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A '''doctorate''' is an [[academic degree]] or [[professional degree]] that, in most countries, qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the specific field of his or her degree, or to work in a specific profession. The research doctorate, or the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and its equivalent titles, represents the highest academic qualification. While the structure of U.S. doctoral programs is more formal and complex than in some other systems, it is important to note that the research doctorate is not awarded for the preliminary advanced study that leads to doctoral candidacy, but rather for successfully completing and defending the independent research presented in the form of the doctoral dissertation (thesis). Several first-professional degrees use the term “doctor” in their title, such as the Juris Doctor and the US version of the Doctor of Medicine, but these degrees do not contain an independent research component or require a dissertation (thesis) and should not be confused with PhD degrees or other research doctorates. <ref>http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/professional.doc.</ref>
   
A '''doctorate''' is an [[academic degree]] of the highest level. Traditionally, the award of a doctorate implies recognition of the candidate as an equal by the [[university]] faculty under which she or he studied.
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In some countries, the highest degree in a given field is called a [[terminal degree]], although this is by no means universal (the term is not in general use in the UK, for example), practice varies from country to country.
   
There are three types of doctorates: research/terminal, (first) professional, and honorary.
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The term ''doctorate'' comes from the [[Latin]] ''docere,'' meaning "to teach."
   
Research doctorates are nearly always awarded in recognition of academic research that is of a publishable standard (even if not actually published) and that represents at least a modest contribution to human knowledge. The research is usually assessed by submission and [[Thesis committee|defense]] of a doctoral [[thesis]] or [[dissertation]], though in some cases a coherent body of published literature can be accepted instead.
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The "licentiate" degree shortened from the full Latin title ''licentia docendi'', means "teaching licence".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05072b.htm |title=Catholic Encyclopedia: Doctor |publisher=Newadvent.org |date= |accessdate=2013-07-02}}</ref>
   
Professional doctorates are awarded in certain fields where most holders of the degree are not engaged primarily in scholarly research and academic activities, but, rather in a profession, such as law, medicine, music, or ministry.
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==History==
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{{Refimprove section|date=June 2008}}
   
[[Honorary doctorate]]s are awarded for a substantial contribution to a field that need not be academic in character.
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The doctorate ([[Latin]]: ''doctor'', "teacher," from ''doctum'', "[that which is] taught," past participle of ''docere'', "to teach") appeared in [[Middle Ages|medieval Europe]] as a license to teach ([[Latin]]: ''licentia docendi'') at a [[medieval university]].<ref name="Lexikon des Mittelalters: Doctor, doctoratus">{{Citation | last = Verger | first = J. | contribution = Doctor, doctoratus | title = [[Lexikon des Mittelalters]] | volume = 3 | pages = 1155–1156 | publisher = J.B. Metzler | place = Stuttgart | year = 1999}}</ref> Its roots can be traced to the [[early church]] when the term "doctor" referred to the [[Apostles]], [[church fathers]] and other [[Christianity|Christian]] authorities who taught and [[Exegesis|interpreted the Bible]].<ref name="Lexikon des Mittelalters: Doctor, doctoratus"/> The right to grant a ''licentia docendi'' was originally reserved to the [[Catholic church]] which required the applicant to pass a test, to take [[oath of allegiance]] and pay a fee. The [[Third Council of the Lateran]] of 1179 guaranteed the access – by that time largely free of charge – of all able applicants, who were, however, still tested for aptitude by the ecclesiastic scholastic.<ref name="Lexikon des Mittelalters: Licentia">{{Citation | last = Verger | first = J. | contribution = Licentia | title = [[Lexikon des Mittelalters]] | volume = 5 | pages = 1957–1958 | publisher = J.B. Metzler | place = Stuttgart | year = 1999}}</ref> This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and the slowly emancipating universities, but was granted by the [[pope]] to the [[University of Paris]] in 1213 where it became a universal license to teach (''licentia ubiquie docendi'').<ref name="Lexikon des Mittelalters: Licentia"/> However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the [[bachelor's degree]] (''Baccalaureus''), it was ultimately reduced to an intermediate step to the Magister and doctorate, both of which now became the exclusive qualification for teaching.<ref name="Lexikon des Mittelalters: Licentia"/>
   
In the [[EU]], [[UK]], [[Australia]], and some other [[Commonwealth]] countries, a distinction is made among research doctorates, as doctorates (generally awarded after a course of 3-5 years postgraduate research and study and submission of a thesis), and higher doctorates -- awarded on the basis of many years of outstanding research, judged through examination of publications. These higher doctorates are also used as honorary doctorates, but those awarded on the basis of academic research are non-honorary.
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At the university, doctoral training was a form of [[apprenticeship]] to a [[guild]]. The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Masters of Arts" was seven years, which was the same as the term of apprenticeship for other occupations. Originally the terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the [[master's degree]]. A hypothesis by George Makdisi that the doctorate has its origins in the Islamic [[Ijazah]], a reversal of Makdisi's earlier view that saw both systems as being of "the most fundamental difference,"<ref>{{cite journal|last=Makdisi|first=George|title=Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages|journal=Studia Islamica|year=1970|issue=32|pages=255–264 (260)|doi=10.2307/1595223|accessdate=4 May 2013|quote=Perhaps the most fundamental difference between the two systems is embodied in their systems of certification; namely, in medieval Europe, the ''licentia docendi'', or license to teach; in medieval Islam, the ''ijaza'', or authorization.}}</ref> has been rejected by Tony Huff as unsubstantiated.<ref>{{cite book|last=Huff|first=Toby E.|title=The rise of early modern science : Islam, China, and the West|year=2007|publisher=Cambridge University Press|location=Cambridge [u.a.]|isbn=0521529948|page=155|edition=2. ed., repr.|authorlink=Toby Huff|quote=It remains the case that no equivalent of the bachelor's degree, the licentia docendi, or higher degrees ever emerged in the medieval or early modern Islamic madrasas.}}</ref>
   
The title of "Doctor" is used both by and of those holding research doctorates or some professional (usually medical) degrees, but according to convention is not used by or of those holding honorary doctorates. However, some consider it permissible to use the title of doctor for an honorary degree within the institution that granted it.
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It is not until recently that Universities began to accept female students in their Doctorate programs. In the year 1785, [[Complutense University]] became the first University to grant a Doctorate to a female student, María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda.<ref>[http://www.uah.es/universidad/presentacion/historia_universidad.shtm Historia de la Universidad. Universidad de Alcalá. 2011.]</ref> In comparison, [[University of Oxford]] did not accept female scholars until the year 1920,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ox.ac.uk/about_the_university/introducing_oxford/women_at_oxford/index.html |title=Women at Oxford - University of Oxford |publisher=Ox.ac.uk |date=1947-09-30 |accessdate=2013-07-02}}</ref> and the [[University of Cambridge]] did not grant a Ph.D. to a female student until the year 1926.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://yegs.org/yegs-hall-of-fame-main-page |title=YEGS Hall of Fame :: Young Exceptionally Gifted Students |publisher=Yegs.org |date=2002-04-07 |accessdate=2013-07-02}}</ref>
   
In the past, in the [[United States]] a person with a research doctorate would use the title "doctor" in an academic or research/development setting, and in publication. However it is becoming more common to use the title if working in a corporate setting. This is the case in most continents. In some countries the term "doctor" may be used as a title of respect even if the person being addressed has no doctoral degree.
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The usage and meaning of the doctorate has changed over time, and it has also been subject to regional variations. For instance, until the early 20th century few academic staff or professors in [[English (language)|English-speaking]] universities held doctorates, except for very senior scholars and those in [[Holy Orders|holy orders]]. After that time the [[Higher education in Germany|German practice]] of requiring prospective lecturers to have completed a "research doctorate" became widespread. Additionally, universities' shifts to "research oriented" education increased the importance of the doctorate. Today such a doctorate is generally a prerequisite for pursuing an [[Academia|academic]] career, although not everyone who receives a research doctorate becomes an academic by profession. Many universities also award "[[honorary doctorate]]s" to individuals who have been deemed worthy of special recognition, either for scholarly work or for other contributions to the university or to society.
   
==General information==
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Although the research doctorate is almost universally accepted as the standard qualification for an academic career, it is a relatively new invention.
   
In the [[United States]], professional doctoral degrees are terminal degrees (also sometimes called "first professional" degrees) in certain given fields, and include: [[Chiropractic]], [[Dentistry]], [[Law]], [[Medicine]], [[Occupational Therapy]], [[Optometry]], [[Osteopathy]], [[Pharmacy]], [[Physical Therapy]], [[Podiatry]], [[Psychology]] and [[Veterinary medicine]]. There are many others. Although these degrees may be both the initial and terminal degree in their field, students seeking to enter degree programs for them must have already completed a [[Bachelors degree]], usually in a related field. Under European Law, research doctorate holders from any EU country are recognised. The duration of a medical degree may vary between EU countries and may require the holder to take further examinations.
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The older-style doctorates (now usually called "Higher Doctorates" in the United Kingdom) take much longer to complete, since candidates must show themselves to be leading experts in their subjects. These doctorates are now less common in some countries, and are often awarded [[honoris causa]]. The [[habilitation]] is still used for academic recruitment purposes in many countries within the EU and involves either a new long thesis (a second book) or a portfolio of research publications. The habilitation demonstrates independent and thorough research, experience in teaching and lecturing and, more recently, the ability to generate funding within the area of research. The "habilitation" is regarded as a senior post-doctoral qualification, many years after the research doctorate, and can be necessary for a [[Privatdozent]] (in Germany) or professor position.
   
Terminal/professional doctoral degrees such as the M.D. and J.D. do not generally require completion of a thesis/dissertation, although some professional degree programs (such as many J.D. programs) require that the candidate perform original research and write a formal research paper. The minimum term for a terminal (professional) degree is 3 years past [[secondary education]], the same minimum term required for a research doctorate. Terminal/professional doctoral degrees are not research doctorates, yet they do entitle their holders to pursue academic careers on a par with holders of academic degrees. Actual practice (and legal recognition) within the applicable professional field usually requires that the degree holder also become licenced by the appropriate body (an organization not affiliated with the schools granting the degrees); a certain amount of work experience is sometimes required for licensure. The titles from the first-professional doctoral degrees are not equivalent to the same title conferred in other countries. For example, outside the United States (and countries that mimic the North American medical educational system), the title of M.D.or D.M. may be only conferred as a research or a higher doctorate. This [[Doctor of Medicine|M.D or D.M.]] is in recognition of clinical or preclinical academic research many years after the original (professional or first) degree in medicine or veterinary medicine.
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A similar system traditionally holds in Russia. Already in the Russian Empire the academic degree ''doctor of the sciences'' (doktor nauk) marked the highest academic degree which can be achieved by an examination. This system was generally adopted by the [[USSR]]/[[Russia]] and many post-Soviet countries. A lower degree, ''candidate [doctor] of the sciences'' (kandidat nauk), is, roughly, the Russian equivalent to the research doctorate in most other countries.
   
The most common type of research doctorate is a [[Ph.D.]] (''Philosophiæ Doctor'' or Doctor of Philosophy), though there are many other designations, listed below. Some British universities, including [[University of Oxford|Oxford]] and [[University of Sussex|Sussex]] refer to the Ph.D. degree as the [[D.Phil.]].
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== Types ==
   
Minimum periods for research doctorates vary considerably: In the UK and USA the minimum time for completing a [[Ph.D.]] is usually three years following the completion of a [[master's degree]]. Although completions within this period are possible, most candidates take considerably longer, anywhere from five to ten years. Students in the physical sciences typically have shorter completion times than students in the arts due to their better access to funding sources. In the USA, the research doctorate normally requires two to three years of coursework and a minimum of three years of research. Coursework is increasingly becoming an additional component in many research doctorates around the world.
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:''See [[Doctor (title)]] for more information.''
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Since the [[Middle Ages]], there has been considerable evolution and proliferation in the number and types of doctorates awarded by universities throughout the world, and practices vary from one country to another. While a doctorate usually entitles one to be addressed as "doctor," usage of the title varies widely, depending on the type of doctorate earned and the doctor's occupation.
   
Although the [[Ph.D.]] is almost universally accepted currently as the standard qualification for an academic career, it is a relatively new invention. The older-style doctorates (now usually called "Higher Doctorates" in the United Kingdom) take much longer to complete, since candidates must show themselves to be leading experts in their subjects. These doctorates are now becoming rare, and are usually only awarded as [[honorary degree]]s. In [[France]], the higher doctorate is the ''doctorat d'État''. The latter was replaced for academic recruitment purposes by the "habilitation to direct [[thesis|theses]]". The [[Habilitation]] is still used for academic recruitment purposes in many countries within the EU and is a research doctorate involving either a new long thesis (a second book) or a portfolio of research publications. The "Habilitation" is a qualification that demonstrates independent and thorough research ability, experience in teaching and lecturing, the potential to have a research group and, more recently, the ability to generate extra funding within the area of research. The "Habilitation" is regarded as a senior post-doctoral qualification, many years after the [[Ph.D.]] and is necessary for a [[Privatdozent]] position.
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Broadly speaking, doctorates may often be loosely classified into the following categories:
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[[File:Professors.JPG|thumb|right|Academic doctors gather before the April 2008 Commencement exercises at [[Brigham Young University]]]]
   
The [[Russian Federation]]'s/[[USSR]]'s standards of volume, depth and overall scale of dissertation is regarded as equivalent to a graduate student who has completed [[candidacyship]] in the United States. The doctorate standard in the [[Russian Federation]] actually requires much deeper, wider reseach.
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=== Research ===
   
==Types of Doctorates==
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Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of academic research that is (at least in principle) publishable in a [[Peer review|peer-refereed]] [[academic journal]]. In many countries, including the United States, earning a research doctorate also requires successful completion of a regimen of coursework beyond the masters level. The best-known degree of this type, in the Anglophone world, is that of [[Doctor of Philosophy]] (Ph.D., or sometimes D.Phil) awarded in many countries throughout the world. Others include the degree of [[Doctor of Arts]], [[Doctor of Education]], various doctorates in engineering, such as the US [[Doctor of Engineering]]<ref name="autogenerated1">[http://www.americangraduateeducation.com/folder1/subfolder4/doctorate_programs.htm Research Doctorate Programs]</ref> (also awarded in Japan and South Korea), the UK [[Engineering Doctorate]]<ref name="UK-EngD">[http://www.epsrc.ac.uk/PostgraduateTraining/EngineeringDoctorates/default.htm EPSRC: Engineering Doctorates]</ref> and the German Engineering Doctorate ''[[Doktor-Ingenieur]]'' and the German nature-science degree of ''Doctor rerum naturalium'' (Dr.rer.nat.). The [[Doctor of Theology]], often stylized Th.D., is also a research doctorate, in theology, awarded by universities such as [[Harvard Divinity School]] and the [[University of Toronto]] among many others. Likewise, the [[Doctor of Sacred Theology]] is also a research doctorate in theology, but particular to Catholic Pontifical Universities and Faculties.
===Research Oriented Doctorates===
 
   
While the [[Ph.D.]] is the most common doctoral degree, and even often (mis)understood to be synonymous with the term "doctorate", the [[U.S. Department of Education]] and the [[U.S. National Science Foundation]] (NSF) recognize numerous doctoral degrees as equivalent, and do not discriminate among them:
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Criteria for award of research doctorates vary somewhat throughout the world, but typically requires the submission of a substantial body of original research undertaken by the candidate. This may take the form of a single [[thesis]] or dissertation, or possibly a portfolio of shorter project reports; see also [[Thesis by publication]]. The submission will usually be assessed by a small committee of examiners appointed by the university, and often an oral examination of some kind. In some countries (such as the US) there may also be a formal component of classes that are taught, typically consisting of graduate-level courses in the subject in question, as well as training in research methodology.
   
* [[Doctor of Arts]] (D.A.)
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The minimum time required to complete a research doctorate varies by country, and may be as short as three years (excluding undergraduate study), although it is not uncommon for a candidate to take up to six years to complete.
* [[Doctor of Architecture]] (D.Arch.)
 
* [[Doctor of Applied Science]] (D.A.S.)
 
* [[Doctor of Business Administration]] (D.B.A.)
 
* [[Doctor of Chemistry]] (D.Chem.)
 
* [[Doctor of Criminal Justice]] (D.C.J.)
 
* [[Doctor of Comparative Law]]/[[Doctor of Civil Law]] (D.C.L.)
 
* [[Doctor of Computer Science]] (D.C.S.)
 
* [[Doctor of Criminology]] (D.Crim.)
 
* [[Doctor of Education]] (Ed.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Environmental Design]] (D.E.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Engineering]] (D.Eng.)
 
* [[Doctor of Environmental Science and Engineering]] (D.Env.)
 
* [[Doctor of Engineering Science]] (D.E.Sc./Sc.D.E.)
 
* [[Doctor of Forestry]] (D.F.)
 
* [[Doctor of Fine Arts]] ([[D.F.A.]])
 
* [[Doctor of Geological Science]] (D.G.S.)
 
* [[Doctor of Hebrew Literature]]/[[Doctor of Hebrew Letters]] (D.H.L.)
 
* [[Doctor of Health and Safety]] (D.H.S.)
 
* [[Doctor of Hebrew Studies]] (D.H.S.)
 
* [[Doctor of Industrial Technology]] (D.I.T.)
 
* [[Doctor of Information Technology]] (D.I.T.)
 
* [[Doctor of Liberal Studies]] (D.L.S.)
 
* [[Doctor of Library Science]] (D.L.S.)
 
* [[Doctor of Music]] (D.Mus, Mus. Doc.)
 
* [[Doctor of Musical Arts]] (D.M.A., A.Mus.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Musical Education]] (D.M.E.)
 
* [[Doctor of Ministry]] (D.Min./D.M.)
 
* [[Doctor of Modern Languages]] (D.M.L.)
 
* [[Doctor of Music Ministry]] (D.M.M.)
 
* [[Doctor of Medical Science]] (D.M.Sc.)
 
* [[Doctor of Nursing Science]] (D.N.Sc.)
 
* [[Doctor of Public Administration]] (D.P.A.)
 
* [[Doctor of Physical Education]] (D.P.E.)
 
* [[Doctor of Public Health]] (Dr.P.H.)
 
* [[Doctor of Professional Studies]] (D.Prof./D.P.S.)
 
* [[Doctor of Design]] (Dr.DES.)
 
* [[Doctor of Religious Education]] (D.R.E.)
 
* [[Doctor of Recreation]] (D.Rec./D.R.)
 
* [[Doctor of Science]] (D.Sc./Sc.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Science in Dentistry]] (D.Sc.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Science and Hygiene]] (D.Sc.H.)
 
