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?Domestic sheep
Conservation status: Domesticated
Flock of sheep
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Caprinae
Genus: Ovis
Species: O. aries
Binomial name
Ovis aries
Linnaeus, 1758

Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock. Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates. Although the name "sheep" applies to many species, in everyday usage it almost always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over 1 billion, domestic sheep are the most numerous species in their genus.

Sheep are most likely descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes it is the most widely used of any animal Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, and are also occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science.

Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world. Sheep-raising has a large lexicon of unique terms which vary considerably by region and dialect. Use of the word sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap; it is both the singular and plural name for the animal. A group of sheep is called a flock, herd or mob. Adult female sheep are referred to as ewes, intact males as rams or tups, castrated males as wethers, and younger sheep as lambs. Many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist, generally related to lambing, shearing, and age. ‎ Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a deeply entrenched place in human culture, and find representation in much modern language and symbology. As livestock, sheep are most-often associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions, especially the Abrahamic traditions. In both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals. In contemporary English language usage, people who are timid, easily led, or stupid are often compared to sheep.

DescriptionEdit

File:Crâne mouton.jpg

Domestic sheep are relatively small ruminants, usually with a crimped hair called wool and often with horns forming a lateral spiral. Domestic sheep differ from their wild relatives and ancestors in several respects, having become uniquely neotenic as a result of man's influence.[1][2] A few primitive breeds of sheep retain some of the characteristics of their wild cousins, such as short tails. Depending on breed, domestic sheep may have no horns at all (polled), or horns in both sexes (as in wild sheep), or in males only. Most horned breeds have a single pair, but a few breeds may have several.[3]

Another trait unique to domestic sheep (as compared to wild ovines, not other livestock) are their wide variation in color. Wild sheep are largely variations of brown hues, and variation with species is extremely limited. Colors of domestic sheep range from pure white to dark chocolate brown and even spotted or piebald.[4][5] Selection for easily dyeable white fleeces began early in sheep domestication, and as white wool is a dominant trait it spread quickly. However, colored sheep do appear in many modern breeds, and may even appear as a recessive trait in white flocks.[5][4] While white wool is desirable for large commercial markets, there is a niche market for colored fleeces, mostly for handspinning.[6] The nature of the fleece varies widely among the breeds, from dense and highly crimped, to long and hair-like. There is variation of wool type and quality even among members of the same flock, so wool classing is a step in the commercial processing of the fiber.

File:Take ours!.jpg

Depending on breed, sheep show a range of heights and weights. Their rate of growth and mature weight is a heritable trait that is often selected for in breeding.[7] Ewes typically weigh between 100 and 225 pounds (45–100 kg), with the larger rams between 100 and 350 pounds (45–160 kg).[8] Mature sheep have 32 teeth (dental formula: I:0/4 C:0/0 P:3/3 M:3/3). As with other ruminants, the eight incisors are in the lower jaw and bite against a hard, toothless pad in the upper jaw; picking off vegetation. There are no canines, instead there is a large gap between the incisors and the premolars. Until the age of four (when all the adult teeth have erupted), it is possible to see the age of sheep from their front teeth, as a pair of incisors erupts each year.

The front teeth are gradually lost as sheep age, making it harder for them to feed and hindering the health and productivity of the animal. For this reason, domestic sheep on normal pasture begin to slowly decline from four years on, and the average life expectancy of a sheep is 10 to 12 years, though some sheep may live as long as 20 years.[3][9][10]

File:Ewe sheep black and white.jpg
Sheep have good hearing, and are sensitive to noise when being handled.[11] Sheep have horizontal slit-shaped pupils, possessing excellent peripheral vision; with visual fields of approximately 270° to 320°, sheep can see behind themselves without turning their heads.[12][6] However, sheep have poor depth perception; shadows and dips in the ground may cause sheep to balk. In general, sheep have a tendency to move out of the dark and into well-lit areas.[13] Sheep also have an excellent sense of smell, and—like all species of their genus—have scent glands just in front of the eyes, and interdigitally on the feet. The purpose of these glands is uncertain,[14] but those on the face may be used in breeding behaviors.[7] The interdigital glands might also be used in reproduction,[7] but alternative reasons, such as secretion of a waste product or a scent marker to help lost sheep find their flock, have also been proposed.[14]

