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'''Doctor of Philosophy''', or '''Ph.D.''', an abbreviation for the [[Latin]] "{{lang|la|''Philosophiæ Doctor''}}" or alternatively "{{lang|la|''Doctor philosophiæ''}}", '''D.Phil.''' (originally from the [[Ancient Greek|Greek]] {{lang|grc|Διδάκτωρ Φιλοσοφίας}}, meaning "Teacher of Philosophy"), is a [[doctorate|doctoral]] degree granted at the completion of extensive academic work in a particular field of study. Although originally granted exclusively for work in [[philosophy]], today Ph.D.s are awarded in nearly all fields of the sciences and humanities.
 
   
In some fields, such as some specific branches of [[physics]], a doctoral degree is practically essential for employment. In some sciences, a newly-graduated doctoral student is unlikely to find work as a [[tenure-track]] professor or lecturer and must undertake one or more [[postdoctorate]] positions.
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'''Doctor of Philosophy''', abbreviated as '''Ph.D.''', '''PhD''', '''D.Phil.''', or '''DPhil''' in [[English language|English]]-speaking countries and originally as '''Dr.Philos.''' (for the [[Latin]] ''philosophiae doctor'' or ''doctor philosophiae''), is in many countries a [[postgraduate]] [[academic degree]] awarded by [[university|universities]]. The academic level known as a [[Doctorate]] of philosophy varies considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to [[higher doctorate]]s. A person who attains a doctorate of philosophy is automatically awarded the academic title of [[doctor (title)|doctor]].
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[[File:Dphil gown.jpg|right|thumb|A [[University of Oxford]] Doctor of Philosophy in full [[academic dress]].]]
   
==History of the Ph.D.==
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In the context of academic degrees, the term "philosophy" does not refer solely to the field of [[philosophy]], but is used in a broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is "love of wisdom". In most of [[Europe]], all fields other than [[theology]], [[law]] and [[medicine]] were traditionally known as philosophy, and in Germany and elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of (liberal) arts was known as the faculty of philosophy. The doctorate of philosophy as it exists today thus originated as a doctorate in the [[liberal arts]] at the Friedrich-Wilhelms Universität, the buildings of which are today used by the [[Humboldt University of Berlin]], becoming common in large parts of the world in the 20th century.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://phdcourse.net/history-of-the-ph.d./history-of-the-ph.d./ |title=History of the Ph.D. |publisher=Phdcourse.net |date= |accessdate=2011-02-01}}</ref> In many countries, the doctorate of philosophy is still awarded only in philosophy, i.e., [[liberal arts]].
   
The Ph.D. was originally a [[academic degree|degree]] granted by a [[university]] to learned individuals who had achieved the approval of their peers and who had demonstrated a long and productive career in the field of philosophy. The appellation of "[[Doctor (title)|Doctor]]" (from Latin: ''doceo, docere'': to teach) was usually awarded only when the individual was in [[middle age]]. It indicated a life dedicated to learning, to knowledge, and to the spread of knowledge.
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==History==
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In the [[Medieval university|universities of Medieval Europe]], study was organised in four faculties: the basic faculty of arts, and the three higher faculties of theology, medicine and law (canonical and civil). All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees (bachelor of arts, of theology, of laws, of medicine) and final degrees. Initially, the titles of master and doctor were used interchangeably for the final degrees, but by the late Middle Ages the terms Master of Arts and Doctor of Theology/Divinity, Doctor of Law and Doctor of Medicine had become standard in most places (though in the German and Italian universities the term Doctor was used for all faculties). The doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current Ph.D. degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship, not original research. No dissertation or original work was required, only lengthy residency requirements and examinations. Besides these degrees there was the [[licentiate]]. Originally this was a license to teach, awarded shortly before the award of the master or doctor degree by the diocese in which the university was located, but later it evolved into an academic degree in its own right, in particular in the continental universities. So in theory the full course of studies might lead in succession to the degrees of, e.g., Bachelor of Arts, Licentiate of Arts, Master of Arts, Bachelor of Medicine, Licentiate of Medicine, Doctor of Medicine. There were many exceptions to this however, e.g., most students left the university before becoming masters of arts, whereas regulars (members of monastic orders) could skip the arts faculty entirely.<ref>{{cite book|last=Pedersen|first=Olaf|title=The first universities: Studium generale and the origins of university education in Europe|year=1997|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-59431-8}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=de Ridder-Symoens|first=Hilde|title=[[A History of the University in Europe|A history of the university in Europe: Universities in the Middle Ages]]|year=2003|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-36105-7}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Rashdall|first=Hastings|title=The universities of Europe in the Middle Ages|year=1964|publisher=Oxford University Press}}</ref>
   