* [[Doctor of Science in Veterinary Medicine]] (D.Sc.V.M.)
 
* [[Doctor of Sacred Music]] (D.S.M.)
 
* [[Doctor of Social Science]] (D.S.Sc.)
 
* [[Doctor of Social Work]] (D.S.W.)
 
* [[Doctor of Canon Law]] (J.C.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of the Science of Law]] (L.Sc.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Rehabilitation]] (Rh.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Sacred Theology]] (S.T.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Theology]] (Th.D.)
 
   
===Professional Doctorates (also called First Professional Degrees)===
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In the UK, an equivalent formation to doctorate is the QCF 8.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ofqual.gov.uk/qualification-and-assessment-framework/89-articles/250-explaining-the-national-qualifications-framework |title=Qcf, Nqf And Eqf |publisher=Ofqual |date= |accessdate=2013-07-02}}</ref>
   
* [[Doctor of Chiropractic]] (D.C.)
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=== Higher ===<!--[[Higher doctorate]] redirects to this section title-->
* [[Doctor of Dental Surgery]] (D.D.S.)
 
* [[Doctor of Human Sexuality]] (D.H.S.)
 
* [[Juris Doctor]]/Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Management in Organizational Leadership]] (D.M.)
 
* [[Doctor of Medicine]]/Medicinæ Doctor (M.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Ministry]] (D.Min.)
 
* [[Doctor of Physical Therapy]] (D.P.T.)
 
* [[Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine]] (D.O.)
 
* [[Doctor of Podiatric Medicine]] (D.P.M.)
 
* [[Doctor of Dental Medicine]] (D.M.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Nursing Practice]] (D.N.P.)
 
* [[Doctor of Veterinary Medicine]] (D.V.M.)
 
* [[Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine]] (N.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Psychology]] (Psy.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Clinical Psychology]] (DCP)
 
* [[Doctor of Pharmacy]] (Pharm.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Optometry]]/Optometry Doctor (O.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Occupational Therapy]] (D.O.T.)
 
   
===Higher Doctorates in the United Kingdom, Ireland and the Commonwealth===
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In some countries, especially the [[United Kingdom]], [[Republic of Ireland|Ireland]], [[Australia]] and some [[Scandinavia]]n nations, or former [[USSR]] and other [[Eastern Bloc]] countries, there is a higher tier of research doctorates, awarded on the basis of a formally submitted portfolio of published research of a very high standard. Examples include the [[Doctor of Science]] (DSc/ScD) and [[Doctor of Letters]] (DLitt/LittD) degrees found in the UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries, and the traditional doctorates in [[Denmark]] and [[Norway]], including ''Dr. Theol.'' (Theology), ''Dr. Jur''. (Law), ''Dr. Med.'' (Medicine) and, after Denmark and Norway introduced the Ph.D. at a lower level, ''[[Doctor Philosophiae (Danish and Norwegian degree)|Dr. Phil(os).]]''. The Danish and Norwegian titles should not be confused with German doctorates.
The notion of doctorates that are higher than the Ph.D. is one that is rare in the United States, but more established in the U.K., Ireland and Commonwealth nations, where universities may maintain a notional ranking of the seniority of different doctorates. Higher doctorates include:
 
   
* [[Doctor of Civil Law]] (D.C.L.)
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The [[France|French]], [[Germany|German]] and [[Poland|Polish]] [[habilitation]] (a formal professorial qualification with thesis and exam) is commonly regarded as belonging to this category. However, in some German states, the Habilitation is not an academic degree, but rather a professorial certification ("facultas docendi") that the person concerned holds all the qualifications needed to teach independently at a German university. In other German states, the "Habilitand" is awarded a formal "Dr. habil." degree. In some cases where such degrees are awarded, the holder of the degree may add "habil." to his or her research doctorate such as "Dr. phil. habil." or "Dr. rer. nat. habil." The French academic system used to have a higher doctorate, called "State doctorate" (''doctorat d'État''), but it was superseded by the habilitation in 1984.
* [[Doctor of Divinity]]/Divinitatis Doctor (D.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Juridical Science]] (S.J.D., J.S.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Laws]]/Legum Doctor (LL.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Letters]]/Litterarum Doctor (D.Litt. or Litt.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Medicine]]/Medicinæ Doctor (D.M. or M.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Music]]/Musicæ Doctor (D.Mus. or Mus.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Science]]/Scientiæ Doctor (D.Sc. or Sc.D.)
 
* [[Doctor of Technology]] (D.Tech.)
 
* [[Doctor of the University]] (D.Univ.; usually honorary)
 
   
The degree of [[Doctor of Engineering]] (D.Eng. or Eng.D.) usually indicates a qualification comparable to a Ph.D.
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In [[Sweden]], a title roughly corresponding to the Habilitation is [[Docent]]. This was also commonly used in [[Poland]] but as of 2005 was changed to a formal "Dr hab." (''doktor habilitowany'') degree. See below ([[Doctorate#Poland|Poland section]]) for more details.
   
=== Doctorates in The Netherlands ===
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Higher doctorates are often also awarded [[honoris causa]] when a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's achievements and contributions to a particular field.
   
The traditional academic system of The Netherlands provides four basic academic diplomas and degrees: ''propaedeuse'', ''candidate'', ''doctorandus'' (drs.), ''engineer'' (ir.) and ''doctor'' (dr.). After successful completion of the first year of University, the student is awarded the propaedeutic diploma. The ''candidate'' degree is usually attained after three years of academic study, after which the student is allowed to begin work on his doctorandus' thesis. The successful completion of this thesis allows one to use the ''[[doctorandus]]'' title, attainment of which means one's initial studies are finished. Those who choose to, and are allowed to, perform extensive research and write a doctoral dissertation (usually over the course of four years). Upon completion, a doctor's degree is awarded. This is the highest academic degree one can attain.
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=== Professional ===
In addition to these 'general' degrees, a number of specific titles for certain subjects are available, each of which is equivalent to the ''doctorandus'' degree: for law: meester ('master') (mr.), and for engineering: ingenieur ('engineer')(ir.).
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{{See also|First professional degree}}
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<!--This isn't intended to be a comprehensive list, just a few illustrative examples from various countries.
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Please don't add any more without discussing it on the talk page.-->
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Professional doctorates are awarded in certain fields where scholarly research is closely aligned with a particular profession, such as law, medicine, or psychology. Examples include the US and Canadian degrees of [[Doctor of Medicine]] (M.D.), [[Doctor of Optometry]] (O.D.), [[Doctor of Pharmacy]] (Pharm. D.), [[Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine]] (D.O.), [[Doctor of Dental Surgery]] (D.D.S.), [[Doctor of Dental Medicine]] (D.M.D.), [[Juris Doctor]] (J.D.), and [[Doctor of Ministry]] (D.Min).
   
The last few years, the Dutch have incorporated the Anglo-Saxon system of academic degrees into their own. The candidate's degree is replaced by the bachelor's degree, the doctorandus' by the master's.
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Professional doctorates originated in the United States, with the introduction of the MD at Columbia University in 1767,<ref>[http://www.columbia.edu/about_columbia/history.html Columbia University: About Columbia]. Columbia.edu. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.</ref> almost 100 years before a research doctorate—that is, a PhD—was awarded in that country, at Yale in 1861.<ref name="web.archive.org">[http://web.archive.org/web/20060909180355/http://www.yale.edu/opa/newsr/97-04-21-01.all.html Office of Public Affairs at Yale – News Release]. Web.archive.org. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.</ref> The JD was introduced in 1870, just a few years after the PhD.<ref>Stevens, R. (1971). "Two Cheers For 1870: The American Law School," in Law in American History, eds. Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1971, p.427. Reed, A. (1921). "Training for the Public Profession of the Law, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15." Boston: Merrymount Press.</ref>
   
=== Higher Doctorates in Denmark ===
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The term ''Professional Doctorate'' is used to refer to research doctorates with a focus on applied research, or research as used for professional purposes.<ref name="ukcge-pd">Stuart Powell, Elizabeth Long, [http://www.ukcge.ac.uk/Resources/UKCGE/Documents/PDF/Professional%20Doctorate%20Awards%202005.pdf ''Professional Doctorate Awards in the UK''], UK Council for Graduate Education (2005)</ref> Among others, these include the degrees of [[Doctor of Business Administration]] (DBA), [[Doctor of Strategic Leadership]] (DSL), [[Doctor of Public Administration]] (DPA), [[Doctor of Social Work]] (DSW), [[Doctor of Biblical Studies]] (D.B.S.), [[Doctor of Law and Policy]] (Lp.D), [[Doctor of Practical Theology]] (DPT),<ref>Elaine Graham, [http://www.reference-global.com/doi/abs/10.1515/IJPT.2006.020. Doctor of Ministry (DMin) was designed for full-time pastors and ministers. The Professional Doctorate in Practical Theology: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?], International Journal of Practical Theology. 10:2 (2007) 298–311</ref> [[Doctor of Professional Studies]] (DPS or DProf), Doctor of the Built Environment (DBEnv)<ref>[http://www.cebe.heacademy.ac.uk/news/events/beecon2006/powerpoint/P25_Paul_Chynoweth.ppt Paul Chynoweth (2006) 'Professional doctorates in the built environment: how Higher Education is responding to the changing needs of industry and the professions', Proceedings of the Built Environment Education Conference (BEECON 2006), 12–13 September 2006, Bonnington Hotel, London, UK.]</ref> and some others in various specified professional fields. Also included in this area is the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.).
   
In [[Denmark]] there are five levels of degrees: Bachelor's, Candidate's (may be compared to Master), Magister (similar to an [[MPhil]] in the [[United Kingdom]] system; a degree by research, higher than a Master's but lower than a Ph.D.), Ph.D., and finally Dr., which is the higher doctorate.
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In Australia, the term is on occasion applied to the [[Doctor of Juridical Science#Australia|SJD]],<ref name="Doctor of Juridical Science SJD">[http://research.law.unimelb.edu.au/index.cfm?objectId=3B8BAC72-B0D0-AB80-E2C0F006055B6085 Doctor of Juridical Science (SJD)]. Research.law.unimelb.edu.au (2010-06-04). Retrieved on 2010-10-26.</ref><ref>[http://www.handbook.uts.edu.au/courses/c02027.html UTS: C02027v4 Doctor of Juridical Science – Law, UTS Handbook]. Handbook.uts.edu.au (2009-10-30). Retrieved on 2010-10-26.</ref><ref>[http://courses.handbooks.uwa.edu.au/courses/c2/2081 UWA Handbooks 2011 > Doctor of Juridical Science]. Courses.handbooks.uwa.edu.au (2010-06-24). Retrieved on 2010-10-26.</ref> and on other occasions that degree is also categorized as a research degree.<ref>[http://www.atax.unsw.edu.au/study/docs/research-programs.pdf Doctor of Philosophy. Doctor of Juridical Science. Master of Laws by Research. Master of Taxation by Research. Faculty of Law], The University of New South Wales 2009</ref><ref>http://www.law.monash.edu.au/research/sjd.html</ref>
   
* dr. med. - Medicine
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=== Honorary ===
* dr. jur. - Law
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{{Main|Honorary degree}}
* dr. theol. - Theology
 
* dr. phil. - Philosophy (humanities)
 
* dr. polit. - Economics
 
* dr. scient. - Science (natural sciences)
 
* dr. techn. - Technology
 
   
These degrees (and in addition dr. ing.) were also used in [[Norway]], which traditionally used the same system as Denmark. Besides dr. philos, which is awarded to people who don't follow an organized degree program, new candidates are no longer awarded these degrees, but are instead awarded a Ph.D. The new Ph.D. degree was introduced in the early 2000s. The Ph.D. in Norway is not a lower-level research doctorate.
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When a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's contributions to a particular field or philanthropic efforts, it may choose to grant a doctoral degree ''honoris causa'' (i.e., "for the sake of the honor"), the university waiving the usual formal requirements for bestowal of the degree.<ref>[https://berkley-u.edu/hon_deg.html University of Berkley. Doctoral, Masters, Bachelors and Associate Degrees Online<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref>[http://www.cmu.edu/cmnews/extra/040510_doctorates.html Three to Receive Honorary Degrees for Contributions to Science and Technology, and Public Policy<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Some universities do not award honorary degrees, for example, [[Cornell University]],<ref>[http://ezra.cornell.edu/posting.php?timestamp=1052974800#question19 Dear Uncle Ezra – Questions for Thursday, May 15, 2003 – Cornell University<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> the [[University of Virginia]],<ref>[http://www.virginia.edu/registrar/records/05-06gradrec/chapter4/chapter4-1.htm#honorary University Regulations: Academic Regulations: Graduate Record 2005–2006]</ref> the [[California Institute of Technology]], and [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]].<ref>[http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2001/commdegrees.html No honorary degrees is an MIT tradition going back to ... Thomas Jefferson]</ref>
   
The PhD is in Denmark known as the "lower doctorate" or the "small doctorate".
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===Professor as a higher degree===
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{{Main|Professorial degree}}
   
===Doctorates in Germany===
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An extreme rarity among degrees are the ''Professorial degrees''.
In Germany, all doctorates bear the same level of merit (there are no first-degree doctorates as medical doctors do not necessarily hold a doctorate, although it is much easier for medical students to earn the degree (it is completed in about one year within their course) than for those studying other disciplines (where the doctorate is a separate degree which takes 3, 5 or even more years). Apart from that, Germany uses different titles, which are written in front of the first name for addresses (within texts, the abbrevation "Dr." is common) and accompany person's name (unlike in German speaking Switzerland!). This is a list of the types of doctorates encountered most often. For each title the subject is indicated in which it is mostly awarded. (There are exceptions from this, depending on the rules and traditions of the degree-awarding university.)
 
   
*[[Dr. h.c.]] (''Doctor honoris causa'' - honorary doctor), but: Dr.-Ing. E.h. (German: ehrenhalber)
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In modern times, the ''status'' of [[professor]] is awarded as a recognition of sustained academic excellence, equivalent in standing to an honorary doctorate, but this is not a degree ''per se''. However, in past times, '''Professor''' was sometimes awarded as a degree.
*[[Dr.-Ing.]] (''Doktor Ingenieur'' - [[Engineering]], seldom [[computer science]])
 
*[[Dr. iur.]] (''Doctor iuris'' - [[Law]]), also: Dr. jur. although this is not the correct spelling
 
*[[Dr. med.]] (''Doctor medicinae'' - [[Medicine]]), also Dr. med. dent. for dentists and Dr. med. vet. for veterinarians
 
*[[Dr. oec. pub.]] (''Doctor oconomiae publicae'' - [[business administration]] ("Betriebswirtschaftslehre") or [[macro- and micro-economics]] ("Volkswirtschaftslehre")
 
*[[Doctor of Theology|Dr. theol.]] (''Doctor theologiae'' - [[Theology]])
 
*[[Dr. phil.]] (''Doctor philosophiae'' - [[humanities]])
 
*[[Dr. rer. nat.]] (''Doctor rerum naturalium'' - literally "Doctor of natural things" - all [[natural sciences]], [[mathematics]] and [[computer science]])
 
*[[Dr. rer. pol.]] (''Doctor rerum politicarum'' - [[Economics]], [[Business Administration]], [[Sociology]] and related subjects)
 
   
Upon the completion of a second dissertation or ''Habilitationsschrift'' a senior doctorate (dr.habil.) is awarded. This senior doctorate is known as the [[Habilitation]]. The degree of '[[Dr.habil.]]' or an equivalent professional experience is the necessary prerequisite for a position of ''Privatdozent'' or [[Professor]]
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One example of this is the degree of [[Sacrae Theologiae Professor]] (STP), which was awarded by the [[Pontifical University]]. This degree is now titled ''Sacrae Theologiae Doctor'' (STD) in keeping with usual modern practices.
   
===Doctorates in Slovakia===
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== Practice by country ==
====First-degree doctorates (also called "small doctorates", written before the name)====
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{{Main|List of doctoral degrees awarded by country}}
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{{Refimprove section|date=April 2008}}
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<!-- Many countries' programs are current hidden because they do not reference any citations. Feel free to modify and unhide text ONLY with appropriate citations.
   
* Doctor of medicine (Medicinæ universæ doctor - MUDr.)
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=== Brazil ===
* Doctor of dental medicine (Medicinæ dentalis doctor - MDDr.)
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The candidate is normally required to have received a [[Master's degree]] in a related field prior to getting a Doctor's degree. In a few cases however, some institutions may admit candidates who do not hold a Master's degree, based on their individual academic merit. A second and a third foreign language are also common requirements for those willing to enroll in a doctoral program in Brazil. The admission process varies by institution. Some require candidates to take several tests prior to admission to the program and others base admissions on a research proposal application and interview only. In both instances however, a faculty member must agree prior to admission to supervise the applicant for the duration of the doctorate.
* Doctor of veterinary medicine (Medicinæ veterinariæ doctor - MVDr.)
 
* Doctor of pharmacy (Pharmaciæ doctor - PharmDr.)
 
* Doctor of philosophy (Philosophiæ doctor - PhDr.)
 
* Doctor of natural sciences (Rerum naturalium doctor - RNDr.)
 
* Doctor of laws (Juris utrisque doctor - JUDr.)
 
* Doctor of paedeutics (Paedagogiæ doctor - PaedDr.)
 
* Doctor of theology (Theologiæ doctor - ThDr.)
 
* Doctor of social sciences (Rerum societarum doctor - RSDr., deprecated - used by communist regime)
 
   
====Higher doctorates (also called "big doctorates", written after the name)====
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The requirements for the Doctor's degree usually include satisfactory performance in a minimum number of advanced graduate courses, passing an oral qualifying exam, and submitting a doctoral thesis that must represent an original and relevant contribution to existing knowledge in the field of study to which the thesis topic is related. The thesis is examined in a final public oral exam administered by a panel of at least five faculty members, two of whom must be necessarily external examiners. After completion of the program, which normally lasts around 4 years, the candidate is commonly awarded the degree of ''Doutor'' (Doctor) followed by the name of the main area of specialization in which his/her research was conducted, e.g. ''Doutor em Direito'' (Doctor of Laws), ''Doutor em Ciências da Computação'' (Doctor of Computer Sciences), ''Doutor em Filosofia'' (Doctor of Philosophy), ''Doutor em Economia'' (Doctor of Economics), ''Doutor em Engenharia'' (Doctor of Engineering), ''Doutor em Medicina'' (Doctor of Medicine), and so on. The generic title of ''Doutor em Ciências'' (Doctor of Sciences) is normally used to refer collectively to doctorates in the natural sciences (i.e. Physics, Chemistry, Biological and Life Sciences, etc.)
   