Sheep and goats are closely related (both are in the subfamily Caprinae), and it can be difficult to distinguish them by their appearance. However, they are separate species, so hybrids rarely occur, and are always infertile. A hybrid of a ewe and a buck (a male goat) is called a sheep-goat hybrid, and is not to be confused with the genetic chimera called a geep. Visual differences between sheep and goats include the beard and divided upper lip unique to goats. Sheep tails also hang down, even when short or docked, while the tails of goats are held upwards. Sheep breeds are also often naturally polled (either in both sexes or just in the female), while naturally polled goats are rare (though many are polled artificially). Males of the two species differ in that buck goats acquire a unique and strong odor during the rut, whereas rams do not.[10]

BreedsEdit

File:Synchronized Sheep Judging.jpg

The domestic sheep is a multi-purpose animal, and the more than 200 breeds now in existence were created to serve these diverse purposes.[15][3] Some sources give a count of a thousand or more breeds, but these numbers cannot be verified.[6][10] Almost all sheep are classified as being best suited to furnishing a certain product: wool, meat, milk, hides, or a combination in a dual-purpose breed. Other features used when classifying sheep include face color (generally white or black), tail length, presence or lack of horns, and the topography for which the breed has been developed. This last point is especially stressed in the UK, where breeds are described as either upland (hill or mountain) or lowland breeds.[13] A sheep may also be of a fat-tailed breed, which is a dual-purpose sheep common in Africa and Asia with larger deposits of fat within its tail.

Breeds are also grouped based on how well they are suited to producing a certain type of breeding stock. Generally, sheep are thought to be either "ewe breeds" or "ram breeds". Ewe breeds are those that are hardy, and have good reproductive and mothering capabilities—they are for replacing breeding ewes in standing flocks. Ram breeds are selected for rapid growth and carcase quality, and are mated with ewe breeds to produce meat lambs. Lowland and upland breeds are also crossed in this fashion, with the hardy hill ewes crossed with larger, fast-growing lowland rams to produce ewes called mules, which can then be crossed with meat-type rams to produce prime market lambs.[13] Many breeds, especially rare or primitive ones, fall into no clear category.

File:Barbados Blackbelly.JPG

Breeds are categorized by the type of their wool. Fine wool breeds are those that have wool of great crimp and density, which are preferred for textiles. Most of these were derived from Merino sheep, and the breed continues to dominate the world sheep industry. Downs breeds have wool between the extremes, and are typically fast-growing meat and ram breeds with dark faces.[16] Some major medium wool breeds, such as the Corriedale, are dual-purpose crosses of long and fine-wooled breeds and were created for high-production commercial flocks. Long wool breeds are the largest of sheep, with long wool and a slow rate of growth. Long wool sheep are most valued for crossbreeding to improve the attributes of other sheep types. For example: the American Columbia breed was developed by crossing Lincoln rams (a long wool breed) with fine-wooled Rambouillet ewes.

Coarse or carpet wool sheep are those with a medium to long length wool of characteristic coarseness. Breeds traditionally used for carpet wool show great variability, but the chief requirement is a wool that will not break down under heavy use (as would that of the finer breeds). As the demand for carpet-quality wool declines, some breeders of this type of sheep are attempting to use a few of these traditional breeds for alternative purposes. Others have always been primarily meat-class sheep.[17]

A minor class of sheep are the dairy breeds. Dual-purpose breeds that may primarily be meat or wool sheep are often used secondarily as milking animals, but there are a few breeds that are predominantly used for milking. These sheep do produce a higher quantity of milk and have slightly longer lactation curves.[18] In the quality of their milk, fat and protein content percentages of dairy sheep vary from non-dairy breeds but lactose content does not.[19]

A last group of sheep breeds is that of fur or hair sheep, which do not grow wool at all. Hair sheep are similar to the early domesticated sheep kept before woolly breeds were developed, and are raised for meat and pelts. Some modern breeds of hair sheep, such as the Dorper, result from crosses between wool and hair breeds. For meat and hide producers, hair sheep are cheaper to keep, as they do not need shearing.[17] Hair sheep are also more resistant to parasites and hot weather.[10]

With the modern rise of corporate agribusiness and the decline of localized family farms, many breeds of sheep are in danger of extinction. The Rare Breeds Survival Trust of the UK lists 22 native breeds as having only 3,000 registered animals (each), and the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy lists 14 as having fewer than 10,000.[20][21][22] Preferences for breeds with uniform characteristics and fast growth have pushed heritage (or heirloom) breeds to the margins of the sheep industry.[17] Those that remain are maintained through the efforts of conservation organizations, breed registries, and individual farmers dedicated to their preservation.

