] Younger women are statistically more susceptible to reproductive coercion and this may be to due to less experience in relationships and, for minors, less access to doctor’s appointments and emergency contraception. Adolescents are especially at risk and teenage pregnancy is correlated with increased rates of domestic violence.[35] Young women with older boyfriends are more likely to experience domestic violence.[36] Women who experience physical violence from their husbands are less likely to use contraception and more likely to have an unwanted pregnancy.[37]

EpidemiologyEdit

A study done on reporting rates of domestic violence concluded that a woman’s risk of physical and sexual violence during pregnancy is under-reported and underestimated.[38] Each year, over 324,000 pregnant women are victims of domestic violence in the United States.[39] A number of countries have sought to statistically analyze the amount of adult women who have experienced domestic violence during pregnancy:

  • UK Prevalence: 3.4% [40]
  • USA Prevalence: 3.4 – 33.7% [41][42]
  • Ireland prevalence: 12.5%[43]
  • Ireland Prevalence: 12.5% [44]
  • Population studies from Canada, Chile, Egypt and Nicaragua: 6-15% [45]

Incidence rates are higher for teenagers.[46] The incidence rate for low-income, teen mothers is as high as 38%.[47]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Johnson, J.K., F. Haider, K. Ellis, D.M. Hay, S.W. Lindow. "The prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 110.3 (2003): 272-75. Web. 22 Mar 2011.
  2. Stephenson, Rob, Michael A. Koenig, Rajib Acharya and Tarun K. Roy. "Domestic Violence, Contraceptive Use, and Unwanted Pregnancy in Rural India." Studies in Family Planning. 39.3 (2008): 177-86. Print.
  3. Domestic Violence and Birth Control Sabotage: A Report from the Teen Parent Project, Center for Impact Research, 1999.
  4. Mezey, Gillian C., and Bewley Susan. "Domestic Violence and Pregnancy: Risk Is Greatest after Delivery." BMJ: British Medical Journal. 314.7090 (1997): 1295. Print.
  5. Miller, Elizabeth, Decker, Michelle, Reed, Elizabeth, Male Partner Pregnancy-Promoting Behaviors and Adolescent Partner Violence: Findings from a Qualitative Study with Adolescent Females.
  6. Pregnancy offers no protection from abuse
  7. J.E. Hathaway, L.A. Mucci and J.G. Silverman et al., Health status and health care use of Massachusetts women reporting partner abuse, Am J Prev Med 19 (2000), pp. 302–307.
  8. A. Raj, M.C. Santana and A. La Marche et al., Perpetration of intimate partner violence associated with sexual risk behaviors among young adult men, Am J Public Health 96 (2006), pp. 1873–1878.
  9. Michael A. Koenig, Iryna Zablotska, Tom Lutalo, Fred Nalugoda, Jennifer Wagman and Ron Gray. “Coerced First Intercourse and Reproductive Health among Adolescent Women in Rakai, Uganda.”
  10. El-Zanaty F et al. Egypt demographic and health survey 1995. Calverton, MD, Macro International, 1996
  11. El-Zanaty F et al. Egypt demographic and health survey 1995. Calverton, MD, Macro International, 1996.
  12. David F, Chin F. Economic and psychosocial influences of family planning on the lives of women in Western Visayas. Iloilo City, Central Philippines University and Family Health International, 1998.
  13. Violence by Intimate Partners WHO: World Health Organization.
  14. Domestic Violence and Birth Control Sabotage: A Report from the Teen Parent Project, Center for Impact Research, 1999.
  15. Campbell, JC, Oliver C, Bullock L. “Why battering during pregnancy?” AWHONN's clinical issues in perinatal and women's health nursing. 4.3 (1993.) 343. Print.
  16. Campbell, JC, Oliver C, Bullock L. “Why battering during pregnancy?” AWHONN's clinical issues in perinatal and women's health nursing. 4.3 (1993.) 343. Print.
  17. Bacchus, Loraine,, Gill Mezey, Susan Bewley, and Alison Haworth. "Prevalence of domestic violence when midwives routinely enquire in pregnancy." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 111.5 (2004): 441-45. Web. 22 Mar 2011
  18. Heise LL, Ellsberg M, Gottemoeller M. Ending violence against women. Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Center for Communications Programs, 1999 (Population Reports, Series L, No. 11).