* Candidate of sciences (Candidatus scientarum - CSc., now being replaced by common PhD.)
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All graduate programs in Brazilian public universities are tuition-free as mandated by the
* Doctor of sciences (Doctor scientarum - DrSc.)
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[[Constitution of Brazil|Brazilian constitution]]. Several graduate students with good academic standing are additionally supported by institutional scholarships granted by federal government agencies like CNPq (''Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico'') and CAPES (''Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento do Pessoal de Ensino Superior''). Personal scholarships are also provided by the various FAP's (''Fundações de Amparo à Pesquisa'') at the state level, especially FAPESP in the state of [[São Paulo state|São Paulo]], FAPERJ in the state of [[Rio de Janeiro]] and FAPEMIG in the state of [[Minas Gerais]]. Competition for graduate financial aid is very intense though and most scholarships support at most 2 years of Master's studies and 4 years of doctoral studies. The normal monthly stipend for doctoral students in Brazil is between 500 and 1000 USD.
* Doctor of arts (Artes doctor - ArtD.)
 
   
===Doctorates in Hungary===
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A degree of ''Doutor'' usually enables an individual to apply for a junior faculty position equivalent to that of Assistant Professor in the United States. Progression to full professorship at the rank known as ''Professor Titular'' requires however that the candidate be successful in a competitive public exam and normally takes many years. In the federal university system, individuals who hold a doctorate and are admitted as junior faculty members may progress (usually by seniority) to the rank of Associate Professor and, then, become eligible to take the competitive exam for full professorship provided that a professorship is available. In the São Paulo state universities however, progression to the rank of Associate Professor and subsequent eligibility to apply for a full professorship is conditioned on an individual's obtaining first the qualification of [[:pt:Livre-docência|Livre-docente]], which is similar to the [[Habilitation]] in the German university system and requires, in addition to a previous doctoral degree, the submission of a second thesis or cumulative portfolio of peer-reviewed publications, a public lecture before a panel of experts (including external members from other universities), and also passing a written exam.
   
*[[Doctor Liberalium Artium|D.L.A.]] (''Doctor Liberalium Artium'' (Doctor of Liberal Arts))
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Thank you. -->
   
===Doctorates in Portugal===
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===Argentina===
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In [[Argentina]] the doctorate (''doctorado'')<ref>[http://www.coneau.edu.ar/index.php?item=29&apps=16&id=428&act=ver# CONEAU<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> is the highest academic degree. The intention is that candidates produce true and original contributions in a specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.<ref name="autogenerated2">http://www.gfme.org/global_guide/pdf/13-18%20Argentina.pdf</ref> The doctoral candidate's work is presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a Doctoral Committee. The Committee is composed of examiners external to the program, and at least one examiner external to the institution. The academic degree of Doctor is conferred after a successful defense of the candidate’s dissertation.<ref>[http://www.coneau.edu.ar/index.php?item=29&apps=16&id=428&act=ver&idioma=en CONEAU<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Currently, there are approximately 2,151 postgraduate careers in the country, of which 14% were doctoral degrees.<ref name="autogenerated2" /> Doctoral programs in Argentina are overseen by the [[:es:Comisión Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación Universitaria|National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation]],<ref>[http://spuweb.siu.edu.ar/studyinargentina/pages/study1103.php Argentine Educational Portal: Quality Assurance]</ref> which is a decentralized agency in Argentina’s Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.<ref>[http://www.coneau.edu.ar/index.php?item=3&apps=64&idioma=en CONEAU<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
   