DietEdit

File:German ewe grazing closeup.jpg

Sheep are exclusively herbivorous mammals. Like all ruminants, sheep have a complex digestive system composed of four chambers, allowing them to break down cellulose from stems, leaves, and seed hulls into simpler carbohydrates. When sheep graze, vegetation is chewed into a mass called a bolus, which is then passed into the first chamber: the rumen. The rumen is a 5- to 10-gallon (19–38 l) organ in which feed is fermented via a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria, protozoa, and yeasts of the gut flora.[23] The bolus is periodically regurgitated back to the mouth as cud for additional chewing and salivation.[23] Cud chewing is an adaptation allowing ruminants to graze more quickly in the morning, and then fully chew and digest feed later in the day.[24] This is beneficial as grazing, which requires lowering the head, leaves sheep vulnerable to predators, while cud chewing does not.[10]

During fermentation, the rumen produces gas that must be expelled; disturbances of the organ, such as sudden changes in a sheep's diet, can cause potentially fatal conditions such as bloat. After fermentation in the rumen, feed passes in to the reticulum and the omasum; special feeds such as grains may bypass the rumen altogether. After the first three chambers, food moves in to the abomasum for final digestion before processing by the intestines. The abomasum is the only one of the four chambers analogous to the human stomach (being the only one that absorbs nutrients for use as energy), and is sometimes called the "true stomach".[25]

Sheep follow a diurnal pattern of activity, feeding from dawn to dusk, stopping sporadically to rest and chew their cud. Ideal pasture for sheep is not lawn-like grass, but an array of grasses, legumes and forbs.[26] Types of land where sheep are raised vary widely, from pastures that are seeded and improved intentionally to rough, native lands. Common plants toxic to sheep are present in most of the world, and include (but are not limited to) oak and acorns, tomato, yew, rhubarb, potato, and rhododendron.[27]

File:Rumen-sheep2.jpg

Sheep are largely grazing herbivores, unlike browsing animals such as goats and deer that prefer taller foliage. With a much narrower face, sheep crop plants very close to the ground and can overgraze a pasture much faster than cattle.[10] For this reason, many shepherds use managed intensive rotational grazing, where a flock is rotated through multiple pastures, giving plants time to recover.[10][13] Paradoxically, sheep can both cause and solve the spread of invasive plant species. By disturbing the natural state of pasture, sheep and other livestock can pave the way for invasive plants. However, sheep also prefer to eat invasives such as cheatgrass, leafy spurge, kudzu and spotted knapweed over native species such as sagebrush, making grazing sheep effective for conservation grazing.[28] Research conducted in Imperial County, California compared lamb grazing with herbicides for weed control in seedling alfalfa fields. Three trials demonstrated that grazing lambs were just as effective as herbicides in controlling winter weeds. Entomologists also compared grazing lambs to insecticides for insect control in winter alfalfa. In this trial, lambs provided insect control as effectively as insecticides.[29]

Other than forage, the other staple feed for sheep is hay, often during the winter months. The ability to thrive solely on pasture (even without hay) varies with breed, but all sheep can survive on this diet.[17] Also included in some sheep's diets are minerals, either in a trace mix or in licks.

Naturally, a constant source of potable water is also a fundamental requirement for sheep. The amount of water needed by sheep fluctuates with the season and the type and quality of the food they consume.[30] When sheep feed on large amounts of new growth and there is precipitation (including dew, as sheep are dawn feeders), sheep need less water. When sheep are confined or are eating large amounts of cured hay, more water is typically needed. Sheep also require clean water, and may refuse to drink water that is covered in scum or algae.[30]

Sheep are one of the few livestock animals raised for meat today that have never been widely raised in an intensive, confined animal feeding operation (CAFO).[6] Although there is a growing movement advocating alternative farming styles, a large percentage of beef cattle, pigs, and poultry are still produced under such conditions.[7] In contrast, only some sheep are regularly given high-concentration grain feed, much less kept in confinement. Especially in industrialized countries, sheep producers may fatten market lambs before slaughter (called "finishing") in feedlots.[10] Many sheep breeders flush ewes and rams with a daily ration of grain during breeding to increase fertility.[31] Ewes are also flushed during pregnancy to increase birth weights, as 70% of a lamb's growth occurs in the last five to six weeks of gestation.[6] Otherwise, only lactating ewes and especially old or infirm sheep are commonly provided with grain.[6][17] Feed provided to sheep must be specially formulated, as most cattle, poultry, pig, and even some goat feeds contain levels of copper that are lethal to sheep.[6] The same danger applies to mineral supplements such as salt licks.[32]