  19. Tjaden P, Thoennes N. Full report of the prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Washington, DC, National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, United States of Justice and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000 (NCJ 183781).
  20. Pregnancy offers no protection from abuse
  21. Campbell, JC, Oliver C, Bullock L. “Why battering during pregnancy?” AWHONN's clinical issues in perinatal and women's health nursing. 4.3 (1993.) 343. Print.
  22. Johnson, J.K., F. Haider, K. Ellis, D.M. Hay, S.W. Lindow. "The prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 110.3 (2003): 272-75. Web. 22 Mar 2011.
  23. Mezey, Gillian C., and Bewley Susan. "Domestic violence and pregnancy." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 104.5 (1997): 528-531. Print.
  24. Heise LL, Ellsberg M, Gottemoeller M. Ending violence against women. Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Center for Communications Programs, 1999 (Population Reports, Series L, No. 11).
  25. 0014/71240/MPS_GEM_ MDA_ new.pdf WHO Europe. “Making Pregnancy Safer & Gender Maisntreaming: Response to domestic violence in pregnancy”
  26. Campbell, JC, Oliver C, Bullock L. “Why battering during pregnancy?” AWHONN's clinical issues in perinatal and women's health nursing. 4.3 (1993.) 343. Print.
  27. American Journal of Public Health, March 2005
  28. Too far, too little, too late: a community-based case–control study of maternal mortality in rural west Maharashtra, India. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1998
  29. Amaro et al. “Violence during pregnancy and substance abuse.” Am J Public Health. May 1990. 575-9
  30. [1] Houston Area Women’s Center. “Dangers of Domestic Violence during Pregnancy.
  31. Bacchus, Loraine, Gill Mezey, Susan Bewley, and Alison Haworth. "Prevalence of domestic violence when midwives routinely enquire in pregnancy." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 111.5 (2004): 441-45. Web. 22 Mar 2011
  32. (Hedin-Widding L. Postpartum, also a risk period for domestic violence. Eur J Obstet Gynecol 2000;89:41 – 45. 24. McLeer SV)
  33. N.C. Department of Health and Human Services. “Physical Violence: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring system [www.schs.state.nc.us/SCHS/data/prams.cfm]
  34. Stewart DE, Ceccutti A. Physical abuse in pregnancy. Can Med Assoc J 1993;149: 1257–1263
  35. Miller, Elizabeth, Decker, Michelle, Reed, Elizabeth, Male Partner Pregnancy-Promoting Behaviors and Adolescent Partner Violence: Findings from a Qualitative Study with Adolescent Females.
  36. Domestic Violence and Birth Control Sabotage: A Report from the Teen Parent Project, Center for Impact Research, 1999.
  37. Stephenson, Rob, Michael A. Koenig, Rajib Acharya and Tarun K. Roy. "Domestic Violence, Contraceptive Use, and Unwanted Pregnancy in Rural India." Studies in Family Planning. 39.3 (2008): 177-86. Print.
  38. Bacchus, Loraine, Gill Mezey, Susan Bewley, and Alison Haworth. "Prevalence of domestic violence when midwives routinely enquire in pregnancy." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 111.5 (2004): 441-45. Web. 22 Mar 2011
  39. CDC, “Safe Motherhood,” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2002.
  40. Bacchus, Loraine, Gill Mezey, Susan Bewley, and Alison Haworth. "Prevalence of domestic violence when midwives routinely enquire in pregnancy." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 111.5 (2004): 441-45. Web. 22 Mar 2011
  41. Huth-Bocks AC, Levendosky AA, Bogat GA (April 2002). The effects of domestic violence during pregnancy on maternal and infant health. Violence Vict 17 (2): 169–85.
  42. Torres S, Campbell J, Campbell DW, et al. (2000). Abuse during and before pregnancy: prevalence and cultural correlates. Violence Vict 15 (3): 303–21.
  43. O'Donnell S, Fitzpatrick M, McKenna P (November 2000). Abuse in pregnancy – the experience of women. Ir Med J 93 (8): 229–30.
  44. O'Donnell S, Fitzpatrick M, McKenna P (November 2000). "Abuse in pregnancy – the experience of women". Ir Med J 93 (8): 229–30.
  45. Violence by Intimate Partners WHO: World Health Organization.
  46. Parker B, McFarlane J, Soeken K, Torres S, Campbell D (1993). "Physical and emotional abuse in pregnancy: a comparison of adult and teenage women". Nurs Res 42 (3): 173–8
  47. Violence by Intimate Partners WHO: World Health Organization.
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