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=== Denmark ===
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In [[Denmark]], there are four levels of degrees: 1) a three-year Bachelor's degree (e.g. ''Bachelor of Arts'' = B.A.); 2) a two-year Candidate's degree (e.g. ''candidatus/candidata magisterii'' = cand.mag.), respectively a three-year extended research graduation, leading to the Magister's Degree (e.g. ''magister/magistra artium'' = mag.art.), the latter of which has recently been phased out in order to meet the international standards of the [[Bologna Process]] – both the ''cand.mag.'' and the ''mag.art.'' are generally compared to a Master's Degree (MA); 3) a Ph.D. Degree (ph.d.), which replaced the [[licentiate]] in 1988, and finally; 4) a Doctor's degree (fx ''doctor philosophiae'' = dr.phil.), which is the higher doctorate.
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For the Ph.D., the candidate writes a major thesis and has to defend it orally at a formal [[disputation]]. In the disputation, the candidate defends their thesis against three official opponents as well as opponents from the [[auditorium]] ''(ex auditorio)''.
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For the higher doctorate, the candidate writes a major thesis and has to defend it orally at a formal disputation. In this disputation, the candidate (called ''præces'') defends this thesis against two official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium (''ex auditorio'').
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=== Egypt ===
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In Egypt, the Doctorate degree – abbreviated as MD – is equivalent to the [[PhD]] degree.<ref>[http://www.seci.info/staff23.htm MD degree (equal to PHD degree)]</ref> To earn an MD in a specialty of science, one must have a Master degree (M.Sc.) (or 2 diplomas before the introduction of MSc degree in Egypt) before applying. Earning the MD degree involves studying a course in the specialization, and presenting and defending a dissertation thesis. It usually takes on average from three to five years.
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Many postgraduate medical and surgical specialties students earn a Doctorate degree in their specialties. After finishing a 6-year medical school and one-year internship (house officer), doctors and surgeons earn M.B. B.Ch. degree, which is equivalent to the [[Doctor of Medicine|MD]] degree of medical schools in the US. They can then apply to earn a Master degree or a speciality diploma then an MD degree in a specialty.
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The MD degree in Egypt is written with the name of one's specialty afterward. For example, MD (Geriatrics) means a Doctorate Degree in [[Geriatrics]], which is equivalent to a Ph.D degree in Geriatrics.\
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Academic sciences like Microbiology earn a PhD degree.
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=== Finland ===
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In the Finnish education system, the requirement for the entrance into the doctoral studies is a Master's degree or equivalent qualification. All universities have the right to award doctorates in their assigned fields.<ref>[http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2004/20040794 Government decree on university degrees (794/2004)]. Retrieved 14-1-2008. {{fi}}</ref> The ''ammattikorkeakoulu'' institutes (institutes of higher vocational education that are not universities but often called "Universities of applied sciences" in English) do not award doctoral or other academic degrees. The aim of the studies for the doctoral degree is threefold:
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# The student must obtain sublime understanding of their field and its meaning to the society, while becoming prepared to use the methods of scientific or scholarly study in their field, creating new scientific or scholarly knowledge.
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# The student must obtain a good understanding of development, basic problems and research methods of their field
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# The student must obtain such understanding of the general theory of science and letters and such knowledge of the neighbouring research field that they are able to follow the development of these fields.
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The way to show that these general requirements have been met is also threefold:
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# The graduate coursework required by the university.
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# a show of critical and independent thought in the research field
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# preparation and a public defence of a dissertation, which may be a [[monograph]] or a [[compilation thesis]], i.e. a collection of peer-reviewed articles with an extended summary. In the area of fine arts, the dissertation may be substituted by artistic merits and performances as decided by the degree-awarding faculty.
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In Finland, the entrance into the graduate studies is not as controlled as in undergraduate studies, where a strict [[numerus clausus#Numerus clausus in Finland|numerus clausus]] is applied. Usually, a prospective graduate student discusses his plans with a professor of his choice. If the professor wishes to accept the student, the student applies the faculty for a study place. Nonetheless, in some cases, the professor may recruit the student to his group after a successful completion of a master's thesis, for instance.<ref>[https://oa.doria.fi/handle/10024/42487 Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina]. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Page 27. University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009. {{fi}}.</ref> In any case, a formal graduate study place does not guarantee funding. The student must obtain funding either by working in a research unit or through scholarships handed out by private foundations. Typically, it is easier to obtain funding for graduate studies in natural and engineering sciences, while graduate studies in letters are more difficult to finance. Sometimes, it may be possible to combine normal work and research activity.<ref>[https://oa.doria.fi/handle/10024/42487 Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina]. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Page 108. University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009. {{fi}}.</ref>
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Prior to introduction of [[Bologna process]], Finland required at least 42 credit weeks (1800 hours) of formal coursework of doctoral students. The general requirement was removed in 2005, leaving the decision on the scale of coursework needed to individual universities, which may delegate the authority to faculties and even to individual professors. In fields of Engineering and Science, the required amount of coursework varies between 60 and 70 [[European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System|ECTS]].
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The time for the completion of graduate studies varies, as there are no fixed time limits written into the law or to most university regulations. It is possible to graduate even in three years after the master's degree, while much longer periods are by no means uncommon. In any case, the study ends with the completion of a dissertation, which must make a substantial contribution to the field by presenting new scientific or scholarly knowledge. The dissertation can either be a monograph or it can be edited from a collection of 3 to 7 journal articles, including an introduction tying together the individual parts. If a student is unable or unwilling to write a dissertation, he may qualify for [[licentiate]] degree of his field by completing the coursework requirement and writing a shorter thesis, usually worth of one year of research.
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After the dissertation is ready, it is submitted to the faculty, which names two pre-examiners with doctoral degrees from the outside of the university. These pre-examiners must be noted experts of the field. Their acceptance of the work is necessary for the permission to defend the work. During the pre-examination process, the student may receive comments on the work and if necessary, requirements to modify it.<ref>[https://oa.doria.fi/handle/10024/42487 Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina]. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Pages 29 and 125–126. University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009. {{fi}}.</ref> After the pre-examiners approve, the doctoral candidate applies the faculty for the permission to print the thesis. Simultaneously with the printing permission, the faculty names the ''opponent'' for the thesis defence, who must also be an outside expert of the field, with at least a doctoral degree. In all Finnish universities, an archaic tradition requires that the printed dissertation must hang on a chord by a public university noticeboard for at least ten days after the printing permission has been given in order for the defence of the dissertation to be possible.<ref>[https://oa.doria.fi/handle/10024/42487 Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina]. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Pages 29 and 129. University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009. {{fi}}.</ref>
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The doctoral dissertation takes place in public, usually in a university auditorium, with the opponent and the candidate conducting a very formal debate, usually wearing [[white tie]], under the supervision of the thesis supervisor. It is customary for the family, friends, colleagues and the members of the research community to attend the defence proceedings. After a formal entrance, the candidate begins the proceeding by a c. 20-minute popular lecture (''lectio praecursoria''), which is meant to introduce the laymen present to the topic of the thesis. After this, the opponent gives a short talk on the topic of the defence, after which the pair critically discusses the dissertation. The proceedings take two, maybe three hours. At the end of the proceeding, the opponent presents his final statement on the work, and reveals whether he/she will recommend that the faculty accept it. After the opponent has finished, any member of the public has an opportunity to raise questions on the dissertation, although such ''opponents extraordinary'' are rare. Immediately after the defence, the supervisor, the opponent and the passed candidate drink coffee with the public. Usually, the attendees of the defence are handed out the printed dissertation and leave with it.<ref>[https://oa.doria.fi/handle/10024/42487 Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina]. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Pages 130–160. University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009. {{fi}}.</ref> In the evening, the passed candidate is obligated to host a dinner ({{lang-fi|karonkka}}) in the honour of the opponent. Usually, the candidate invites his family and colleagues and collaborators.<ref>[https://oa.doria.fi/handle/10024/42487 Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina]. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Pages 160–180. University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009. {{fi}}.</ref>
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=== France ===
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In France, the doctorate (''doctorat'') is always a research-only degree. It is a national degree and its requirements are fixed by an official text of the minister of higher education and research. Except for a very small number of private institutions, only public institutions of higher education and research can award the doctorate. It can be awarded in any field of study. The [[Master's degree in Europe|master's degree]] is a prerequisite for pursuing a doctoral program. The official normal duration of the doctoral work is three years. The redaction of a comprehensive thesis constitutes the bulk of the doctorate's work. While the length of the thesis varies according to the discipline, it is rarely less than 150 pages, and often substantially more. There are ~15000 new matriculations for the doctoral program every year and ~10000 doctorates awarded.<ref>[http://www.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/cid20185/doctorat.html Doctorate on Superior Education Ministry web (in French)]</ref>
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Doctoral candidates can apply for a three-year fellowship, the most well known being the ''allocation de recherche du ministère de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche'' (4000 granted every years, gross salary of 19,740 euros in December 2012).
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During the preparation of the doctorate, the candidate has had, since 2002, to follow a limited number of courses, but there is no written examination for the doctorate. The candidate has to write an extensive thesis which is read by two external reviewers designated by the head of the institution. According to the reports of the reviewer, the head of the institution decides whether the candidate can defend his thesis or not. The members of the jury are designated by the head of the institution and must be composed of external and internal academics. The supervisor of the candidate is generally a member of the jury, as well as the reviewers of the thesis. The maximum number of members in the jury is 8. The defense lasts generally 45 minutes in scientific fields and are followed by 1h – 2h30 of questions from the jury or other doctors present in the assistance. Defense and questions are public. At the end of the series of questions, the jury deliberates in private for 20–30 min and comes back to declare the candidate admitted or "postponed". "Postponement" is very rare. The admission of the candidate is generally followed by a distinction: "honourable", which is not highly considered, "very honourable", which is the usual distinction, and "very honourable with the congratulation of the jury" ([[Très honorable avec félicitations]]). Because there exist no national criteria for the award of this last distinction, many institutions have decided not to award it. New regulations concerning this distinction were set in 2006. Many institutions have decided not to award any distinction, as it is now permitted by the law.
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Confusingly the title of doctor (''docteur'') is used only by the medical and pharmaceutical practitioners who hold not a doctorate but a doctor's state diploma (''diplôme d'État de docteur''), which is a first-degree and professional doctorate obtained after at least 9 years of studies. As they do not pursue research studies, they are not awarded a doctorate.
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Before 1984 three research doctorates existed : the state doctorate (''doctorat d'État'', the old doctorate introduced in 1808), the third cycle doctorate (''doctorat de troisième cycle''), created in 1954 and shorter than the state doctorate, and the diploma of doctor-engineer (''diplôme de docteur-ingénieur''), created in 1923, for technical research. Since 1984, there is only one type of doctoral degree, simply called "doctorate" (''Doctorat''). A special diploma has been created called the "accreditation to supervise research" (''habilitation à diriger des recherches''), which is a professional qualification to supervise doctoral work. (This diploma is similar in spirit to the older state doctorate, and the requirements for obtaining it are similar to those necessary to obtain [[tenure]] in other systems.) Before only professors or senior full researchers of similar rank were normally authorized to supervise a doctoral candidate's work.<ref>The French Education System, H. D. Lewis, Routledge, 1985, ISBN 0-7099-1683-3, ISBN 978-0-7099-1683-3</ref> Now the habilitation is a prerequisite to the title of professor in university (''Professeur des Universités'') and to the title of Research Director (''Directeur de recherche'') in national public research agency such as [[French National Centre for Scientific Research|CNRS]] or [[Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique|INRA]].
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=== Germany ===
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In Germany, a doctorate is usually a research doctorate. Its duration depends strongly on the field in which it is taken. While a doctorate in medicine may take less than a full-time year to complete, it takes between three and six years in engineering. In Germany, most doctorates are awarded with specific designations for the field of research instead of a general "PhD" for all fields, the most important ones being: ''[[Doctor of science|Dr. rer. nat.]]'' (Doctorate in Natural Sciences, i.e. Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Maths, Psychology often also Computer Science and Information Technology), ''Dr. phil.'' (Doctorate of philosophy, i.e. the humanities like Philosophy, philology, History, and social sciences like sociology or Psychology), ''Dr. iur.'' (Doctorate in Law), ''Dr. oec.'' (Doctorate in Economics), ''Dr. rer. pol.'' (Doctor Rerum Politicarum, aka Doctorate in Political Science), ''Dr. med.'' (Doctorate in Medicine), ''[[Doktor-Ingenieur|Dr.-Ing.]]'' (Doctorate in Engineering). There are over fifty such specific designations, many of which are highly specialized and rarely awarded. The degree can be written in front of the first name for addresses (within texts, the abbreviations "Dr." and "Dr.-Ing." are common) and accompanies the person's name (unlike in German-speaking [[Switzerland]], where some doctoral programs issue a PhD<ref>[http://www.gsb.uzh.ch PhD programs at The Graduate School of Business at the University of Zurich]</ref>). Although the "Dr." does not become part of a person's name one can demand naming the title in official documents. However, naming the title even in these documents is not mandatory. The "Dr." (but not the specification of the field) is commonly used to address someone with this title for instance in formal letters. If someone holds other titles, as in "Prof. (Professor) Dr. Dr.-Ing. [Surname]", it is common to use only the highest title in formal letters, as in "Prof. [Surname]".
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Upon the completion of the habilitation thesis (''Habilitationsschrift'') a different type of a doctorate (Dr. habil. or only: habil.) is awarded. This doctorate is known as the [[Habilitation]]. It is not considered a formal degree but an additional academic qualification. It qualifies the owner to teach at (German) universities ("facultas docendi"), plus the holder of the "habil." can apply for the authorization to teach a certain subject ("venia legendi"). This has been the traditional prerequisite for attaining the title ''[[Privatdozent]]'' (PD) and employment as a [[Professor]] at universities. With the introduction of ''Juniorprofessoren'' – around 2005 in Germany – as an alternative track towards becoming a professor at universities (with tenure), this has changed partially, and the [[Habilitation]] is no longer the only career track at universities.
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===India===
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In [[India]], doctorate level degrees are offered by the universities or institutions of national level importance deemed to be universities. Entry requirements for doctorate degrees by most of the universities include good academic background at masters level(post graduate degree). Some universities also consider undergraduate degrees in professional areas such as engineering, medicine or law for entrance to doctorate level degrees. Entrance examinations are held for almost all the universities for admission to doctoral level degrees. The duration of the coursework and thesis for award of the degree is (In most north Indian universities the minimum required time to submit your theses after registration is 2 academic years and in most of the universities in south India its 3 years after PhD registration .
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The most commonly awarded doctoral level degree is Ph.D. There are some other doctoral level degrees such as DBA ( Doctorate of Business Administration), DIT ( Doctorate of Information Technology), LLD (Doctorate in Laws) and D.Sc (Doctorate in Science). Some of the institutions of the national level importance such as Indian Institute of Management<ref>[http://www.iimb.ernet.in Indian Institute of Management Bangalore]. Iimb.ernet.in (2010-09-06). Retrieved on 2010-10-26.</ref> call their doctoral level programmes as fellow programme. Recently Pharmacy Council of India has permitted few colleges for Pharm D course (Doctorate in Pharmacy). Entry to professional fields such as medicine, dentistry, occupational therapy and physical therapy is at the bachelor's level that are usually of longer duration than a regular bachelor's degree (e.g. BSc, BCom, BA). The Pharm. D degree (Doctor of Pharmacy) takes the longest with 6 years to complete.
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=== Italy ===
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According to the ''European Higher Education Area Academic Degrees'' stated by the [[Bologna Process]] and to the ''Ministero dell'Educazione Pubblica'' (MIUR), Italy uses the three levels degree system. The first level degree, called "[[Laurea|laurea triennale]]" (''Bachelor's degree'') is obtained after three years of study and a short thesis on a specific subject. The second level degree, called "[[Laurea|laurea magistrale]]" (''Master's degree'') is obtained after two additional years of study, specializing in a particular branch of the chosen subject (e.g. particle physics, nuclear engineering, etc.). This degree requires a more complex thesis work, usually involving some academic research or an internship in a private company. The final degree is called "[[Laurea|dottorato di ricerca]]" (''Ph.D.'') and is obtained after three years of academic research on the subject and a thesis.
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Alternatively, after obtaining the ''laurea triennale'' or the ''laurea magistrale'' one can attend a "Master" (first-level Master after the ''laurea triennale''; second-level Master after the ''laurea magistrale'') of one or two years, offered by universities and private organisations with a variety of subjects, lengths and costs and usually including a final internship in a private company. An Italian "Master" is not to be confused with a Master degree; it is intended to be more focused on professional training and practical experience than standard degrees.
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The title for Bachelor Graduate students is, regardless from the field of study, ''[[Dottore]]/Dottoressa'' (abbrev. ''Dott.''/''Dott.ssa'', sometimes incorrectly abbreviated as ''Dr.'', meaning [[Doctor (title)|Doctor]]), not to be confused with the title for the [[PhD]] level graduate, which instead is ''[[Dottore]]/Dottoressa di Ricerca''. A ''laurea magistrale'' grants instead the title of ''[[Dottore]]/Dottoressa magistrale''. Graduates from the fields of Education, Art and Music are also called ''Dr. Prof.'' (or simply ''Professore'') or ''Maestro''. On the other side, many professional titles like ''ingegnere'' (engineer) are not automatically awarded upon the graduation on the corresponding field of study but instead are given upon passing a post graduation examination (''esame di stato''), and the subsequent registration in the relative professional association.
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The first institution in [[Italy]] to create a [[doctoral]] program ([[PhD]]) was [[Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa]] in 1927 under the historic name ''"Diploma di Perfezionamento"''.<ref>[http://download.sns.it/SNSguida_eng.pdf Student Guidebook - Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa]</ref><ref name="sns.it">[http://www.sns.it/scuola/istituzionale/regolamentointerno/download/statuto_sns.pdf STATUTO DELLA SCUOLA NORMALE SUPERIORE DI PISA (legge 18 giugno 1986, n. 308)]</ref>
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Further, the [[research]] [[doctorates]] or [[PhD]] ([[Italian language|Italian]]: ''Dottorato di ricerca'') in [[Italy]] were introduced with law and [[Presidential Decree]] in 1980 ([http://www.italgiure.giustizia.it/nir/1980/lexs_88887.html Law of February 21, 1980, No. 28] and the [[Presidential Decree]] [http://www.edscuola.it/archivio/norme/decreti/dpr382_80.html No. 382 of 11 July 1980]), referring to the reform of academic teaching, training and experimentation in organisation and teaching methods.<ref>[http://www.italgiure.giustizia.it/nir/1980/lexs_88887.html Law of February 21, 1980, No. 28]</ref><ref>[http://www.edscuola.it/archivio/norme/decreti/dpr382_80.html Decreto Presidente Repubblica 11 luglio 1980, n. 382]</ref>
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Hence, the [[Superior Graduate Schools in Italy]] ([[Grandes écoles]])<ref name="ricercaitaliana.it">[http://www.ricercaitaliana.it/scuole_eccellenza.htm Ricerca Italiana - Scuole di Eccellenza]</ref> ([[Italian language|Italian]]: ''Scuola Superiore Universitaria''),<ref name="bompard2000">[http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=150222&sectioncode=26 "Italy's big six form network for elite" in Times Higher Education (THE) by Paul Bompard, 18 February 2000]</ref> also called ''Schools of Excellence'' ([[Italian language|Italian]]: ''Scuole di Eccellenza'')<ref name="ricercaitaliana.it"/><ref>[http://scuoledieccellenza.it/ Scuole di Eccellenza]</ref> such as [[Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa]] and [[Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies]] still keep their reputed historical ''"Diploma di Perfezionamento"'' [[PhD]] title by [[law]]<ref name="sns.it"/><ref>[http://www.sssup.it/UploadDocs/7768_Legge_istitutiva_SSSA.pdf Article 3 of the Law of 14 February 1987, No.41 | L. 14 febbraio 1987, n. 41 Istituzione della Scuola superiore di studi universitari e di perfezionamento S. Anna di Pisa]</ref> and [[MIUR]] [http://www.istruzione.it/alfresco/d/d/workspace/SpacesStore/8efd760c-b779-4716-9566-2338ddff59e1/07_allegato_4_equipollenze_perfezionamenti_e_dottorati.pdf Decree].<ref>[http://www.istruzione.it/alfresco/d/d/workspace/SpacesStore/8efd760c-b779-4716-9566-2338ddff59e1/07_allegato_4_equipollenze_perfezionamenti_e_dottorati.pdf Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) Decree]</ref><ref>[http://guidalaureebiennali.miur.it/pdf/2008/05_Universita.pdf Università in Italia, Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR)]</ref>
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===Japan===
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====By dissertation====
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Until the 1990s, most doctorates in the natural sciences and engineering in Japan were earned by industrial researchers in Japanese companies. These degrees are awarded by the employees' former university, usually after many years of research in industrial laboratories. No matriculation is necessary, only submission of a dissertation with some articles published in well-known journals . This program, called {{nihongo|''ronbun hakase''|論文博士}}, represented the majority of engineering doctoral degrees from national universities. With the expansion of university-based doctoral programs called {{nihongo|''katei hakase''|課程博士}}, however, the proportion of these degrees earned is decreasing. By 1994, more doctoral engineering degrees were earned for research within university laboratories (53%) than industrial research laboratories (47%).<ref>[http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf97324/chp4.htm The Science and Technology Resources of Japan: A Comparison with the United States]. Nsf.gov (2004-11-10). Retrieved on 2010-10-26.</ref> Since 1978, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) provides tutorial and financial support for promising researchers in Asia and Africa to earn their PhD degrees through this route. The program is called JSPS RONPAKU.<ref>[http://www.jsps.go.jp/english/e-ronpaku/index.html Ronpaku (Dissertation Phd) Program]. JSPS. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.</ref>
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====Professional degree====
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The only professional doctorate in Japan is the Juris Doctor. In [[Japan]] the J.D. is known as ''Hōmu Hakushi'' (法務博士) <ref>The Justice System Reform Council (2001). ''For a Justice System to Support Japan in the 21st Century''.</ref> The program generally lasts two or three years. This curriculum is professionally oriented,<ref>Yokohama National University Law School.[http://www.iblaw.ynu.ac.jp/english/law/program_i.html Program Introduction and Dean's Message]. Retrieved April 7, 2008.</ref> but unlike in the United States the program does not provide the education sufficient for a license, as all candidates passed bar exam(Shihou shiken) for a bar license must attend the Legal Training and Research Institute and pass the practical exam(Nikai Shiken or Shihou Shushusei koushi).<ref>Foote, D. (2005). [http://www.reds.msh-paris.fr/communication/docs/foote.pdf Justice System Reform in Japan]. Annual meeting of the Research Committee of Sociology of Law, Paris. European Network on Law and Society.</ref>
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=== The Netherlands / Flanders ===
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The traditional academic system of The Netherlands provided four basic academic diplomas and degrees: ''propaedeuse'', ''kandidaat'', ''doctorandus'' (drs.) and ''doctor'' (dr.). After successful completion of the first year of University, the student was awarded the propaedeutic diploma (not a degree). In some studies, this diploma was already abolished in the 1980s: in physics and mathematics, the student could obtain directly a ''kandidaats'' degree in two years. The ''kandidaat'' (candidate) degree, which was all but abolished by 1989, used to be attained after four or five years of academic study, after which the student was allowed to begin work on his doctorandus thesis. The successful completion of this thesis allowed one to use the ''[[doctorandus]]'' title, attainment of which means one's initial studies are finished. In addition to these 'general' degrees, a number of specific titles for certain subjects are available, each of which is equivalent to the ''doctorandus'' degree: for law: ''meester'' (master) (mr.), and for engineering at a technical university like Delft: ''ingenieur'' (engineer)(ir.). In the last few years, the Dutch have incorporated the Anglo-Saxon system of academic degrees into their own. The old candidate's degree has been revived as bachelor's degree, the doctorandus' by the master's degree. However, Dutch regular university programmes tend to include subject matter which, e.g., at Harvard is only taught in PhD-courses (for instance advanced quantum mechanics or general relativity in a Dutch course for the master's degree in theoretical physics).
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Those who choose to can enroll in a doctorate system after achieving a masters degree (or equivalent) recognised by the Dutch government. The most common way is to be hired as ''promovendus''/''assistent in opleiding'' (aio)/''onderzoeker in opleiding'' (oio) ([[research assistant]] with additional courses and supervision), perform extensive research, and write a doctoral dissertation consisting of published scientific articles (this course is normally four years, although the average duration to completions is about 5.5 years). It is also possible to conduct research without the research assistant status, for example through a business sponsored research laboratory, or in spare time. Regardless of the way, every thesis has to be supported by a promotor (full university professor who has the role of principal advisor) before it can be submitted. The written thesis is subjected to review by a committee of experts in the relevant academic field; who either approve or reject the submitted thesis. Failures at this stage are rare as the supervisors will hold back submission (causing delay beyond the 4 years) rather than allow a substandard thesis to be submitted. The supervisors, and especially the promotor lose face with her/his colleagues allowing a substandard thesis to be submitted; thus gaining supervisor approval is in practice the more demanding requirement. After approval by the reviewers, the candidate will print typically 100-300 copies of the thesis and send it to colleagues, friends and family with an invitation to the public defense. The doctoral degree is awarded in a formal, public, defense session (failure during this session is in theory possible but in practice this never happens). The defense lasts exactly the assigned time slot (45 minutes or 1 hour exactly depending on the University) after which the defense is stopped by the ''pedel'' ([[proctor]]) who interrupts ongoing questioning by entering the room and announcing that the time is past in Latin (''Hora Est''). At this stage the candidate is allowed to stop the defense even midsentence, although in practice a short one sentence wrap up is usually given. If one of the examiners is still phrasing a question, no answer will be given.
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The doctor's title is the highest academic degree one can attain in the Netherlands. There is only one title "doctor", which as is explained above requires original scientific publications, unlike the Anglo-Saxon PhD., which is only an exam and may or may not include original scientific publications. However, the three Dutch universities of technology ([[Eindhoven University of Technology]], [[Technical University Delft]], and [[University of Twente]]) do award a [[Professional Doctorate in Engineering]] ([[Professional Doctorate in Engineering|PDEng]]).
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In the Netherlands, although the title doctor (dr.) is informally called PhD, there is no such thing as a PhD degree; there is the title doctor (dr.) in stead of PhD. Seeing that all other university titles (BSc/BBa/LL.B/BA M.Sc/MBA/LL.M/MA) are protected by law but PhD is not it follows that any person can call himself PhD in the Netherlands without having obtained that title. Calling oneself "Doctor" without having a doctorate ''is'' fraud though. For people who obtained a degree in a foreign country to be allowed to use the Dutch title drs. mr. ir. or dr. a request has to be made at the ''Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs''<ref>[http://www.ib-groep.nl/international_visitors/Diploma_assessment/Coming_to_the_Netherlands/s20_an_academic_title.asp] obtaining permission to use a Dutch title</ref> though according to the [[opportunity principle]] there is little incentive to punish such fraud. Dutch doctors may use the letter D behind their name instead of the shortcut dr. before their name.<ref name="postbus">[http://www.postbus51.nl/nl/home/themas/onderwijs/diploma-s-en-certificaten/titulatuur/welke-titel-mag-ik-voeren-als-ik-gepromoveerd-ben.html What title may I use after obtaining a doctorate?] Postbus 51.</ref>
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Those who have multiple doctor (dr.) titles may use dr.mult. before their own name.<ref name="postbus" /> Those who have received honoris causa doctorates may use dr.h.c. before their own name.<ref name="postbus" />
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In Flanders (the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium) the system is very similar, except the doctorandus title was only awarded to those who actually started their doctoral work. Doctorandus is still used as a synonym for a PhD student. The ''licentiaat'' (licencee) title was in use for a regular graduate until the Bologna reform changed the kandidaat to bachelor and licentiaat to master.
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=== Nepal ===
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In Nepal, doctorate level degrees are offered by the universities or institutions of national level importance deemed to be universities. Entry requirements for doctorate degrees by most of the universities include good academic background at masters level(post graduate degree). Some universities also consider undergraduate degrees in professional areas such as engineering, medicine or law for entrance to doctorate level degrees. Entrance examinations are held for almost all the universities for admission to doctoral level degrees. The duration of the coursework and thesis for award of the degree is 2 – 3 years after PhD registration .
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=== Pakistan ===
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Research Degrees are PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) awarded after extensive research work. To get admission in PhD you must be admitted to the MPhil program for which you need to pass NTS or GRE and should have good grades throughout your career. Exemption from MPhil is possible if you have MS from a reputable University.
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Professional Degree / Terminal Degree is awarded in Pharmacy i.e. Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD, a five (5) year course of study) which requires accreditation of the School / Faculty of Pharmacy by Pakistan Pharmacy Council. It is the only Professional Degree in Pharmacy awarded in Pakistan replacing Bachelor of Pharmacy degree ( a four (4) year course of study.
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=== Poland ===
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The Polish system is similar to the one adopted in Germany, with Ph.D. as a first level doctorate and [[habilitation]] (''habilitacja'') as second. The award of the title of ''doktor'' (Ph.D.) is usually preceded by 4–5 years of doctoral study (a post-graduate study offered at most universities, during which candidate is employed by this university and is usually obligated to teach some classes) and a doctoral exam. Doctoral studies usually consist of seminars, lectures, research and teaching. In order to become a ''doktor habilitowany'' (i.e. to be awarded a second level doctorate) a candidate has to publish a dissertation that is the culmination of several years of deep field studies, as well as have a recognized research record. While, according to current Polish law, candidates without [[habilitation]] are theoretically eligible to become professors, in practice it is extremely rare. Since 1993 only Master-degree holders are allowed to become a doctor, while prior to that time it was possible (but rare) to gain doctorate without Master studies (for example [[Stefan Banach]]).
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First, a prospective doctor must have published some works (articles, books). To become a doctor one needs to go through the process called doctoral proceedings (''przewód doktorski''). This proceedings include the writing of a [[dissertation]] (varying in length), which then must be accepted by a panel of professors during a so-called ''defence of the dissertation'' (''obrona pracy doktorskiej''). There are several other requirements, like passing an exam in a foreign language and subject related to the dissertation title.
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The title of a first level doctor is abbreviated as ''dr'' (without a full stop) before the surname of a person, e.g. ''dr Kowalski'' and a second level ''dr hab.''. After becoming a doctor ''mgr'' is omitted, e.g. ''mgr'' → ''dr'', ''mgr inż.'' → ''dr inż.''.
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''Doktor'' is also a common form of addressing a physician, but that does not indicate that the person actually holds a doctoral degree. Doctors of medicine have the abbreviation ''dr n. med.'' (doctor of medical science) before or after their surname.
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Other specific doctoral titles include ''dr inż.'' (doctor of engineering) and ''dr n. farm'' (doctor of pharmaceutical science). ''Dr n.hum.'' means doctor of humanities (incl. psychology and sociology), but is rarely used to differentiate from doctors of other fields. All other doctorates have no indications of their field.
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=== Portugal ===
 
*Doutor (Doctor)
 
*Doutor (Doctor)
Note: In Portugal and in the African Countries of Portuguese Official Language it is common to use the title "Dr." (supposedly the abbreviation of "Doutor") in reference to people with "Licenciatura" degrees (a "Licenciatura" is something between a Bachelor and a Master Degree in most countries, and currently (Jan 2006) represents 4 or 5 years of graduate studies; except in the following Licenciaturas: Pharmaceutical Sciences, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Dental Medicine, which are 6-year long and the degree is equivalent to DPharm, DM/MD, etc. After the [[Bologna process|Bologna Process]] reform takes place in Portugal, it will have 3 to 4 years and be equivalent to any Bachelor degree in the E.U. countries that adopt this process). Some professionals have, however, different titles. For example: "Eng." (Engenheiro, Engineer), "Arq." (Arquitecto, Architect).
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All doctoral programs are of research nature. Usually 3 or 4 years of study are required, mostly as a period of research. The student must write his (or her) thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to Science. If approved by his/her "supervisor", the study will be presented to a panel of distinguished scholars. If approved, he or she will receive the doctorate.
The term "Doctor" in Portugal is used for those with a PhD and, instead of the title "Dr.", use "Doutor" (the extended form) or "Professor Doutor" (because, usually, PhD's are university professors).
 