The degree was popularised in the [[19th century]] at the [[Humboldt University of Berlin|Friedrich Wilhelm University]] in [[Berlin]] as a degree to be granted to someone who had undertaken original research in the [[science]]s or [[humanities]]. From there it spread to the [[United States]], arriving at [[Yale University]] in [[1861]], and then to the [[United Kingdom]] in [[1921]]. This displaced the existing Doctor of Philosophy degree in some Universities; for instance, the '''D.Phil.''' (higher [[doctorate]] in the faculty of philosophy) at the [[University of St Andrews]] was discontinued and replaced with the Ph.D. (research [[doctorate]]). However, some UK universities such as [[University of Oxford|Oxford]], [[University of Buckingham|Buckingham]] and [[University of Sussex|Sussex]] retain the D.Phil. abbreviation for their research degrees, as do universities in [[New Zealand]].
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This situation changed in the early 19th century through the educational reforms in Germany, most strongly embodied in the model of the [[Humboldt University]]. The arts faculty, which in Germany was labelled the faculty of philosophy, started demanding contributions to research, attested by a dissertation, for the award of their final degree, which was labelled Doctor of Philosophy (abbreviated as Ph.D.) - originally this was just the German equivalent of the Master of Arts degree. Whereas in the Middle Ages the arts faculty had a set curriculum, based upon the [[trivium (education)|trivium]] and the [[quadrivium]], by the 19th century it had come to house all the courses of study in subjects now commonly referred to as sciences and humanities.<ref>{{cite book|last=Rüegg|first=Walter|title=A History of the University in Europe: Volume 3, Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945)|publisher=Cambridge University Press}}</ref>
   
==Australia==
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These reforms proved extremely successful, and fairly quickly the German universities started attracting foreign students, notably from the United States. The American students would go to Germany to obtain a Ph.D. after having studied for a bachelor's degrees at an American college. So influential was this practice that it was imported to the United States, where in 1861 [[Yale University]] started granting the Ph.D. degree to younger students who, after having obtained the bachelor's degree, had completed a prescribed course of graduate study and successfully defended a thesis/dissertation containing original research in science or in the humanities.<ref>See, for instance, {{cite doi|10.2307/1979947}}</ref> This research degree of doctor of philosophy was the first to be given in North America.<ref>''Science'', October 11, 1929, Volume LXX/July-Dec 1929, pg. 337</ref> The current triple structure of bachelor-master-doctor degrees in one discipline was therefore created on American soil by fusing two different European traditions - the medieval B.A. and M.A. degrees, awarded after a course of study and inherited from the British Universities, and the research based Ph.D. taken over from the early 19th century German educational reforms. Even though in Germany the name of the doctorate was adapted accordingly after the philosophy faculty started being split up - e.g. Dr. rer. nat. for doctorates in the faculty of natural sciences - in most of the Anglo-Saxon world the name of Doctor of Philosophy was retained for research doctorates in all disciplines.
===Admission===
 
Admission to a Ph.D. programme within Australia requires the prospective student to have completed a Bachelor Degree with an Honours component. In most disciplines, Honours involves an extra year of study including a large research component in addition to coursework. To obtain a Ph.D. position, students must usually gain a First Class Honours, but may sometimes be admitted with a high Second Class Honours (known as a 2A).
 