Behavior and intelligenceEdit

File:Border Collie sheepdog trial.jpg

Sheep are prey animals with a strong gregarious instinct, and a majority of sheep behaviors can be understood in these terms. The dominance hierarchy of Ovis aries and its natural inclination to follow a leader to new pastures were the pivotal factors in it being one of the first domesticated livestock species.[33] All sheep have a tendency to congregate close to other members of a flock, although this behavior varies with breed.[11] Farmers exploit this behavior to keep sheep together on unfenced pastures and to move them more easily. Shepherds may also use sheepdogs in this effort, whose highly bred herding ability can assist in moving flocks. Sheep are also extremely food-oriented, and association of humans with regular feeding often results in sheep soliciting people for food.[34] Those who are moving sheep may exploit this behavior by leading sheep with buckets of feed, rather than forcing their movements with herding.[35][36]

In regions where sheep have no natural predators, none of the native breeds of sheep exhibit a strong flocking behavior.[10] Sheep can also become hefted to one particular local pasture (heft) so they do not roam freely in unfenced landscapes. Ewes teach the heft to their lambs, and if whole flocks are culled it must be retaught to the replacement animals.[37][7]

File:Round 'em up.jpg

Flock dynamics in sheep are, as a rule, only exhibited in a group of four or more sheep. Fewer sheep may not react as normally expected when alone or with few other sheep.[6] For sheep, the primary defense mechanism is simply to flee from danger when their flight zone is crossed. Secondly, cornered sheep may charge or threaten to do so through hoof stamping and aggressive posture. This is particularly true for ewes with newborn lambs.[6]

In displaying flocking, sheep have a strong lead-follow tendency, and a leader often as not is simply the first sheep to move. However, sheep do establish a pecking order through physical displays of dominance. Dominant animals are inclined to be more aggressive with other sheep, and usually feed first at troughs.[38] Primarily among rams, horn size is a factor in the flock hierarchy.[39] Rams with different size horns may be less inclined to fight to establish pecking order, while rams with similarly sized horns are more so.[39]

Sheep can become stressed when separated from their flock members.[7] Sheep can recognize individual human and ovine faces, and remember them for years.[40][41] Relationships in flocks tend to be closest among related sheep: in mixed-breed flocks same-breed subgroups tend to form, and a ewe and her direct descendants often move as a unit within large flocks.[6]

Sheep are frequently thought of as extremely unintelligent animals.[42] A sheep's herd mentality and quickness to flee and panic in the face of stress often make shepherding a difficult endeavor for the uninitiated. Despite these perceptions, a University of Illinois monograph on sheep found them to be just below pigs and on par with cattle in IQ,[6] and some sheep have shown problem-solving abilities; a flock in West Yorkshire, England allegedly found a way to get over cattle grids by rolling on their backs, although documentation of this has relied on anecdotal accounts.[43] In addition to long-term facial recognition of individuals, sheep can also differentiate emotional states through facial characteristics.[40][41] If worked with patiently, sheep may learn their names, and many sheep are trained to be led by halter for showing and other purposes.[6] Sheep have also responded well to clicker training.[6] Very rarely, sheep are used as pack animals. Tibetan nomads distribute baggage equally throughout a flock as it is herded between living sites.[6]

ReproductionEdit

Main article: Domestic sheep reproduction
File:Emerging lamb cropped.jpg

Sheep follow a similar reproductive strategy to other herd animals. A group of ewes is generally mated by a single ram, who has either been chosen by a breeder or has established dominance through physical contest with other rams (in feral populations).[17] Most sheep are seasonal breeders, although some are able to breed year-round.[17] Ewes generally reach sexual maturity at six to eight months of age, and rams generally at four to six months.[17] Ewes have estrus cycles about every 17 days,[44] during which they emit a scent and indicate readiness through physical displays towards rams. A minority of sheep display a preference for homosexuality (8% on average)[45] or are freemartins (female animals that are behaviorally masculine and lack functioning ovaries).[46]

Without human intervention, rams fight during the rut to determine which individuals may mate with ewes. Rams, especially unfamiliar ones, will also fight outside the breeding period to establish dominance; rams can kill one another if allowed to mix freely.[17] During the rut, even normally friendly rams may become aggressive towards humans due to increases in their hormone levels.[7]

After mating, sheep have a gestation period of about five months,[47] and normal labor may take one to three hours.[48] Although some breeds may regularly throw larger litters of lambs, most produce single or twin lambs.[7][49] During or soon after labor, ewes and lambs may be confined to small lambing jugs,[50] small pens designed to aid both careful observation of ewes and to cement the bond between them and their lambs.[17][13]
File:Lamb first steps (edited).jpg