   
===Doctorates in Finland===
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*Male title: "Dr." and "Doutor". Female title: "Dra." and "Doutora".
Finland requires 45 credits of courses and 5 or 7 journal articles for a doctorate degree.
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In Portugal and in the African Countries of Portuguese Official Language it is common to use the title "Dr." (supposedly the abbreviation of "Doutor") in reference to people with "Licenciatura" or "Mestrado" degrees.
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Thus "Doutor" is commonly used in the extended form to denote someone with a doctorate. "Professor Doutor" is used with professional career teaching doctorates, usually university professors).
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Before the [[Bologna process|Bologna Process]] reform, a "Licenciatura" was something between a Bachelor ("Bacharelato" in Portugal) and it represented 4 to 6 years of graduate studies.
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After the [[Bologna process|Bologna Process]] reform in Portugal, the new "Licenciatura" degree is equivalent to the old "Bacharelato" (Bachelor with 3 or 4 years). There are also the "Mestrado" (Master degree) and the "Mestrado Integrado" (integrated Bachelor and Master degree with 5 or 6 years, required for access to some professional fields).
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Some professionals have, however, different titles. For example: "Eng." (Engenheiro, such as the Master of Engineering), "Arq." (Arquitecto, Architect). The term "Dr." in Portugal is also used for people from other professional fields. For Example, Dentists, Lawyers and Physicians.
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=== Russia ===
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Many post-Soviet countries, including [[Russian Federation]], have a two-stage research degree obtaining path, generally similar to the doctorate system in Europe. The first stage is named ''"[[Kandidat]](Кандидат наук) of <...> Sciences"'' (literal translation means "Candidate of Sciences",) (for instance, [[Kandidat]] of Medical Sciences, of Chemical Sciences, of Philological Sciences, and so on). The Kandidat of Sciences degree is usually recognised as an equivalent of Philosophy Doctor (Ph.D.) degree and requires at least (and typically more than) three, four or five years of post-graduate research which is finished by defence of [[Dissertation]] or rarely - [[thesis]]. Additionally, a seeker of the degree has to pass three examinations (a so-called "Kandidate's minimum"): in his/her special field, in a foreign language, and in the history and philosophy of science. After additional certification by the corresponding experts, the Kandidat degree may be recognized internationally as an equivalent of Ph.D. (An unconditional Ph.D. equivalence has been recognized before the [[dissolution of the Soviet Union]], and the additional certification in many countries has become required after the steep increase flow of post-Soviet emigration.) The second stage, [[Doktor nauk]], ''"Doctor of <...> Sciences"'', requires many years of research experience, and writing of a second dissertation. The degrees of Kandidat and Doktor of Sciences are only awarded by the special governmental agency ([[Higher Attestation Commission]]); a university or a scientific institute where the thesis was defended can only recommend to award a seeker the sought degree.
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=== Spain ===
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[[Image:Birrete doctoral.jpg|thumb|right|300px|The ancient ceremony of bestowing [[Complutense]]'s Doctoral ''[[biretta]]'']]
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Doctor degrees are regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 778/1998),<ref>[http://www.upm.es/laupm/organos_gobierno/normativa/NormativaDoctorado0203.pdf (in Spanish)]</ref> ''Real Decreto'' (in [[Spanish language|Spanish]]). They are granted by the University on behalf of the King, and its Diploma has the force of a public document. The Ministry of Science keeps a National Registry of Theses called TESEO.<ref>[https://www.micinn.es/teseo/listarBusqueda.do Base de Datos TESEO<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> According to the National Institute of Statistics (INE), less than 5% of M.Sc. degree holders are admitted to Ph.D. programmes.
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All doctoral programs are of research nature. A minimum of 5 years of study were required, and were divided into 2 stages:
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# A 3-year (or longer) period of studies, which concludes with a public dissertation presented to a panel of 3 Professors. If the project receives approval from the university, he/she will receive a "Diploma de Estudios Avanzados" (part qualified doctor, equivalent to M.Sc.).
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# A 2-year (or longer) period of research. Extensions may be requested for up to 10 years. The student must write his thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to Science. If approved by his "thesis director", the study will be presented to a panel of 5 distinguished scholars. Any Doctor attending the public defense is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions on his research. If approved, he/she will receive the doctorate. Four marks used to be granted: Unsatisfactory (''Suspenso''), Pass (''Aprobado''), Remarkable (''Notable''), "Cum laude" (''Sobresaliente''), and "Summa cum laude" (''Sobresaliente Cum Laude''). Those Doctors granted their degree "Summa Cum Laude" were allowed to apply for an "Extraordinary Award".
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Note that since September 2012 and regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 99/2011) (in Spanish),<ref>http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2011/02/10/pdfs/BOE-A-2011-2541.pdf</ref> three marks can be granted: Unsatisfactory (''No apto''), Pass (''Apto'') and "Cum laude" (''Apto Cum Laude'') as maximum mark. In the public defense the doctor is notified if the thesis has passed or not passed; if the doctor is granted the ''Apto Cum Laude'' mark, this will be notified by letter or e-mail after the public defense as it is the result of a private votation (even between the panel members): closed votes are checked and verified by the University after the public defense. Doctors granted "Apto Cum Laude" can be nominated for an "Extraordinary Award" (''Premio Extraordinario de Doctorado'') if all the panel members vote so. There is also a numeric mark up to 50 (10 points per scholar in the panel), but it is only communicated to the candidate, the thesis director and the department.
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Also, since the same Royal Decree (R.D. 99/2011) the initial 3-year period of studies is substituted by a Research Master Degree (one or two years; Professional Master Degrees do not grant direct access to Ph.D. Programs) which concludes with a public dissertation called "Trabajo de Fin de Máster" or "Proyecto de Fin de Máster". If the project receives approval from the university, he/she will receive a Masters Degree that grants access to become a Ph.D. Candidate and initiate the period of research.
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A Doctor degree is required in order to apply to a teaching position at the University.<ref>[http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2007/10/30/pdfs/A44037-44048.pdf Real Decreto 1393/2007. Texto del Documento<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
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The social standing of Doctors in Spain is evidenced by the fact that only [[Ph.D.]] holders, [[Grandees]] and [[Duke]]s can take seat and cover their heads in the presence of the King.<ref>[http://www.protocolo.org/gest_web/proto_Seccion.pl?rfID=459&arefid=2871&pag=8 Raíces de las normas y tradiciones del protocolo y ceremonial universitario actual: las universidades del Antiguo Régimen y los actos de colación. Protocolo y Etiqueta<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
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[[Complutense University]] was the sole university in Spain authorised to confer the Doctor degree on any scholar. This law remained in effect until 1954, when the authorization was extended to the [[University of Salamanca]] in commemoration of its septecentenary. This made the degree of Doctor all the more unique and prestigious in social circles. In 1970, the right was extended to all Spanish universities, ending the monopoly of [[Complutense University]] over this distinction.<ref>[http://es.wikisource.org/wiki/Ley_Moyano_de_Instrucci%C3%B3n_P%C3%BAblica_de_1857:_14 Article 129, Moyano Law<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
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  +
All Doctorate Degree holders are reciprocally recognised as equivalent in Germany and Spain ("Bonn Agreement of November 14, 1994").<ref>[http://www.boe.es/g/es/bases_datos/doc.php?coleccion=iberlex&id=1995/12243&codmap= Boletín Oficial del Estado. Texto del Documento<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
  +
  +
=== United Kingdom ===
  +
  +
All doctorates (except for those awarded ''honoris causa'') granted by British universities are research doctorates in the sense described above, in that their main (and in many cases only) component is the submission of a thesis or portfolio of original research, examined by an expert panel appointed by the university. The [[Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education|Quality Assurance Agency]] (for England, Wales and Northern Ireland but not Scotland) states:
  +
{{Quotation|Doctorates are awarded to students who have demonstrated:
  +
  +
# the creation and interpretation of new knowledge, through original research or other advanced scholarship, of a quality to satisfy peer review, extend the forefront of the discipline, and merit publication;
  +
# a systematic acquisition and understanding of a substantial body of knowledge which is at the forefront of an academic discipline or area of professional practice;
  +
# the general ability to conceptualise, design and implement a project for the generation of new knowledge, applications or understanding at the forefront of the discipline, and to adjust the project design in the light of unforeseen problems;
  +
# a detailed understanding of applicable techniques for research and advanced academic enquiry.|Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland,<ref name="qaa-fhe">[http://www.qaa.ac.uk/academicinfrastructure/FHEQ/EWNI/default.asp QAA: The framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland – January 2001]</ref> Annex 1}}
  +
  +
The professional doctorates such as the [[EngD]], [[EdD]], [[Doctor of Social Science|DSocSci]], DCrimJ and [[Doctor of Clinical Psychology|DClinPsych]] requires the submission of a body of original research of a similar length to a PhD thesis.<ref name="ukcge-pd"/> In the case of the EngD, however, this might be in the form of a portfolio of technical reports on different research projects undertaken by the candidate as opposed to a single, long monographical thesis. Another important difference is that traditional PhD programs are mostly academic-oriented, whereas, in an EngD programme, the candidate typically works full-time for an industrial sponsor on application-oriented topics of direct interest to the partner company and is jointly supervised by university faculty members and company employees.
  +
  +
The PhD itself is a comparatively recent introduction to the UK, dating from 1917. It was originally introduced in order to provide a similar level of graduate research training as was available in several other countries, notably Germany and the USA. Previously, the only doctorates available were the higher doctorates, awarded in recognition of an illustrious research career.
  +
  +
The universities of [[University of Oxford|Oxford]] and [[University of Sussex|Sussex]] denote the degree of Doctor of Philosophy with the postnominal initials DPhil. The [[University of York]] also did this for some years, switching to the more conventional PhD quite recently.{{when|date=February 2013}}
  +
  +
In UK the Doctorate is a qualification awarded at NVQ level 5 or QCF level 8 in the national qualifications framework. http://www.ofqual.gov.uk/help-and-advice/comparing-qualifications/
  +
  +
====Higher degrees====
  +
  +
Higher doctorates are awarded in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years. Typically the candidate will submit a collection of work which has been previously published in a peer-refereed context and pay an examination fee. The university then assembles a committee of academics both internal and external who review the work submitted and decide on whether the candidate deserves the doctorate based on the submission.
  +
  +
Most universities restrict candidacy to graduates or academic staff of several years' standing. The most common doctorates of this type are those in [[Doctor of Divinity|Divinity]] (DD), [[Doctor of Laws|Laws]] (LLD), [[Doctor of Civil Law|Civil Law]] (DCL), [[Doctor of Music|Music]] (DMus or MusD), [[Doctor of Letters|Letters]] (DLitt or LittD), [[Doctor of Science|Science]] (DSc or ScD) and DSc(Med). In the United Kingdom, the degrees in medicine or dentistry that permit licensure are bachelors' degrees; these correspond roughly with the MD in the USA or the Dr.med. in Germany. The MD in the United Kingdom (in most universities) is an unsupervised doctorate by thesis, usually ranking above the supervised PhD, but below the DSc(Med).
  +
  +
Of these, the DD historically ranked highest, theology being the senior faculty in the mediaeval universities. The degree of [[Doctor of Canon Law]] was next in the order of precedence, but (except for a brief revival during the reign of [[Mary I of England|Mary Tudor]]) did not survive the [[Protestant reformation]],<ref name=hm>W N Hargreaves-Mawdsley, ''A History of Academical Dress in Europe Until the End of the Eighteenth Century'', Oxford (1963) pages 103 and 115</ref> a consequence of the fact that the teaching of canon law at Cambridge and Oxford was forbidden by [[Henry VIII of England|Henry VIII]], [[History of the Church of England|founder]] of the [[Church of England]]. The DMus was, historically, in an anomalous situation, since a candidate was not required to be a member of [[Convocation]] (that is, to be a [[Master of Arts (postgraduate)|Master of Arts]]). The DLitt and DSc are relatively recent innovations, dating from the latter part of the 19th century.
  +
  +
====Honorary degrees====
  +
  +
Most British universities award degrees ''honoris causa'' in order to recognise individuals who have made a substantial contribution to a particular field. Usually an appropriate higher doctorate is used in these circumstances, depending on the achievements of the candidate. However, some universities, in order to differentiate between honorary and substantive doctorates, have introduced the degree of [[Doctor of the University]] (DUniv) for these purposes, and reserve the higher doctorates for formal academic research.
  +
  +
=== United States ===
  +
  +
====Research degrees====
  +
[[File:Woolsey Hall, Yale University.jpg|thumb|right|[[Yale University]] awarded the first Ph.D. in the U.S.]]
  +
The most common research doctorate is the [[Doctor of Philosophy]] (Ph.D.). This degree was first awarded in the U.S. at the 1861 [[Yale University]] commencement.<ref name="web.archive.org"/> The [[University of Pennsylvania]] followed shortly thereafter in 1871,<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=0UoHIAeSKvAC&lpg=RA3-PA457&ots=qFADSNpmrF&dq=upenn%20first%20phd%201871&pg=RA3-PA457#v=onepage&q=&f=false American higher education in the ... – Google Books]. Books.google.com. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.</ref> while [[Cornell University|Cornell]] (1872),<ref>[http://www.gradschool.cornell.edu/index.php?p=36 Cornell University Graduate School – Our History]. Gradschool.cornell.edu. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.</ref> [[Harvard]] (1873),<ref>[http://gsas.harvard.edu/publications/history_and_organization.php ]{{dead link|date=October 2010}}</ref> and [[Princeton University|Princeton]] (1879)<ref>[http://gradschool.princeton.edu/about/history/ History & Purpose – The Graduate School – Princeton University]. Gradschool.princeton.edu (2010-10-01). Retrieved on 2010-10-26.</ref> also followed suit. Unlike the introduction of the professional doctorate M.D., there was considerable controversy and opposition over the introduction of the Ph.D. into the U.S. educational system, even through the 1950s, as it was seen as an unnecessary artificial transplant from a foreign educational system (that of Germany), which corrupted a system based on the Oxbridge model of England.<ref>Prior, Moody E. (1965). "The Doctor of Philosophy Degree." in Walters, E. ed. Graduate Education Today. American Council on Education. Washington, D.C. p. 32.</ref>
  +
  +
The requirements for obtaining Ph.D.s and other research doctorates in the U.S. typically entail successful completion of pertinent classes, passing of a [[comprehensive examination]], and [[Thesis#Thesis examinations|defense of a dissertation]].<ref>[http://math.arizona.edu/gradprogram/handbook/phdrequirements.html Grad Program | Handbook | Ph.D. Requirements<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
  +
  +
The median number of years for completion of doctoral degrees for all fields in the US is seven.<ref name="autogenerated1" /> Furthermore, doctoral applicants were previously required to have a [[master's degree]], but many programs will now accept students immediately following their undergraduate studies.<ref>[http://www.owen.vanderbilt.edu/vanderbilt/Programs/phd/phd-admissions/index.cfm Vanderbilt Owen Graduate School of Management : PhD Admissions<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref>[http://www.mgmt.purdue.edu/programs/phd/admissions/ Krannert School of Management – Admissions<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Many programs simply gauge the potential of a student applying to their program and will give them a master's degree upon completion of the necessary Ph.D course work. {{Citation needed|date=May 2011}} When so admitted, the student is expected to have mastered the material covered in the masters degree even though the student does not officially hold a masters degree. {{Citation needed|date=May 2011}} Once the person has finished Ph.D. qualifying exams, he/she is considered a Ph.D candidate, and may begin work on his/her [[dissertation]]. {{Citation needed|date=May 2011}}
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The International Affairs Office of the U.S. Department of Education lists over 20 frequently awarded research doctorate degree titles accepted by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as representing degrees equivalent in research content to the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree.<ref>[http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/doctorate.doc Structure of the U.S. Education System:Research Doctorate Degrees]</ref> They are:
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[[Doctor of Arts]] (D.A./D. Arts),
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Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.),
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Doctor of Church Music (D.C.M.),
  +
Doctor of Canon Law (J.C.D./D.C.L.),
  +
Doctor of Design (D.Des.),
  +
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.),
  +
Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng./D.E.Sc./D.E.S.),
  +
Doctor of Fine Arts (D.F.A.),
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Doctor of Health Science (D.H.Sc.),
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Doctor of Hebrew Letters (D.H.L.),
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Doctor of Industrial Technology (D.I.T.),
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Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D./S.J.D.),
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Doctor of Management (D.M.),
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Doctor of Music (D.M.),
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Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A./A.Mus.D./D.Mus.A.),
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Doctor of Music Education (D.M.E.),
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Doctor of Modern Languages (D.M.L.),
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Doctor of Nursing Science (D.N.Sc.),
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Doctor of Occupational Therapy (O.T.D.),
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.),
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Doctor of Public Administration (D.P.A.),
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Doctor of Physical Education (D.P.E.),
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Doctor of Public Health (Dr.P.H.),
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Doctor of Sacred Theology (S.T.D.),
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Doctor of Biblical Studies (D.B.S.),
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Doctor of Science (D.Sc./Sc.D.),
  +
Doctor of Social Work (D.S.W.), and
  +
Doctor of Theology (Th.D.).
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====Professional degrees====
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In the [[United States]], numerous fields of study have professional doctorates, such as [[medicine]]/[[osteopathic medicine]], [[public health]], [[dentistry]], [[optometry]], [[pharmacy]], [[psychology]], [[physical therapy]], [[occupational therapy]], [[health science]], [[advanced practice registered nurse]], [[chiropractic]], [[naturopathic medicine]], [[law]], [[education]], [[teaching]], and many others that usually require such degrees for [[licensure]]. Some of these degrees are also termed "[[first professional degree]]s," since they are also the first degrees in their fields.
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Professional doctorates were developed in the United States in the 19th century during a movement to improve the training of professionals by raising the requirements for entry and completion of the degree necessary to enter the profession.<ref>Reed, A. (1921). ‘’Training for the Public Profession of the Law, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15.’’ Boston: Merrymount Press.</ref> These [[first professional degree]]s were created to help strengthen professional training programs. The first professional doctorate to be offered in the United States was the [[Doctor of Medicine|M.D.]] in 1767 by Columbia University<ref name="A brief history of Columbia">{{cite web| url=http://www.columbia.edu/about_columbia/history.html |publisher=Columbia University |title=A brief history of Columbia |accessdate=April 24, 2010}}</ref> which was nearly one hundred years before the first Ph.D. was awarded in the U.S. in 1861.<ref>[http://www.yale.edu/timeline/1861/index.html Landmarks in Yale’s history<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> The [[Juris Doctor]] (J.D.) was subsequently established by Harvard University for the same reasons that the M.D. was established.<ref>Harno, A. (2004) [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=PEVayHaV4XYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1 Legal Education in the United States], New Jersey: Lawbook Exchange, p. 50.</ref> A Doctor of Pharmacy is awarded as the Terminal/Professional degree in Pharmacy replacing BS in Pharmacy. It is the only Professional Pharmacy Degree awarded in the US and the Pharmacy School needs accreditation of American Council on Pharmacy Education (ACPE). Pharmacy programs vary in length between 4–6 years depending if a matriculating student has earned a BS/BA or not.
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Recently there has been a trend for introducing professional doctorates in other fields as well, including the [[Doctor of Audiology]] in 2007. Advanced Practice Registered Nurses are expected to completely transition to the [[Doctor of Nursing Practice]] by 2015, and physical therapists to the [[Doctor of Physical Therapy]] by 2020.
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{| class="wikitable sortable"
  +
|-
  +
! Profession !! Professional doctorate in the United States !! First awarded
  +
|-
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|| Physician || Medicinae Doctor and [[Doctor of Medicine]] (M.D.) || 1767<ref name="A brief history of Columbia"/>
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|-
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|| Osteopathic Physician || [[Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine]] (D.O.) || 1892
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|-
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|| Chiropractor || [[Doctor of Chiropractic]] (D.C.) ||
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|-
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|| Dentist || [[Doctor of Dental Surgery]] (D.D.S) and Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.) ||
  +
|-
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|| Occupational Therapy || [[Doctor of Occupational Therapy]] (O.T.D.) ||
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|-
  +
|| Social Work || [[Doctor of Social Work]] (D.S.W.) ||
  +
|-
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|| Counseling || [[Doctor of Professional Counseling]] (D.P.C.) ||
  +
|-
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|| Physical Therapy || [[Doctor of Physical Therapy]] (D.P.T) ||
  +
|-
  +
|| Podiatrist || [[Doctor of Podiatric Medicine]] (D.P.M.) ||
  +
|-
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|| Pharmacist || [[Doctor of Pharmacy]] (PharmD) ||
  +
|-
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|| Government || [[Doctor of Public Administration]] (D.P.A.) ||
  +
|-
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|| Veterinarian || [[Doctor of Veterinary Medicine]] (D.V.M.) and Veterinariae Medicinae Doctoris (V.M.D.) ||
  +
|-
  +
|| Advanced Practice Registered Nurse || [[Doctor of Nursing Practice|Doctor of Nursing Practice or Doctor of Nurse Anesthesia Practice]] (DNP or DNAP) ||2005
  +
|-
  +
|| Behavioral Health || Doctor of Behavioral Health (DBH) || 2010
  +
|-
  +
|| Optometrist || [[Doctor of Optometry]] (O.D.) ||
  +
|-
  +
|| Audiologist || [[Doctor of Audiology]] (Au.D.) || 1996
  +
|-
  +
|| Lawyer || [[Juris Doctor]] or Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D.) || 1870
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|-
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|| Physician Assistant || Doctor of Science Physician Assistant (DScPA) ||
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|-
  +
|| Health Science || [[Doctor of Health Science]] (D.H.Sc.) ||
  +
|-
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|| Public Health || [[Doctor of Public Health]] (Dr.PH.) ||
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|-
  +
|| Minister/Clergy || [[Doctor of Ministry]] (D.Min.), [[Doctor of Practical Theology]] (D.P.T. or D.Th.P.) or [[Doctor of Biblical Studies]] (D.B.S) ||
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|-
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|| Psychologist || [[Doctor of Psychology]] Given in School and Clinical Psychology programs(Ph.D. or Psy.D.) ||
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|-
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|| College Teaching ||[[Doctor of Arts]] (D.Arts/D.A.) ||
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|-
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|| Music || [[Doctor of Musical Arts]] (D.Mus.A/D.M.A.) ||
  +
|-
  +
|| Management || [[Doctor of Management]] (D.Mgt./D.M.) ||
  +
|}
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
*[http://www.complore.com/ Tool for Phd's to bookmark research resources]
+
* [[Compilation thesis]]
* [[Doctor of Philosophy]]
+
* [[Doctor (title)]]
* [[Doctor of Science]]
+
* [[Eurodoctorate]]
* [[Bachelor's degree]]
+
* [[List of fields of doctoral studies]]
* [[Master's degree]]
+
* [[C.Phil.]] (ABD)
+
==References==
* [[Engineer's degree]]
+
{{Reflist|30em}}
* [[Bologna process]] - EU harmonisation
 