   
===Funding===
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From the [[United States]], the Ph.D. degree spread to [[Canada]] in 1900, and then to the [[United Kingdom]] in 1917.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/PhD.htm|title=The Mathematics PhD in the United Kingdom|accessdate=2010-11-17}}</ref> In particular in the English universities the introduction of the research doctorate largely happened to compete with Germany for American students, but the initiative was first halted by internal criticism. In first instance, in particular at the [[University of London]] (from about 1860 onwards), the degrees of Doctor of Science (DSc) and Doctor of Literature (DLit) were introduced, which could be awarded upon presentation of a thesis containing original work. This involved no research training however, and did not have the desired effect of attracting foreign research students. Finally in 1917 the current degree of Ph.D. (or D.Phil.) was introduced, along the lines of the American and German model, and quickly became popular with both British and foreign students.<ref>{{cite book | author = Simpson, Renate | title = How the PhD came to Britain : A Century of Struggle for Postgraduate Education | year = 1984 | publisher = Taylor and Francis | location = | isbn = 0-900868-95-3 }}</ref> The slightly older degrees of Doctor of Science and Doctor of Literature/Letters still exist in British universities; together with the much older degrees of Doctor of Divinity, Doctor of Music, Doctor of Law/Civil Law and Doctor of Medicine they form the higher doctorates, but apart from honorary degrees they are only infrequently awarded.
In Australia, Ph.D. students are quite often offered a scholarship to study their Ph.D. The most common of these is the Australian Postgraduate Award (APA) scholarship, which provides a living stipend to students of approximately [[Australian dollar|AU$]]19,000 a year (tax free). Most universities also offer a similar scholarship that matches the APA amount, but is funded by the university. In recent years, with the tightening of research funding in Australia, these scholarships have become increasingly harder to obtain. In addition to the more common APA and University scholarships, Australian students also have other sources of funding in their Ph.D. These could include, but are not limited to, scholarships offered by schools, research centres and commercial enterprise. For the latter, the amount is determined between the university and the organisation, but is quite often set at the APA (Industry) rate, roughly [[Australian dollar|AU$]]7,000 more than the usual APA rate. Australian students are often also able to tutor undergraduate classes (much like a teaching assistant in the USA) to generate income. An Australian Ph.D. scholarship is paid for a duration of 3 years, while a 6 month extension is usually possible upon citing delays out of the control of the student. Completion of a Ph.D is results dependent, and often students are unable to finsh during the tenure of the scholarship.
 
   
==Canada==
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It should be noted that in the English (but not the Scottish) universities the Faculty of Arts had become dominant by the early 19th century. Indeed, the higher faculties had largely atrophied, since medical training had shifted to teaching hospitals,<ref>C. Singer and S.W.F. Holloway, Early Medical Education in England in Relation to the Pre-History of the University of London, Med Hist. 1960 January; 4(1): 1–17.</ref> the legal training for the common law system was provided by the [[Inns of Court]] (with some minor exceptions, see [[Doctors' Commons]]), and few students undertook formal study in theology. This is contrast with the situation in the continental European universities at the time, where the preparatory role of the Faculty of Philosophy or Arts was to a great extent taken over by secondary education, as is testified by the ongoing use to this day of the degree of [[Baccalaureat]] in [[France]] as the qualification obtained after secondary studies. The reforms at the [[Humboldt University]] transformed the Faculty of Philosophy or Arts (and its more recent successors such as the Faculty of Sciences) from a lower faculty into one on par with the Faculties of Law and Medicine. A similar evolution happened in many other continental European universities, and at least until reforms in the early 21st century many European countries (e.g. Belgium, Spain and the Scandinavian countries) had in all faculties triple degree structures of bachelor (or candidate) - licentiate - doctor as opposed to bachelor - master - doctor; the meaning of the different degrees varied a lot from country to country however. To this day this is also still the case for the pontifical degrees in theology and canon law: for instance, in [[Sacred theology]] the degrees are [[Bachelor of Sacred Theology]] (STB), [[Licentiate of Sacred Theology]] (STL), and [[Doctor of Sacred Theology]] (STD), and in [[Canon law]]: [[Bachelor of Canon Law]] (JCB), [[Licentiate of Canon Law]](JCL), and [[Doctor of Canon Law]] (JCD).
===Admission===
 
   
Admission to a Ph.D. programme at a Canadian university normally requires completion of a [[Master's degree]] in a related field, with sufficiently high grades (usually at least a B+ average, though this requirement may be substantially higher in some schools, departments, faculties or fields), and proven research ability. In exceptional cases, a student may progress directly from an Honours [[Bachelor's degree]] directly to a Ph.D.. The student must usually submit an application package including a research proposal, letters of reference, transcripts, and a sample of the student's writing.
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==Requirements==
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The detailed requirements for award of a Ph.D. degree vary throughout the world and even from school to school. It is usually required for the student to hold an [[Honours degree]] or a [[Master's Degree]] with high academic standing, in order to be considered for a PhD programme. In some schools in the US, Canada and Denmark, for example, many universities require coursework in addition to research for Ph.D. degrees. In other countries (such as the UK) there is generally no such condition. Some individual universities or departments specify additional requirements for students not already in possession of a [[bachelor's degree]] or equivalent or higher.
   