Ovine obstetrics can be problematic. By selectively breeding ewes that produce multiple offspring with higher birth weights for generations, sheep producers have inadvertently caused some domestic sheep to have difficulty lambing; balancing ease of lambing with high productivity is one of the dilemmas of sheep breeding.[51] In the case of any such problems, those present at lambing may assist the ewe by extracting or repositioning lambs.[17] After the birth, ewes ideally break the amniotic sac (if it is not broken during labor), and begin licking clean the lamb.[17] Most lambs will begin standing within an hour of birth.[17] In normal situations, lambs nurse after standing, receiving vital colostrum milk. Lambs that either fail to nurse or that are rejected by the ewe require aid to live, such as bottle-feeding or fostering by another ewe.[52]

After lambs are several weeks old, lamb marking—the process of ear tagging, docking, and castrating—is carried out.[17] Vaccinations are usually carried out at this point as well. Ear tags with numbers are attached, or ear marks are applied for ease of later identification of sheep. Castration is performed on ram lambs not intended for breeding, although some shepherds choose to avoid the procedure for ethical, economic or practical reasons.[17] Ram lambs that will either be slaughtered or separated from ewes before sexual maturity are not usually castrated.[13] Docking, which is the shortening of a lamb's tail, is practised for health reasons.[53] Objections to all these procedures have been raised by animal rights groups, but farmers defend them by saying they solve many practical and veterinary problems, and inflict only temporary pain.[7][17]

HealthEdit

File:Scrapie testing.jpg

Sheep may fall victim to poisons, infectious diseases, and physical injuries. As a prey species, a sheep's system is adapted to hide the obvious signs of illness, to prevent being targeted by predators.[7] However, there are some obvious signs of ill health, with sick sheep eating little, vocalizing excessively, and being generally listless.[54] Throughout history, much of the money and labor of sheep husbandry has aimed to prevent sheep ailments. Historically, shepherds often created remedies by experimentation on the farm. In some developed countries, including the United States, sheep lack the economic importance for drugs companies to perform expensive clinical trials required to approve drugs for ovine use.[55] In such instances, shepherds resort to illegal, extra-label usage of drugs approved for other animals.[7] In the 20th and 21st centuries, a minority of sheep owners have turned to alternative treatments such as homeopathy, herbalism and even traditional Chinese medicine to treat sheep veterinary problems.[7][6] Despite some favorable anecdotal evidence, the effectiveness of alternative veterinary medicine has been met with skepticism in scientific journals.[7][6][56] The need for traditional anti-parasite drugs and antibiotics is widespread, and is the main impediment to certified organic farming with sheep.[17]

Many breeders take a variety of preventative measures to ward off problems. The first is to ensure that all sheep are healthy when purchased. Many buyers avoid outlets known to be clearing houses for animals culled from healthy flocks as either sick or simply inferior.[7] This can also mean maintaining a closed flock, and quarantining new sheep for a month. Two fundamental preventative programs are maintaining good nutrition and reducing stress in the sheep. Handling sheep in loud, erratic ways causes them to produce cortisol, a stress hormone. This can lead to a weakened immune system, thus making sheep far more vulnerable to disease.[6] Signs of stress in sheep include: excessive panting, teeth grinding, restless movement, wool eating, and wood chewing.[6] Avoiding poisoning is also important, common poisons are pesticide sprays, inorganic fertilizer, motor oil, as well as radiator coolant (the ethylene glycol antifreeze is sweet-tasting).[57]
File:Sheep with orf.jpg

Common forms of preventive medication for sheep are vaccinations and treatments for parasites. Both external and internal parasites are the most prevalent malady in sheep, and are either fatal, or reduce the productivity of flocks.[7] Worms are the most common internal parasites. They are ingested during grazing, incubate within the sheep, and are expelled through the digestive system (beginning the cycle again). Oral anti-parasitic medicines known as drenches are given to a flock to treat worms, sometimes after worm eggs in the feces has been counted to assess infestation levels. Afterwards, sheep may be moved to a new pasture to avoid ingesting the same parasites.[13] External sheep parasites include: lice (for different parts of the body), sheep keds, nose bots, sheep itch mite, and maggots. Keds are blood-sucking parasites that cause general malnutrition and decreased productivity, but are not fatal. Maggots are those of the bot fly and the blow-fly. Fly maggots cause the extremely destructive condition of flystrike. Flies lay their eggs in wounds or wet, manure-soiled wool, when the maggots hatch they burrow into a sheep's flesh, eventually causing death if untreated. In addition to other treatments, crutching (shearing wool from a sheep's rump) is a common preventative method. Nose bots are flies that inhabit a sheep's sinuses, causing breathing difficulties and discomfort. Common signs are a discharge from the nasal passage, sneezing, and frantic movement such as head shaking. External parasites may be controlled through the use of backliners, sprays or immersive sheep dips.[7]

A wide array of bacterial diseases affect sheep. Diseases of the hoof, such as foot rot and foot scald may occur, and are treated with footbaths and other remedies. These painful conditions cause lameness and hinder feeding. Ovine Johne's disease is a wasting disease that affects young sheep. Bluetongue disease is an insect-borne illness causing fever and inflammation of the mucous membranes. Ovine rinderpest (or peste des petits ruminants) is a highly contagious and often fatal viral disease affecting sheep and goats.