* [[Degrees of Oxford University]]
 
* [[British degree abbreviations]]
 
* [[Thesis committee]]
 
* [[EURODOC]] - the European Council of doctoral candidates and junior researchers.
 
* [[Dottorato di ricerca]] (doctorate in Italy)
 
   
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{{Academic degrees}}
   
 
[[Category:Doctoral degrees| ]]
 
[[Category:Doctoral degrees| ]]
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[[Category:Academic degrees of the United States]]
   
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{{enWP|Doctorate}}
 
{{enWP|Doctorate}}

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A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that, in most countries, qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the specific field of his or her degree, or to work in a specific profession. The research doctorate, or the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and its equivalent titles, represents the highest academic qualification. While the structure of U.S. doctoral programs is more formal and complex than in some other systems, it is important to note that the research doctorate is not awarded for the preliminary advanced study that leads to doctoral candidacy, but rather for successfully completing and defending the independent research presented in the form of the doctoral dissertation (thesis). Several first-professional degrees use the term “doctor” in their title, such as the Juris Doctor and the US version of the Doctor of Medicine, but these degrees do not contain an independent research component or require a dissertation (thesis) and should not be confused with PhD degrees or other research doctorates. [1]

In some countries, the highest degree in a given field is called a terminal degree, although this is by no means universal (the term is not in general use in the UK, for example), practice varies from country to country.

The term doctorate comes from the Latin docere, meaning "to teach."

The "licentiate" degree shortened from the full Latin title licentia docendi, means "teaching licence".[2]

HistoryEdit

Template:Refimprove section

The doctorate (Latin: doctor, "teacher," from doctum, "[that which is] taught," past participle of docere, "to teach") appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach (Latin: licentia docendi) at a medieval university.[3] Its roots can be traced to the early church when the term "doctor" referred to the Apostles, church fathers and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible.[3] The right to grant a licentia docendi was originally reserved to the Catholic church which required the applicant to pass a test, to take oath of allegiance and pay a fee. The Third Council of the Lateran of 1179 guaranteed the access – by that time largely free of charge – of all able applicants, who were, however, still tested for aptitude by the ecclesiastic scholastic.[4] This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and the slowly emancipating universities, but was granted by the pope to the University of Paris in 1213 where it became a universal license to teach (licentia ubiquie docendi).[4] However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bachelor's degree (Baccalaureus), it was ultimately reduced to an intermediate step to the Magister and doctorate, both of which now became the exclusive qualification for teaching.[4]

At the university, doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild. The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Masters of Arts" was seven years, which was the same as the term of apprenticeship for other occupations. Originally the terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master's degree. A hypothesis by George Makdisi that the doctorate has its origins in the Islamic Ijazah, a reversal of Makdisi's earlier view that saw both systems as being of "the most fundamental difference,"[5] has been rejected by Tony Huff as unsubstantiated.[6]

It is not until recently that Universities began to accept female students in their Doctorate programs. In the year 1785, Complutense University became the first University to grant a Doctorate to a female student, María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda.[7] In comparison, University of Oxford did not accept female scholars until the year 1920,[8] and the University of Cambridge did not grant a Ph.D. to a female student until the year 1926.[9]

The usage and meaning of the doctorate has changed over time, and it has also been subject to regional variations. For instance, until the early 20th century few academic staff or professors in English-speaking universities held doctorates, except for very senior scholars and those in holy orders. After that time the German practice of requiring prospective lecturers to have completed a "research doctorate" became widespread. Additionally, universities' shifts to "research oriented" education increased the importance of the doctorate. Today such a doctorate is generally a prerequisite for pursuing an academic career, although not everyone who receives a research doctorate becomes an academic by profession. Many universities also award "honorary doctorates" to individuals who have been deemed worthy of special recognition, either for scholarly work or for other contributions to the university or to society.

Although the research doctorate is almost universally accepted as the standard qualification for an academic career, it is a relatively new invention.

The older-style doctorates (now usually called "Higher Doctorates" in the United Kingdom) take much longer to complete, since candidates must show themselves to be leading experts in their subjects. These doctorates are now less common in some countries, and are often awarded honoris causa. The habilitation is still used for academic recruitment purposes in many countries within the EU and involves either a new long thesis (a second book) or a portfolio of research publications. The habilitation demonstrates independent and thorough research, experience in teaching and lecturing and, more recently, the ability to generate funding within the area of research. The "habilitation" is regarded as a senior post-doctoral qualification, many years after the research doctorate, and can be necessary for a Privatdozent (in Germany) or professor position.

A similar system traditionally holds in Russia. Already in the Russian Empire the academic degree doctor of the sciences (doktor nauk) marked the highest academic degree which can be achieved by an examination. This system was generally adopted by the USSR/Russia and many post-Soviet countries. A lower degree, candidate [doctor] of the sciences (kandidat nauk), is, roughly, the Russian equivalent to the research doctorate in most other countries.

Types Edit

See Doctor (title) for more information.

Since the Middle Ages, there has been considerable evolution and proliferation in the number and types of doctorates awarded by universities throughout the world, and practices vary from one country to another. While a doctorate usually entitles one to be addressed as "doctor," usage of the title varies widely, depending on the type of doctorate earned and the doctor's occupation.

Broadly speaking, doctorates may often be loosely classified into the following categories:

File:Professors.JPG

Research Edit

Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of academic research that is (at least in principle) publishable in a peer-refereed academic journal. In many countries, including the United States, earning a research doctorate also requires successful completion of a regimen of coursework beyond the masters level. The best-known degree of this type, in the Anglophone world, is that of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D., or sometimes D.Phil) awarded in many countries throughout the world. Others include the degree of Doctor of Arts, Doctor of Education, various doctorates in engineering, such as the US Doctor of Engineering[10] (also awarded in Japan and South Korea), the UK Engineering Doctorate[11] and the German Engineering Doctorate Doktor-Ingenieur and the German nature-science degree of Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr.rer.nat.). The Doctor of Theology, often stylized Th.D., is also a research doctorate, in theology, awarded by universities such as Harvard Divinity School and the University of Toronto among many others. Likewise, the Doctor of Sacred Theology is also a research doctorate in theology, but particular to Catholic Pontifical Universities and Faculties.

Criteria for award of research doctorates vary somewhat throughout the world, but typically requires the submission of a substantial body of original research undertaken by the candidate. This may take the form of a single thesis or dissertation, or possibly a portfolio of shorter project reports; see also Thesis by publication. The submission will usually be assessed by a small committee of examiners appointed by the university, and often an oral examination of some kind. In some countries (such as the US) there may also be a formal component of classes that are taught, typically consisting of graduate-level courses in the subject in question, as well as training in research methodology.

The minimum time required to complete a research doctorate varies by country, and may be as short as three years (excluding undergraduate study), although it is not uncommon for a candidate to take up to six years to complete.

In the UK, an equivalent formation to doctorate is the QCF 8.[12]

Higher Edit

In some countries, especially the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia and some Scandinavian nations, or former USSR and other Eastern Bloc countries, there is a higher tier of research doctorates, awarded on the basis of a formally submitted portfolio of published research of a very high standard. Examples include the Doctor of Science (DSc/ScD) and Doctor of Letters (DLitt/LittD) degrees found in the UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries, and the traditional doctorates in Denmark and Norway, including Dr. Theol. (Theology), Dr. Jur. (Law), Dr. Med. (Medicine) and, after Denmark and Norway introduced the Ph.D. at a lower level, Dr. Phil(os).. The Danish and Norwegian titles should not be confused with German doctorates.

The French, German and Polish habilitation (a formal professorial qualification with thesis and exam) is commonly regarded as belonging to this category. However, in some German states, the Habilitation is not an academic degree, but rather a professorial certification ("facultas docendi") that the person concerned holds all the qualifications needed to teach independently at a German university. In other German states, the "Habilitand" is awarded a formal "Dr. habil." degree. In some cases where such degrees are awarded, the holder of the degree may add "habil." to his or her research doctorate such as "Dr. phil. habil." or "Dr. rer. nat. habil." The French academic system used to have a higher doctorate, called "State doctorate" (doctorat d'État), but it was superseded by the habilitation in 1984.

In Sweden, a title roughly corresponding to the Habilitation is Docent. This was also commonly used in Poland but as of 2005 was changed to a formal "Dr hab." (doktor habilitowany) degree. See below (Poland section) for more details.

Higher doctorates are often also awarded honoris causa when a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's achievements and contributions to a particular field.

Professional Edit

Professional doctorates are awarded in certain fields where scholarly research is closely aligned with a particular profession, such as law, medicine, or psychology. Examples include the US and Canadian degrees of Doctor of Medicine (M.D.), Doctor of Optometry (O.D.), Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D.), Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.), Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S.), Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.), Juris Doctor (J.D.), and Doctor of Ministry (D.Min).

Professional doctorates originated in the United States, with the introduction of the MD at Columbia University in 1767,[13] almost 100 years before a research doctorate—that is, a PhD—was awarded in that country, at Yale in 1861.[14] The JD was introduced in 1870, just a few years after the PhD.[15]

The term Professional Doctorate is used to refer to research doctorates with a focus on applied research, or research as used for professional purposes.[16] Among others, these include the degrees of Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), Doctor of Strategic Leadership (DSL), Doctor of Public Administration (DPA), Doctor of Social Work (DSW), Doctor of Biblical Studies (D.B.S.), Doctor of Law and Policy (Lp.D), Doctor of Practical Theology (DPT),[17] Doctor of Professional Studies (DPS or DProf), Doctor of the Built Environment (DBEnv)[18] and some others in various specified professional fields. Also included in this area is the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.).

In Australia, the term is on occasion applied to the SJD,[19][20][21] and on other occasions that degree is also categorized as a research degree.[22][23]

Honorary Edit

Main article: Honorary degree

When a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's contributions to a particular field or philanthropic efforts, it may choose to grant a doctoral degree honoris causa (i.e., "for the sake of the honor"), the university waiving the usual formal requirements for bestowal of the degree.[24][25] Some universities do not award honorary degrees, for example, Cornell University,[26] the University of Virginia,[27] the California Institute of Technology, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[28]

Professor as a higher degreeEdit

Main article: Professorial degree

An extreme rarity among degrees are the Professorial degrees.

In modern times, the status of professor is awarded as a recognition of sustained academic excellence, equivalent in standing to an honorary doctorate, but this is not a degree per se. However, in past times, Professor was sometimes awarded as a degree.

One example of this is the degree of Sacrae Theologiae Professor (STP), which was awarded by the Pontifical University. This degree is now titled Sacrae Theologiae Doctor (STD) in keeping with usual modern practices.

Practice by country Edit

Main article: List of doctoral degrees awarded by country

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ArgentinaEdit

In Argentina the doctorate (doctorado)[29] is the highest academic degree. The intention is that candidates produce true and original contributions in a specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.[30] The doctoral candidate's work is presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a Doctoral Committee. The Committee is composed of examiners external to the program, and at least one examiner external to the institution. The academic degree of Doctor is conferred after a successful defense of the candidate’s dissertation.[31] Currently, there are approximately 2,151 postgraduate careers in the country, of which 14% were doctoral degrees.[30] Doctoral programs in Argentina are overseen by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation,[32] which is a decentralized agency in Argentina’s Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.[33]

Denmark Edit

In Denmark, there are four levels of degrees: 1) a three-year Bachelor's degree (e.g. Bachelor of Arts = B.A.); 2) a two-year Candidate's degree (e.g. candidatus/candidata magisterii = cand.mag.), respectively a three-year extended research graduation, leading to the Magister's Degree (e.g. magister/magistra artium = mag.art.), the latter of which has recently been phased out in order to meet the international standards of the Bologna Process – both the cand.mag. and the mag.art. are generally compared to a Master's Degree (MA); 3) a Ph.D. Degree (ph.d.), which replaced the licentiate in 1988, and finally; 4) a Doctor's degree (fx doctor philosophiae = dr.phil.), which is the higher doctorate.

For the Ph.D., the candidate writes a major thesis and has to defend it orally at a formal disputation. In the disputation, the candidate defends their thesis against three official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium (ex auditorio).

For the higher doctorate, the candidate writes a major thesis and has to defend it orally at a formal disputation. In this disputation, the candidate (called præces) defends this thesis against two official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium (ex auditorio).

Egypt Edit

In Egypt, the Doctorate degree – abbreviated as MD – is equivalent to the PhD degree.[34] To earn an MD in a specialty of science, one must have a Master degree (M.Sc.) (or 2 diplomas before the introduction of MSc degree in Egypt) before applying. Earning the MD degree involves studying a course in the specialization, and presenting and defending a dissertation thesis. It usually takes on average from three to five years. Many postgraduate medical and surgical specialties students earn a Doctorate degree in their specialties. After finishing a 6-year medical school and one-year internship (house officer), doctors and surgeons earn M.B. B.Ch. degree, which is equivalent to the MD degree of medical schools in the US. They can then apply to earn a Master degree or a speciality diploma then an MD degree in a specialty. The MD degree in Egypt is written with the name of one's specialty afterward. For example, MD (Geriatrics) means a Doctorate Degree in Geriatrics, which is equivalent to a Ph.D degree in Geriatrics.\ Academic sciences like Microbiology earn a PhD degree.

Finland Edit

In the Finnish education system, the requirement for the entrance into the doctoral studies is a Master's degree or equivalent qualification. All universities have the right to award doctorates in their assigned fields.[35] The ammattikorkeakoulu institutes (institutes of higher vocational education that are not universities but often called "Universities of applied sciences" in English) do not award doctoral or other academic degrees. The aim of the studies for the doctoral degree is threefold:

  1. The student must obtain sublime understanding of their field and its meaning to the society, while becoming prepared to use the methods of scientific or scholarly study in their field, creating new scientific or scholarly knowledge.
  2. The student must obtain a good understanding of development, basic problems and research methods of their field
  3. The student must obtain such understanding of the general theory of science and letters and such knowledge of the neighbouring research field that they are able to follow the development of these fields.

The way to show that these general requirements have been met is also threefold:

  1. The graduate coursework required by the university.
  2. a show of critical and independent thought in the research field
  3. preparation and a public defence of a dissertation, which may be a monograph or a compilation thesis, i.e. a collection of peer-reviewed articles with an extended summary. In the area of fine arts, the dissertation may be substituted by artistic merits and performances as decided by the degree-awarding faculty.

In Finland, the entrance into the graduate studies is not as controlled as in undergraduate studies, where a strict numerus clausus is applied. Usually, a prospective graduate student discusses his plans with a professor of his choice. If the professor wishes to accept the student, the student applies the faculty for a study place. Nonetheless, in some cases, the professor may recruit the student to his group after a successful completion of a master's thesis, for instance.[36] In any case, a formal graduate study place does not guarantee funding. The student must obtain funding either by working in a research unit or through scholarships handed out by private foundations. Typically, it is easier to obtain funding for graduate studies in natural and engineering sciences, while graduate studies in letters are more difficult to finance. Sometimes, it may be possible to combine normal work and research activity.[37]

Prior to introduction of Bologna process, Finland required at least 42 credit weeks (1800 hours) of formal coursework of doctoral students. The general requirement was removed in 2005, leaving the decision on the scale of coursework needed to individual universities, which may delegate the authority to faculties and even to individual professors. In fields of Engineering and Science, the required amount of coursework varies between 60 and 70 ECTS.

The time for the completion of graduate studies varies, as there are no fixed time limits written into the law or to most university regulations. It is possible to graduate even in three years after the master's degree, while much longer periods are by no means uncommon. In any case, the study ends with the completion of a dissertation, which must make a substantial contribution to the field by presenting new scientific or scholarly knowledge. The dissertation can either be a monograph or it can be edited from a collection of 3 to 7 journal articles, including an introduction tying together the individual parts. If a student is unable or unwilling to write a dissertation, he may qualify for licentiate degree of his field by completing the coursework requirement and writing a shorter thesis, usually worth of one year of research.

After the dissertation is ready, it is submitted to the faculty, which names two pre-examiners with doctoral degrees from the outside of the university. These pre-examiners must be noted experts of the field. Their acceptance of the work is necessary for the permission to defend the work. During the pre-examination process, the student may receive comments on the work and if necessary, requirements to modify it.[38] After the pre-examiners approve, the doctoral candidate applies the faculty for the permission to print the thesis. Simultaneously with the printing permission, the faculty names the opponent for the thesis defence, who must also be an outside expert of the field, with at least a doctoral degree. In all Finnish universities, an archaic tradition requires that the printed dissertation must hang on a chord by a public university noticeboard for at least ten days after the printing permission has been given in order for the defence of the dissertation to be possible.[39]

The doctoral dissertation takes place in public, usually in a university auditorium, with the opponent and the candidate conducting a very formal debate, usually wearing white tie, under the supervision of the thesis supervisor. It is customary for the family, friends, colleagues and the members of the research community to attend the defence proceedings. After a formal entrance, the candidate begins the proceeding by a c. 20-minute popular lecture (lectio praecursoria), which is meant to introduce the laymen present to the topic of the thesis. After this, the opponent gives a short talk on the topic of the defence, after which the pair critically discusses the dissertation. The proceedings take two, maybe three hours. At the end of the proceeding, the opponent presents his final statement on the work, and reveals whether he/she will recommend that the faculty accept it. After the opponent has finished, any member of the public has an opportunity to raise questions on the dissertation, although such opponents extraordinary are rare. Immediately after the defence, the supervisor, the opponent and the passed candidate drink coffee with the public. Usually, the attendees of the defence are handed out the printed dissertation and leave with it.[40] In the evening, the passed candidate is obligated to host a dinner (Template:Lang-fi) in the honour of the opponent. Usually, the candidate invites his family and colleagues and collaborators.[41]

France Edit

In France, the doctorate (doctorat) is always a research-only degree. It is a national degree and its requirements are fixed by an official text of the minister of higher education and research. Except for a very small number of private institutions, only public institutions of higher education and research can award the doctorate. It can be awarded in any field of study. The master's degree is a prerequisite for pursuing a doctoral program. The official normal duration of the doctoral work is three years. The redaction of a comprehensive thesis constitutes the bulk of the doctorate's work. While the length of the thesis varies according to the discipline, it is rarely less than 150 pages, and often substantially more. There are ~15000 new matriculations for the doctoral program every year and ~10000 doctorates awarded.[42]

Doctoral candidates can apply for a three-year fellowship, the most well known being the allocation de recherche du ministère de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche (4000 granted every years, gross salary of 19,740 euros in December 2012).

During the preparation of the doctorate, the candidate has had, since 2002, to follow a limited number of courses, but there is no written examination for the doctorate. The candidate has to write an extensive thesis which is read by two external reviewers designated by the head of the institution. According to the reports of the reviewer, the head of the institution decides whether the candidate can defend his thesis or not. The members of the jury are designated by the head of the institution and must be composed of external and internal academics. The supervisor of the candidate is generally a member of the jury, as well as the reviewers of the thesis. The maximum number of members in the jury is 8. The defense lasts generally 45 minutes in scientific fields and are followed by 1h – 2h30 of questions from the jury or other doctors present in the assistance. Defense and questions are public. At the end of the series of questions, the jury deliberates in private for 20–30 min and comes back to declare the candidate admitted or "postponed". "Postponement" is very rare. The admission of the candidate is generally followed by a distinction: "honourable", which is not highly considered, "very honourable", which is the usual distinction, and "very honourable with the congratulation of the jury" (Très honorable avec félicitations). Because there exist no national criteria for the award of this last distinction, many institutions have decided not to award it. New regulations concerning this distinction were set in 2006. Many institutions have decided not to award any distinction, as it is now permitted by the law.

Confusingly the title of doctor (docteur) is used only by the medical and pharmaceutical practitioners who hold not a doctorate but a doctor's state diploma (diplôme d'État de docteur), which is a first-degree and professional doctorate obtained after at least 9 years of studies. As they do not pursue research studies, they are not awarded a doctorate.

Before 1984 three research doctorates existed : the state doctorate (doctorat d'État, the old doctorate introduced in 1808), the third cycle doctorate (doctorat de troisième cycle), created in 1954 and shorter than the state doctorate, and the diploma of doctor-engineer (diplôme de docteur-ingénieur), created in 1923, for technical research. Since 1984, there is only one type of doctoral degree, simply called "doctorate" (Doctorat). A special diploma has been created called the "accreditation to supervise research" (habilitation à diriger des recherches), which is a professional qualification to supervise doctoral work. (This diploma is similar in spirit to the older state doctorate, and the requirements for obtaining it are similar to those necessary to obtain tenure in other systems.) Before only professors or senior full researchers of similar rank were normally authorized to supervise a doctoral candidate's work.[43] Now the habilitation is a prerequisite to the title of professor in university (Professeur des Universités) and to the title of Research Director (Directeur de recherche) in national public research agency such as CNRS or INRA.

Germany Edit

In Germany, a doctorate is usually a research doctorate. Its duration depends strongly on the field in which it is taken. While a doctorate in medicine may take less than a full-time year to complete, it takes between three and six years in engineering. In Germany, most doctorates are awarded with specific designations for the field of research instead of a general "PhD" for all fields, the most important ones being: Dr. rer. nat. (Doctorate in Natural Sciences, i.e. Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Maths, Psychology often also Computer Science and Information Technology), Dr. phil. (Doctorate of philosophy, i.e. the humanities like Philosophy, philology, History, and social sciences like sociology or Psychology), Dr. iur. (Doctorate in Law), Dr. oec. (Doctorate in Economics), Dr. rer. pol. (Doctor Rerum Politicarum, aka Doctorate in Political Science), Dr. med. (Doctorate in Medicine), Dr.-Ing. (Doctorate in Engineering). There are over fifty such specific designations, many of which are highly specialized and rarely awarded. The degree can be written in front of the first name for addresses (within texts, the abbreviations "Dr." and "Dr.-Ing." are common) and accompanies the person's name (unlike in German-speaking Switzerland, where some doctoral programs issue a PhD[44]). Although the "Dr." does not become part of a person's name one can demand naming the title in official documents. However, naming the title even in these documents is not mandatory. The "Dr." (but not the specification of the field) is commonly used to address someone with this title for instance in formal letters. If someone holds other titles, as in "Prof. (Professor) Dr. Dr.-Ing. [Surname]", it is common to use only the highest title in formal letters, as in "Prof. [Surname]".

Upon the completion of the habilitation thesis (Habilitationsschrift) a different type of a doctorate (Dr. habil. or only: habil.) is awarded. This doctorate is known as the Habilitation. It is not considered a formal degree but an additional academic qualification. It qualifies the owner to teach at (German) universities ("facultas docendi"), plus the holder of the "habil." can apply for the authorization to teach a certain subject ("venia legendi"). This has been the traditional prerequisite for attaining the title Privatdozent (PD) and employment as a Professor at universities. With the introduction of Juniorprofessoren – around 2005 in Germany – as an alternative track towards becoming a professor at universities (with tenure), this has changed partially, and the Habilitation is no longer the only career track at universities.

IndiaEdit

In India, doctorate level degrees are offered by the universities or institutions of national level importance deemed to be universities. Entry requirements for doctorate degrees by most of the universities include good academic background at masters level(post graduate degree). Some universities also consider undergraduate degrees in professional areas such as engineering, medicine or law for entrance to doctorate level degrees. Entrance examinations are held for almost all the universities for admission to doctoral level degrees. The duration of the coursework and thesis for award of the degree is (In most north Indian universities the minimum required time to submit your theses after registration is 2 academic years and in most of the universities in south India its 3 years after PhD registration .

The most commonly awarded doctoral level degree is Ph.D. There are some other doctoral level degrees such as DBA ( Doctorate of Business Administration), DIT ( Doctorate of Information Technology), LLD (Doctorate in Laws) and D.Sc (Doctorate in Science). Some of the institutions of the national level importance such as Indian Institute of Management[45] call their doctoral level programmes as fellow programme. Recently Pharmacy Council of India has permitted few colleges for Pharm D course (Doctorate in Pharmacy). Entry to professional fields such as medicine, dentistry, occupational therapy and physical therapy is at the bachelor's level that are usually of longer duration than a regular bachelor's degree (e.g. BSc, BCom, BA). The Pharm. D degree (Doctor of Pharmacy) takes the longest with 6 years to complete.

Italy Edit

According to the European Higher Education Area Academic Degrees stated by the Bologna Process and to the Ministero dell'Educazione Pubblica (MIUR), Italy uses the three levels degree system. The first level degree, called "laurea triennale" (Bachelor's degree) is obtained after three years of study and a short thesis on a specific subject. The second level degree, called "laurea magistrale" (Master's degree) is obtained after two additional years of study, specializing in a particular branch of the chosen subject (e.g. particle physics, nuclear engineering, etc.). This degree requires a more complex thesis work, usually involving some academic research or an internship in a private company. The final degree is called "dottorato di ricerca" (Ph.D.) and is obtained after three years of academic research on the subject and a thesis.

Alternatively, after obtaining the laurea triennale or the laurea magistrale one can attend a "Master" (first-level Master after the laurea triennale; second-level Master after the laurea magistrale) of one or two years, offered by universities and private organisations with a variety of subjects, lengths and costs and usually including a final internship in a private company. An Italian "Master" is not to be confused with a Master degree; it is intended to be more focused on professional training and practical experience than standard degrees.

The title for Bachelor Graduate students is, regardless from the field of study, Dottore/Dottoressa (abbrev. Dott./Dott.ssa, sometimes incorrectly abbreviated as Dr., meaning Doctor), not to be confused with the title for the PhD level graduate, which instead is Dottore/Dottoressa di Ricerca. A laurea magistrale grants instead the title of Dottore/Dottoressa magistrale. Graduates from the fields of Education, Art and Music are also called Dr. Prof. (or simply Professore) or Maestro. On the other side, many professional titles like ingegnere (engineer) are not automatically awarded upon the graduation on the corresponding field of study but instead are given upon passing a post graduation examination (esame di stato), and the subsequent registration in the relative professional association.

The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program (PhD) was Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa in 1927 under the historic name "Diploma di Perfezionamento".[46][47] Further, the research doctorates or PhD (Italian: Dottorato di ricerca) in Italy were introduced with law and Presidential Decree in 1980 (Law of February 21, 1980, No. 28 and the Presidential Decree No. 382 of 11 July 1980), referring to the reform of academic teaching, training and experimentation in organisation and teaching methods.[48][49]

Hence, the Superior Graduate Schools in Italy (Grandes écoles)[50] (Italian: Scuola Superiore Universitaria),[51] also called Schools of Excellence (Italian: Scuole di Eccellenza)[50][52] such as Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa and Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies still keep their reputed historical "Diploma di Perfezionamento" PhD title by law[47][53] and MIUR Decree.[54][55]

JapanEdit

By dissertationEdit

Until the 1990s, most doctorates in the natural sciences and engineering in Japan were earned by industrial researchers in Japanese companies. These degrees are awarded by the employees' former university, usually after many years of research in industrial laboratories. No matriculation is necessary, only submission of a dissertation with some articles published in well-known journals . This program, called ronbun hakase (論文博士?), represented the majority of engineering doctoral degrees from national universities. With the expansion of university-based doctoral programs called katei hakase (課程博士?), however, the proportion of these degrees earned is decreasing. By 1994, more doctoral engineering degrees were earned for research within university laboratories (53%) than industrial research laboratories (47%).[56] Since 1978, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) provides tutorial and financial support for promising researchers in Asia and Africa to earn their PhD degrees through this route. The program is called JSPS RONPAKU.[57]

Professional degreeEdit

The only professional doctorate in Japan is the Juris Doctor. In Japan the J.D. is known as Hōmu Hakushi (法務博士) [58] The program generally lasts two or three years. This curriculum is professionally oriented,[59] but unlike in the United States the program does not provide the education sufficient for a license, as all candidates passed bar exam(Shihou shiken) for a bar license must attend the Legal Training and Research Institute and pass the practical exam(Nikai Shiken or Shihou Shushusei koushi).[60]

The Netherlands / Flanders Edit

The traditional academic system of The Netherlands provided four basic academic diplomas and degrees: propaedeuse, kandidaat, doctorandus (drs.) and doctor (dr.). After successful completion of the first year of University, the student was awarded the propaedeutic diploma (not a degree). In some studies, this diploma was already abolished in the 1980s: in physics and mathematics, the student could obtain directly a kandidaats degree in two years. The kandidaat (candidate) degree, which was all but abolished by 1989, used to be attained after four or five years of academic study, after which the student was allowed to begin work on his doctorandus thesis. The successful completion of this thesis allowed one to use the doctorandus title, attainment of which means one's initial studies are finished. In addition to these 'general' degrees, a number of specific titles for certain subjects are available, each of which is equivalent to the doctorandus degree: for law: meester (master) (mr.), and for engineering at a technical university like Delft: ingenieur (engineer)(ir.). In the last few years, the Dutch have incorporated the Anglo-Saxon system of academic degrees into their own. The old candidate's degree has been revived as bachelor's degree, the doctorandus' by the master's degree. However, Dutch regular university programmes tend to include subject matter which, e.g., at Harvard is only taught in PhD-courses (for instance advanced quantum mechanics or general relativity in a Dutch course for the master's degree in theoretical physics).

Those who choose to can enroll in a doctorate system after achieving a masters degree (or equivalent) recognised by the Dutch government. The most common way is to be hired as promovendus/assistent in opleiding (aio)/onderzoeker in opleiding (oio) (research assistant with additional courses and supervision), perform extensive research, and write a doctoral dissertation consisting of published scientific articles (this course is normally four years, although the average duration to completions is about 5.5 years). It is also possible to conduct research without the research assistant status, for example through a business sponsored research laboratory, or in spare time. Regardless of the way, every thesis has to be supported by a promotor (full university professor who has the role of principal advisor) before it can be submitted. The written thesis is subjected to review by a committee of experts in the relevant academic field; who either approve or reject the submitted thesis. Failures at this stage are rare as the supervisors will hold back submission (causing delay beyond the 4 years) rather than allow a substandard thesis to be submitted. The supervisors, and especially the promotor lose face with her/his colleagues allowing a substandard thesis to be submitted; thus gaining supervisor approval is in practice the more demanding requirement. After approval by the reviewers, the candidate will print typically 100-300 copies of the thesis and send it to colleagues, friends and family with an invitation to the public defense. The doctoral degree is awarded in a formal, public, defense session (failure during this session is in theory possible but in practice this never happens). The defense lasts exactly the assigned time slot (45 minutes or 1 hour exactly depending on the University) after which the defense is stopped by the pedel (proctor) who interrupts ongoing questioning by entering the room and announcing that the time is past in Latin (Hora Est). At this stage the candidate is allowed to stop the defense even midsentence, although in practice a short one sentence wrap up is usually given. If one of the examiners is still phrasing a question, no answer will be given.

The doctor's title is the highest academic degree one can attain in the Netherlands. There is only one title "doctor", which as is explained above requires original scientific publications, unlike the Anglo-Saxon PhD., which is only an exam and may or may not include original scientific publications. However, the three Dutch universities of technology (Eindhoven University of Technology, Technical University Delft, and University of Twente) do award a Professional Doctorate in Engineering (PDEng).

In the Netherlands, although the title doctor (dr.) is informally called PhD, there is no such thing as a PhD degree; there is the title doctor (dr.) in stead of PhD. Seeing that all other university titles (BSc/BBa/LL.B/BA M.Sc/MBA/LL.M/MA) are protected by law but PhD is not it follows that any person can call himself PhD in the Netherlands without having obtained that title. Calling oneself "Doctor" without having a doctorate is fraud though. For people who obtained a degree in a foreign country to be allowed to use the Dutch title drs. mr. ir. or dr. a request has to be made at the Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs[61] though according to the opportunity principle there is little incentive to punish such fraud. Dutch doctors may use the letter D behind their name instead of the shortcut dr. before their name.[62]

Those who have multiple doctor (dr.) titles may use dr.mult. before their own name.[62] Those who have received honoris causa doctorates may use dr.h.c. before their own name.[62]

In Flanders (the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium) the system is very similar, except the doctorandus title was only awarded to those who actually started their doctoral work. Doctorandus is still used as a synonym for a PhD student. The licentiaat (licencee) title was in use for a regular graduate until the Bologna reform changed the kandidaat to bachelor and licentiaat to master.

Nepal Edit

In Nepal, doctorate level degrees are offered by the universities or institutions of national level importance deemed to be universities. Entry requirements for doctorate degrees by most of the universities include good academic background at masters level(post graduate degree). Some universities also consider undergraduate degrees in professional areas such as engineering, medicine or law for entrance to doctorate level degrees. Entrance examinations are held for almost all the universities for admission to doctoral level degrees. The duration of the coursework and thesis for award of the degree is 2 – 3 years after PhD registration .

Pakistan Edit

Research Degrees are PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) awarded after extensive research work. To get admission in PhD you must be admitted to the MPhil program for which you need to pass NTS or GRE and should have good grades throughout your career. Exemption from MPhil is possible if you have MS from a reputable University.

Professional Degree / Terminal Degree is awarded in Pharmacy i.e. Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD, a five (5) year course of study) which requires accreditation of the School / Faculty of Pharmacy by Pakistan Pharmacy Council. It is the only Professional Degree in Pharmacy awarded in Pakistan replacing Bachelor of Pharmacy degree ( a four (4) year course of study.

Poland Edit

The Polish system is similar to the one adopted in Germany, with Ph.D. as a first level doctorate and habilitation (habilitacja) as second. The award of the title of doktor (Ph.D.) is usually preceded by 4–5 years of doctoral study (a post-graduate study offered at most universities, during which candidate is employed by this university and is usually obligated to teach some classes) and a doctoral exam. Doctoral studies usually consist of seminars, lectures, research and teaching. In order to become a doktor habilitowany (i.e. to be awarded a second level doctorate) a candidate has to publish a dissertation that is the culmination of several years of deep field studies, as well as have a recognized research record. While, according to current Polish law, candidates without habilitation are theoretically eligible to become professors, in practice it is extremely rare. Since 1993 only Master-degree holders are allowed to become a doctor, while prior to that time it was possible (but rare) to gain doctorate without Master studies (for example Stefan Banach).