A few sheep conditions are transmittable to humans. Orf (also known as scabby mouth, contagious ecthyma or soremouth) is a skin disease leaving lesions that is transmitted through skin-to-skin contact. More seriously, the organisms that can cause spontaneous enzootic abortion in sheep are easily transmitted to pregnant women. Also of concern are the prion disease scrapie and the virus that causes foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), as both can decimate entire flocks. The latter poses a slight risk to humans. During the 2001 FMD pandemic in the UK, hundreds of sheep were culled and some rare British breeds were at risk of extinction due to this.[7]

PredationEdit

Main article: Domestic sheep predation
File:Coyotekilling.jpg

Other than parasites and disease, predation is a threat to sheep and the profitability of sheep raising. Sheep have little ability to defend themselves, compared with other species kept as livestock. Even if sheep survive an attack, they may die from their injuries, or simply from panic.[7] However, the impact of predation varies dramatically with region. In Africa, Australia, the Americas, and parts of Europe and Asia predators are a serious problem. In the United States, for instance, over 1/3 of sheep deaths in 2004 were caused by predation.[58] In contrast, other nations are virtually devoid of sheep predators, particularly islands known for extensive sheep husbandry.[7] Worldwide, canids—including the domestic dog—are responsible for most sheep deaths.[59][60][61] Other animals that occasionally prey on sheep include: felines, bears, birds of prey, ravens and feral hogs.[62][58]

Sheep producers have used a wide variety of measures to combat predation. Pre-modern shepherds used their own presence, livestock guardian dogs, and protective structures such as barns and fencing. Fencing (both regular and electric), penning sheep at night and lambing indoors all continue to be widely used.[17] More modern shepherds used guns, traps, and poisons to kill predators,[63] causing significant decreases in predator populations. In the wake of the environmental and conservation movements, the use of these methods now usually falls under the purview of specially designated government agencies in most developed countries .[64]

The 1970s saw a resurgence in the use of livestock guardian dogs and the development of new methods of predator control by sheep producers, many of them non-lethal.[13] Donkeys and guard llamas have been used since the 1980s in sheep operations, using the same basic principle as livestock guardian dogs.[7] Interspecific pasturing, usually with larger livestock such as cattle or horses, may help to deter predators, even if such species do not actively guard sheep.[17] In addition to animal guardians, contemporary sheep operations may use non-lethal predator deterrents such as motion-activated lights and noisy alarms.[7]


Animal welfare concernsEdit

The Australian sheep industry is the only sector of the industry to receive international criticism for its practices. Sheep stations in Australia are cited in Animal Liberation, the seminal book of the animal rights movement, as the author's primary evidence in his argument against retaining sheep as a part of animal agriculture.[65] The practice of mulesing, in which skin is cut away from an animal's perineal area to prevent cases of the fatal condition flystrike, has been condemned by PETA as being painful and unnecessary.[66] In response, a program of phasing out mulesing is currently being implemented,[67] and some mulesing operations are being carried out with the use of anaesthetic.[68] The Animal Welfare Advisory Committee to the New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture Code of recommendations and minimum standards for the welfare of Sheep, considers mulesing a "special technique" which is performed on some Merino sheep at a small number of farms in New Zealand.[69]

Most of the sheep meat exported from Australia is either frozen carcases to the UK or live animals to the Middle East. Shipped on converted oil tankers in what has been called crowded, unsafe conditions by critics, live sheep are desired by Middle Eastern nations to meet the requirements of ritual halal slaughter.[70] Opponents of the export—such as PETA—say that sheep exported to countries outside the jurisdiction of Australia's animal cruelty laws are treated with horrendous brutality and that halal facilities exist in Australia to make export of live animals redundant.[70] A few celebrities and companies have pledged to boycott all Australian sheep products in protest.[71]