First, a prospective doctor must have published some works (articles, books). To become a doctor one needs to go through the process called doctoral proceedings (przewód doktorski). This proceedings include the writing of a dissertation (varying in length), which then must be accepted by a panel of professors during a so-called defence of the dissertation (obrona pracy doktorskiej). There are several other requirements, like passing an exam in a foreign language and subject related to the dissertation title.

The title of a first level doctor is abbreviated as dr (without a full stop) before the surname of a person, e.g. dr Kowalski and a second level dr hab.. After becoming a doctor mgr is omitted, e.g. mgrdr, mgr inż.dr inż..

Doktor is also a common form of addressing a physician, but that does not indicate that the person actually holds a doctoral degree. Doctors of medicine have the abbreviation dr n. med. (doctor of medical science) before or after their surname.

Other specific doctoral titles include dr inż. (doctor of engineering) and dr n. farm (doctor of pharmaceutical science). Dr n.hum. means doctor of humanities (incl. psychology and sociology), but is rarely used to differentiate from doctors of other fields. All other doctorates have no indications of their field.

Portugal Edit

  • Doutor (Doctor)

All doctoral programs are of research nature. Usually 3 or 4 years of study are required, mostly as a period of research. The student must write his (or her) thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to Science. If approved by his/her "supervisor", the study will be presented to a panel of distinguished scholars. If approved, he or she will receive the doctorate.

  • Male title: "Dr." and "Doutor". Female title: "Dra." and "Doutora".

In Portugal and in the African Countries of Portuguese Official Language it is common to use the title "Dr." (supposedly the abbreviation of "Doutor") in reference to people with "Licenciatura" or "Mestrado" degrees. Thus "Doutor" is commonly used in the extended form to denote someone with a doctorate. "Professor Doutor" is used with professional career teaching doctorates, usually university professors).

Before the Bologna Process reform, a "Licenciatura" was something between a Bachelor ("Bacharelato" in Portugal) and it represented 4 to 6 years of graduate studies.

After the Bologna Process reform in Portugal, the new "Licenciatura" degree is equivalent to the old "Bacharelato" (Bachelor with 3 or 4 years). There are also the "Mestrado" (Master degree) and the "Mestrado Integrado" (integrated Bachelor and Master degree with 5 or 6 years, required for access to some professional fields). Some professionals have, however, different titles. For example: "Eng." (Engenheiro, such as the Master of Engineering), "Arq." (Arquitecto, Architect). The term "Dr." in Portugal is also used for people from other professional fields. For Example, Dentists, Lawyers and Physicians.

Russia Edit

Many post-Soviet countries, including Russian Federation, have a two-stage research degree obtaining path, generally similar to the doctorate system in Europe. The first stage is named "Kandidat(Кандидат наук) of <...> Sciences" (literal translation means "Candidate of Sciences",) (for instance, Kandidat of Medical Sciences, of Chemical Sciences, of Philological Sciences, and so on). The Kandidat of Sciences degree is usually recognised as an equivalent of Philosophy Doctor (Ph.D.) degree and requires at least (and typically more than) three, four or five years of post-graduate research which is finished by defence of Dissertation or rarely - thesis. Additionally, a seeker of the degree has to pass three examinations (a so-called "Kandidate's minimum"): in his/her special field, in a foreign language, and in the history and philosophy of science. After additional certification by the corresponding experts, the Kandidat degree may be recognized internationally as an equivalent of Ph.D. (An unconditional Ph.D. equivalence has been recognized before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the additional certification in many countries has become required after the steep increase flow of post-Soviet emigration.) The second stage, Doktor nauk, "Doctor of <...> Sciences", requires many years of research experience, and writing of a second dissertation. The degrees of Kandidat and Doktor of Sciences are only awarded by the special governmental agency (Higher Attestation Commission); a university or a scientific institute where the thesis was defended can only recommend to award a seeker the sought degree.

Spain Edit

File:Birrete doctoral.jpg

Doctor degrees are regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 778/1998),[63] Real Decreto (in Spanish). They are granted by the University on behalf of the King, and its Diploma has the force of a public document. The Ministry of Science keeps a National Registry of Theses called TESEO.[64] According to the National Institute of Statistics (INE), less than 5% of M.Sc. degree holders are admitted to Ph.D. programmes.

All doctoral programs are of research nature. A minimum of 5 years of study were required, and were divided into 2 stages:

  1. A 3-year (or longer) period of studies, which concludes with a public dissertation presented to a panel of 3 Professors. If the project receives approval from the university, he/she will receive a "Diploma de Estudios Avanzados" (part qualified doctor, equivalent to M.Sc.).
  2. A 2-year (or longer) period of research. Extensions may be requested for up to 10 years. The student must write his thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to Science. If approved by his "thesis director", the study will be presented to a panel of 5 distinguished scholars. Any Doctor attending the public defense is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions on his research. If approved, he/she will receive the doctorate. Four marks used to be granted: Unsatisfactory (Suspenso), Pass (Aprobado), Remarkable (Notable), "Cum laude" (Sobresaliente), and "Summa cum laude" (Sobresaliente Cum Laude). Those Doctors granted their degree "Summa Cum Laude" were allowed to apply for an "Extraordinary Award".

Note that since September 2012 and regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 99/2011) (in Spanish),[65] three marks can be granted: Unsatisfactory (No apto), Pass (Apto) and "Cum laude" (Apto Cum Laude) as maximum mark. In the public defense the doctor is notified if the thesis has passed or not passed; if the doctor is granted the Apto Cum Laude mark, this will be notified by letter or e-mail after the public defense as it is the result of a private votation (even between the panel members): closed votes are checked and verified by the University after the public defense. Doctors granted "Apto Cum Laude" can be nominated for an "Extraordinary Award" (Premio Extraordinario de Doctorado) if all the panel members vote so. There is also a numeric mark up to 50 (10 points per scholar in the panel), but it is only communicated to the candidate, the thesis director and the department.

Also, since the same Royal Decree (R.D. 99/2011) the initial 3-year period of studies is substituted by a Research Master Degree (one or two years; Professional Master Degrees do not grant direct access to Ph.D. Programs) which concludes with a public dissertation called "Trabajo de Fin de Máster" or "Proyecto de Fin de Máster". If the project receives approval from the university, he/she will receive a Masters Degree that grants access to become a Ph.D. Candidate and initiate the period of research.

A Doctor degree is required in order to apply to a teaching position at the University.[66]

The social standing of Doctors in Spain is evidenced by the fact that only Ph.D. holders, Grandees and Dukes can take seat and cover their heads in the presence of the King.[67]

Complutense University was the sole university in Spain authorised to confer the Doctor degree on any scholar. This law remained in effect until 1954, when the authorization was extended to the University of Salamanca in commemoration of its septecentenary. This made the degree of Doctor all the more unique and prestigious in social circles. In 1970, the right was extended to all Spanish universities, ending the monopoly of Complutense University over this distinction.[68]

All Doctorate Degree holders are reciprocally recognised as equivalent in Germany and Spain ("Bonn Agreement of November 14, 1994").[69]

United Kingdom Edit

All doctorates (except for those awarded honoris causa) granted by British universities are research doctorates in the sense described above, in that their main (and in many cases only) component is the submission of a thesis or portfolio of original research, examined by an expert panel appointed by the university. The Quality Assurance Agency (for England, Wales and Northern Ireland but not Scotland) states:

Doctorates are awarded to students who have demonstrated:

  1. the creation and interpretation of new knowledge, through original research or other advanced scholarship, of a quality to satisfy peer review, extend the forefront of the discipline, and merit publication;
  2. a systematic acquisition and understanding of a substantial body of knowledge which is at the forefront of an academic discipline or area of professional practice;
  3. the general ability to conceptualise, design and implement a project for the generation of new knowledge, applications or understanding at the forefront of the discipline, and to adjust the project design in the light of unforeseen problems;
  4. a detailed understanding of applicable techniques for research and advanced academic enquiry.

— Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland,[70] Annex 1

The professional doctorates such as the EngD, EdD, DSocSci, DCrimJ and DClinPsych requires the submission of a body of original research of a similar length to a PhD thesis.[16] In the case of the EngD, however, this might be in the form of a portfolio of technical reports on different research projects undertaken by the candidate as opposed to a single, long monographical thesis. Another important difference is that traditional PhD programs are mostly academic-oriented, whereas, in an EngD programme, the candidate typically works full-time for an industrial sponsor on application-oriented topics of direct interest to the partner company and is jointly supervised by university faculty members and company employees.

The PhD itself is a comparatively recent introduction to the UK, dating from 1917. It was originally introduced in order to provide a similar level of graduate research training as was available in several other countries, notably Germany and the USA. Previously, the only doctorates available were the higher doctorates, awarded in recognition of an illustrious research career.

The universities of Oxford and Sussex denote the degree of Doctor of Philosophy with the postnominal initials DPhil. The University of York also did this for some years, switching to the more conventional PhD quite recently.Template:When

In UK the Doctorate is a qualification awarded at NVQ level 5 or QCF level 8 in the national qualifications framework. http://www.ofqual.gov.uk/help-and-advice/comparing-qualifications/

Higher degreesEdit

Higher doctorates are awarded in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years. Typically the candidate will submit a collection of work which has been previously published in a peer-refereed context and pay an examination fee. The university then assembles a committee of academics both internal and external who review the work submitted and decide on whether the candidate deserves the doctorate based on the submission.

Most universities restrict candidacy to graduates or academic staff of several years' standing. The most common doctorates of this type are those in Divinity (DD), Laws (LLD), Civil Law (DCL), Music (DMus or MusD), Letters (DLitt or LittD), Science (DSc or ScD) and DSc(Med). In the United Kingdom, the degrees in medicine or dentistry that permit licensure are bachelors' degrees; these correspond roughly with the MD in the USA or the Dr.med. in Germany. The MD in the United Kingdom (in most universities) is an unsupervised doctorate by thesis, usually ranking above the supervised PhD, but below the DSc(Med).

Of these, the DD historically ranked highest, theology being the senior faculty in the mediaeval universities. The degree of Doctor of Canon Law was next in the order of precedence, but (except for a brief revival during the reign of Mary Tudor) did not survive the Protestant reformation,[71] a consequence of the fact that the teaching of canon law at Cambridge and Oxford was forbidden by Henry VIII, founder of the Church of England. The DMus was, historically, in an anomalous situation, since a candidate was not required to be a member of Convocation (that is, to be a Master of Arts). The DLitt and DSc are relatively recent innovations, dating from the latter part of the 19th century.

Honorary degreesEdit

Most British universities award degrees honoris causa in order to recognise individuals who have made a substantial contribution to a particular field. Usually an appropriate higher doctorate is used in these circumstances, depending on the achievements of the candidate. However, some universities, in order to differentiate between honorary and substantive doctorates, have introduced the degree of Doctor of the University (DUniv) for these purposes, and reserve the higher doctorates for formal academic research.

United States Edit

Research degreesEdit

File:Woolsey Hall, Yale University.jpg

The most common research doctorate is the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). This degree was first awarded in the U.S. at the 1861 Yale University commencement.[14] The University of Pennsylvania followed shortly thereafter in 1871,[72] while Cornell (1872),[73] Harvard (1873),[74] and Princeton (1879)[75] also followed suit. Unlike the introduction of the professional doctorate M.D., there was considerable controversy and opposition over the introduction of the Ph.D. into the U.S. educational system, even through the 1950s, as it was seen as an unnecessary artificial transplant from a foreign educational system (that of Germany), which corrupted a system based on the Oxbridge model of England.[76]

The requirements for obtaining Ph.D.s and other research doctorates in the U.S. typically entail successful completion of pertinent classes, passing of a comprehensive examination, and defense of a dissertation.[77]

The median number of years for completion of doctoral degrees for all fields in the US is seven.[10] Furthermore, doctoral applicants were previously required to have a master's degree, but many programs will now accept students immediately following their undergraduate studies.[78][79] Many programs simply gauge the potential of a student applying to their program and will give them a master's degree upon completion of the necessary Ph.D course work. [citation needed] When so admitted, the student is expected to have mastered the material covered in the masters degree even though the student does not officially hold a masters degree. [citation needed] Once the person has finished Ph.D. qualifying exams, he/she is considered a Ph.D candidate, and may begin work on his/her dissertation. [citation needed]

The International Affairs Office of the U.S. Department of Education lists over 20 frequently awarded research doctorate degree titles accepted by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as representing degrees equivalent in research content to the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree.[80] They are:

Doctor of Arts (D.A./D. Arts), Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.), Doctor of Church Music (D.C.M.), Doctor of Canon Law (J.C.D./D.C.L.), Doctor of Design (D.Des.), Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng./D.E.Sc./D.E.S.), Doctor of Fine Arts (D.F.A.), Doctor of Health Science (D.H.Sc.), Doctor of Hebrew Letters (D.H.L.), Doctor of Industrial Technology (D.I.T.), Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D./S.J.D.), Doctor of Management (D.M.), Doctor of Music (D.M.), Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A./A.Mus.D./D.Mus.A.), Doctor of Music Education (D.M.E.), Doctor of Modern Languages (D.M.L.), Doctor of Nursing Science (D.N.Sc.), Doctor of Occupational Therapy (O.T.D.), Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Doctor of Public Administration (D.P.A.), Doctor of Physical Education (D.P.E.), Doctor of Public Health (Dr.P.H.), Doctor of Sacred Theology (S.T.D.), Doctor of Biblical Studies (D.B.S.), Doctor of Science (D.Sc./Sc.D.), Doctor of Social Work (D.S.W.), and Doctor of Theology (Th.D.).

Professional degreesEdit

In the United States, numerous fields of study have professional doctorates, such as medicine/osteopathic medicine, public health, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, psychology, physical therapy, occupational therapy, health science, advanced practice registered nurse, chiropractic, naturopathic medicine, law, education, teaching, and many others that usually require such degrees for licensure. Some of these degrees are also termed "first professional degrees," since they are also the first degrees in their fields.

Professional doctorates were developed in the United States in the 19th century during a movement to improve the training of professionals by raising the requirements for entry and completion of the degree necessary to enter the profession.[81] These first professional degrees were created to help strengthen professional training programs. The first professional doctorate to be offered in the United States was the M.D. in 1767 by Columbia University[82] which was nearly one hundred years before the first Ph.D. was awarded in the U.S. in 1861.[83] The Juris Doctor (J.D.) was subsequently established by Harvard University for the same reasons that the M.D. was established.[84] A Doctor of Pharmacy is awarded as the Terminal/Professional degree in Pharmacy replacing BS in Pharmacy. It is the only Professional Pharmacy Degree awarded in the US and the Pharmacy School needs accreditation of American Council on Pharmacy Education (ACPE). Pharmacy programs vary in length between 4–6 years depending if a matriculating student has earned a BS/BA or not.

Recently there has been a trend for introducing professional doctorates in other fields as well, including the Doctor of Audiology in 2007. Advanced Practice Registered Nurses are expected to completely transition to the Doctor of Nursing Practice by 2015, and physical therapists to the Doctor of Physical Therapy by 2020.

Profession Professional doctorate in the United States First awarded
Physician Medicinae Doctor and Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) 1767[82]
Osteopathic Physician Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) 1892
Chiropractor Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.)
Dentist Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S) and Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.)
Occupational Therapy Doctor of Occupational Therapy (O.T.D.)
Social Work Doctor of Social Work (D.S.W.)
Counseling Doctor of Professional Counseling (D.P.C.)
Physical Therapy Doctor of Physical Therapy (D.P.T)
Podiatrist Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (D.P.M.)
Pharmacist Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD)
Government Doctor of Public Administration (D.P.A.)
Veterinarian Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.) and Veterinariae Medicinae Doctoris (V.M.D.)
Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Doctor of Nursing Practice or Doctor of Nurse Anesthesia Practice (DNP or DNAP) 2005
Behavioral Health Doctor of Behavioral Health (DBH) 2010
Optometrist Doctor of Optometry (O.D.)
Audiologist Doctor of Audiology (Au.D.) 1996
Lawyer Juris Doctor or Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D.) 1870
Physician Assistant Doctor of Science Physician Assistant (DScPA)
Health Science Doctor of Health Science (D.H.Sc.)
Public Health Doctor of Public Health (Dr.PH.)
Minister/Clergy Doctor of Ministry (D.Min.), Doctor of Practical Theology (D.P.T. or D.Th.P.) or Doctor of Biblical Studies (D.B.S)
Psychologist Doctor of Psychology Given in School and Clinical Psychology programs(Ph.D. or Psy.D.)
College Teaching Doctor of Arts (D.Arts/D.A.)
Music Doctor of Musical Arts (D.Mus.A/D.M.A.)
Management Doctor of Management (D.Mgt./D.M.)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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Academic degrees
Associate's degrees (U.S.) AA, ABA, ABS, AS
Foundation degrees (U.K.) FdA, FdEd, FdEng, FdMus, FdBus, FdSc, FdTech
Bachelor's degrees B.Accty, AB or BA, BSc or SB, BBus, BCom or BComm, BCS, BEc, BEng or BE, BS or BSc, BFA, BD, BHE, BJ, BPharm, BPE, BHK, BCL, LL.B., MB ChB or MB BS or BM BS or MB BChir or MB BCh BAO, BMus, B.Math, BTech, BBA, BAdm, MA (Oxon.), MA (Cantab.), MA (Dubl.), MA (Hons)
Master's degrees MA, MS or MSc, MSt, MALD, MApol, MPhil, MRes, MFA, MTh, MTS, M.Div., MBA, MPA, MJ, MSW, MPAff, MLIS, MLitt, MPH, MPM, MPP, MPT, MRE, MTheol, LLM, MEng, MSci, MBio, MChem, MPhys, MMath, MMus, MESci, MGeol, MTCM, MSSc, BCL (Oxon), BPhil (Oxon), ThM
Specialist degrees Ed.S., SSP, B.Acc., C.A.S.
Doctoral degrees PhD, EdD, EngD, DNursSci, DBA, DC, DD, DSc, DLitt, DA, MD, DDS, DMD, DMA, DMus, DCL, ThD, JD, OD, DO, PharmD, DrPH, DPT, DPhil, DOM, OMD, DPM, PsyD, DSW, LL.D., J.S.D., S.J.D. S.T.D


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