In scienceEdit

Sheep are generally too large and reproduce too slowly to make ideal research subjects, and thus are not a common model organism.[72] They have, however, played an influential role in some fields of science. In particular, the Roslin Institute of Edinburgh, Scotland used sheep for genetics research that produced groundbreaking results. In 1995, two ewes named Megan and Morag were the first mammals cloned from differentiated cells. A year later, a Finnish Dorset sheep named Dolly, dubbed "the world's most famous sheep" in Scientific American,[73] was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell. Following this, Polly and Molly were the first mammals to be simultaneously cloned and transgenic. As of 2008, the sheep genome has not been fully sequenced, although a detailed genetic map has been published,[74] and a draft version of the complete genome produced by assembling sheep DNA sequences using information given by the genomes of other mammals.[75]

In the study of natural selection, the population of Soay sheep that remain on the island of Hirta have been used to explore the relation of body size and coloration to reproductive success.[76] Soay sheep come in several colors, and researchers investigated why the larger, darker sheep were in decline; this occurrence contradicted the rule of thumb that larger members of a population tend to be more successful reproductively.[77] The feral Soays on Hirta are especially useful subjects because they are isolated.[78]

Sheep are one of the few animals where the molecular basis of the diversity of male sexual preferences has been examined.[79] However, this research has been controversial, and much publicity has been produced by a study at the Oregon Health and Science University that investigated the mechanisms that produce homosexuality in rams. Organizations such as PETA campaigned against the study, accusing scientists of trying to cure homosexuality in the sheep.[45] OHSU and the involved scientists vehemently denied such accusations.[45]
File:Faroe stamp 036 ram.jpg

Domestic sheep are sometimes used in medical research, particularly for researching cardiovascular physiology, in areas such as hypertension and heart failure.[80][81] Pregnant sheep are also a useful model for human pregnancy,[82] and have been used to investigate the effects on fetal development of malnutrition and hypoxia.[83] In behavioral sciences, sheep have been used in isolated cases for the study of facial recognition, as their mental process of recognition is qualitatively similar to humans.[84]


In religion and folkloreEdit

In antiquity, symbolism involving sheep cropped up in religions in the ancient Near East, the Mideast, and the Mediterranean area: Catal Huyuk, ancient Egyptian religion, the Cana'anite and Phoenician tradition, Judaism, Greek religion, and others. Religious symbolism and ritual involving sheep began with some of the first known faiths: skulls of rams (along with bulls) occupied central placement in shrines at the Çatalhöyük settlement in 8,000 BCE.[85] In Ancient Egyptian religion, the ram was the symbol of several gods: Khnum, Heryshaf and Amun (in his incarnation as a god of fertility).[6] Other deities occasionally shown with ram features include: the goddess Ishtar, the Phoenician god Baal-Hamon, and the Babylonian god Ea-Oannes.[6] In Madagascar, sheep were not eaten as they were believed to be incarnations of the souls of ancestors.[86]

There are also many ancient Greek references to sheep: that of Chrysomallos, the golden-fleeced ram, continuing to be told through into the modern era. Astrologically, Aries, the ram, is the first sign of the classical Greek zodiac and the sheep is also the eighth of the twelve animals associated with the 12-year cycle of in the Chinese zodiac, related to the Chinese calendar.[86] In Mongolia, shagai are an ancient form of dice made from the cuboid bones of sheep that are often used for fortunetelling purposes.

File:Liten askenasisk sjofar 5380.jpg

Sheep play an important role in all the Abrahamic faiths; Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, and King David were all shepherds. According to the story of the Binding of Isaac, a ram is sacrificed as a substitute for Isaac after an angel stays Abraham's hand. Eid al-Adha is a major annual festival in Islam in which sheep (or other animals) are sacrificed in remembrance of this act.[87][88] Sheep are also occasionally sacrificed to commemorate important secular events in Islamic cultures.[89] Greeks and Romans also sacrificed sheep regularly in religious practice, and Judaism also once sacrificed sheep as a Korban (sacrifice), such as the Passover lamb .[86] Ovine symbols—such as the ceremonial blowing of a shofar—still find a presence in modern Judaic traditions. Followers of Christianity are collectively often referred to as a flock, with Christ as the Good Shepherd, and sheep are an element in the Christian iconography of the birth of Jesus. Some Christian saints are considered patrons of shepherds, and even of sheep themselves. Christ is also portrayed as the Sacrificial lamb of God (Agnus Dei) and Easter celebrations in Greece and Romania traditionally feature a meal of Paschal lamb.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Budiansky, Stephen (1999). The Covenant of the Wild: Why animals chose domestication, Yale University Press.
  • Ensminger, Dr. M.E.; Dr. R.O. Parker (1986). Sheep and Goat Science, Fifth Edition, Danville, Illinois: The Interstate Printers and Publishers Inc.
  • Simmons, Paula; Carol Ekarius (2001). Storey's Guide to Raising Sheep, North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing LLC.
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  • Weaver, Sue (2005). Sheep: small-scale sheep keeping for pleasure and profit, 3 Burroughs Irvine, CA 92618: Hobby Farm Press, an imprint of BowTie Press, a division of BowTie Inc..
  • Wooster, Chuck; Geoff Hansen (Photography) (2005). Living with Sheep: Everything You Need to Know to Raise Your Own Flock, Guilford, Connecticut: The Lyons Press.

Further readingEdit

BooksEdit

  • Abrams, R. M., & Gerhardt, K. J. (1997). Some aspects of the foetal sound environment. Hove, England: Psychology Press/Erlbaum (UK) Taylor & Francis.

PapersEdit

Abecia, J. A., Maria, G., & Forcada, F. (2005). A note on mating preferences in Rasa Aragonesa rams: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 91(3-4) Jun 2005, 355-361.

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  • Alexander, B. M., Rose, J. D., Stellflug, J. N., Fitzgerald, J. A., & Moss, G. E. (2001). Fos-like immunoreactivity in brain regions of domestic rams following exposure to rams or ewes: Physiology & Behavior Vol 73(1-2) May 2001, 75-80.
  • Asante, Y. A., Oppong-Anane, K., & Awotwi, E. K. (1999). Behavioural relationships between Djallonke and Sahellian ewes and their lambs during the first 24 h post-partum: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 65(1) Sep 1999, 53-61.
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  • Vandenheede, M., Bouissou, M. F., & Picard, M. (1998). Interpretation of behavioural reactions of sheep towards fear-eliciting situations: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 58(3-4) Jul 1998, 293-310.
  • Vierin, M., & Bouissou, M.-F. (2001). Pregnancy is associated with low fear reactions in ewes: Physiology & Behavior Vol 72(4) Mar 2001, 579-587.
  • Villagra, A., Balasch, S., Peris, C., Torres, A., & Fernandez, N. (2007). Order of sheep entry into the milking parlour and its relationship with their milkability: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 108(1-2) Dec 2007, 58-67.
  • Villalba, J. J., & Provenza, F. D. (1999). Effects of food structure and nutritional quality and animal nutritional state on intake behaviour and food preferences of sheep: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 63(2) Apr 1999, 145-163.
  • Villalba, J. J., Provenza, F. D., & Shaw, R. (2006). Initial conditions and temporal delays influence preference for foods high in tannins and for foraging locations with and without foods high in tannins by sheep: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 97(2-4) May 2006, 190-205.
  • Villalba, J. J., Provenza, F. D., & Shaw, R. (2006). Sheep self-medicate when challenged with illness-inducing foods: Animal Behaviour Vol 71(5) May 2006, 1131-1139.
  • Wasilewski, A. (1999). Demonstration and verification of a milking order in dairy sheep and its extent and consistency: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 64(2) Jun 1999, 111-124.
  • Weisinger, R. S., Begg, D. P., Denton, D. A., Findlay, A. L. R., Kennedy, G. A., Purcell, B., et al. (2009). Endocrine and ingestive behavioral responses to fluid deprivation in sheep chronically exposed to ethanol: Physiology & Behavior Vol 96(4-5) Mar 2009, 637-645.
  • Wemelsfelder, F., & Farish, M. (2004). Qualitative categories for the interpretation of sheep welfare: A review: Animal Welfare Vol 13(3) Aug 2004, 261-268.
  • Whiting, J. C., Bowyer, R. T., & Flinders, J. T. (2008). Young bighorn (Ovis canadensis) males: Can they successfully woo females? : Ethology Vol 114(1) Jan 2008, 32-41.
  • Wolf, B. T., McBride, S. D., Lewis, R. M., Davies, M. H., & Haresign, W. (2008). Estimates of the genetic parameters and repeatability of behavioural traits of sheep in an arena test: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 112(1-2) Jul 2008, 68-80.
  • Yayou, K., Seo, T., Uetake, K., Ito, S., & Nakamura, M. (2007). Effects of intracerebroventricular infusions of arginine vasopressin in sheep: Physiology & Behavior Vol 90(2-3) Feb 2007, 376-381.


DissertationsEdit

  • Hamrahi, H. (2008). Effects of intermittent umbilical cord occlusions on metabolism, cardiovascular responses and brain injury in the ovine fetus. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.


External linksEdit

NotesEdit

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