At English-speaking universities, students may also be required to demonstrate English-language ability, usually via an acceptable score on a standard examination. Depending on the field, the student may also be required to demonstrate ability in one or more additional language(s). Prospective students applying to French-speaking universities may also have to demonstrate at least some English-language ability.
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A candidate must submit a project or [[thesis or dissertation]] often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a [[Peer review|peer-reviewed]] context.<ref>{{cite doi|10.1080/03098770020030498}}</ref> In many countries a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university; in other countries, the dissertation is examined by a panel of expert examiners who stipulate whether the dissertation is in principle passable and the issues that need to be addressed before the dissertation can be passed.
   
===Funding===
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Some universities in the non-[[English language|English]]-speaking world have begun adopting similar standards to those of the Anglophone PhD degree for their research doctorates (see the [[Bologna process]]).<ref>The term "doctor of philosophy" is not always applied by those countries to graduates in disciplines other than [[philosophy]] itself. These doctoral degrees, however, are sometimes identified in English as Ph.D. degrees.</ref>
   
While some students work outside the university (or at student jobs within the university), in some programmes students are advised (or must agree) not to devote more than twelve hours per week to activities outside of their studies.
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A Ph.D. student or candidate (abbreviated to Ph.D.c)<ref>[http://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/PHDC What does PhDc stand for? Acronyms and abbreviations by the Free Online Dictionary]</ref> is conventionally required to study on campus under close supervision. With the popularity of distance education and e-learning technologies, some universities now accept students enrolled into a distance education part-time mode.
   
At some Canadian universities, most Ph.D. students receive an award equivalent to the tuition amount for the first four years (this is sometimes called a tuition deferral). Other sources of funding include [[teaching assistant]]ships and research assistantships; at least some experience as a teaching assistant is encouraged in many programmes. Additionally, some programmes require all Ph.D. candidates to teach a class or classes, which may be done under the supervision of regular faculty.
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In a "[[sandwich]] Ph.D." program, Ph.D. candidates do not spend their entire study period at the same university. Instead, the Ph.D. candidates spend the first and last periods of the program at their home universities, and in between conduct research at another institution or [[field research]].<ref>[http://www.wageningenuniversity.nl/UK/informationfor/PhD+programmes/PhD+Categories/ PhD Categories], Wageningen University; [http://www.rug.nl/fmns-research/career/PhDScholarships/GrantsPhD PhD scholarship programmes], University of Groningen Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science; [http://www.informatik.uni-kl.de/en/studium/studiengaenge/promprog/sandwichprom/ Sandwich PhD], Technissche Universitat Kaiserslautern.</ref> Occasionally a "sandwich Ph.D." will be awarded by two universities.<ref>"[http://tribune.com.pk/story/334682/higher-education-agreement-reached-with-glasgow-for-sandwich-phd/ Higher education: Agreement reached with Glasgow for 'sandwich' PhD] (February 11, 2012). ''Express Tribune''.</ref>
   
Besides these sources of funding, there are also various scholarships, bursaries and awards available.
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==Value and criticism==
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PhD students are often motivated to pursue the PhD by the desire for further education beyond the undergraduate level, scientific and humanistic curiosity, the desire to contribute to the academic community, service to others, or personal development. A career in academia generally requires a PhD, though in some countries, it is possible to reach relatively high positions without a doctorate. The motivation may also include increased salary, but in many cases this is not the result. Research by Casey suggests that, over all subjects, PhDs provide an earnings premium of 26%, but notes that masters degrees provide a premium of 23% already. While this is a small return to the individual (or even an overall deficit when lost earnings during training are accounted for), he claims there are significant benefits to society for the extra research training.<ref>Journal of Higher Education Management and Policy, the economic contribution of PhDs, http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a912992314</ref>
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However, some research suggests that overqualified workers are often less satisfied and less productive at their jobs.<ref name="Economist"/> These difficulties are increasingly being felt by graduates of professional degrees, such as law school, looking to find employment. PhD students often have to take on debt to undertake their degree.
   
===Requirements for completion===
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''[[The Economist]]'' published an article citing various criticisms against the state of PhDs.<ref name="Economist">{{cite news |url=http://www.economist.com/node/17723223 |title=Doctoral degrees: The disposable academic |author= |year=2010 |work= |publisher=The Economist |accessdate=25 December 2012}}</ref> [[Richard B. Freeman]] explains that, based on pre-2000 data, at most only 20% of life science PhD students end up getting jobs specifically in research. In Canada, where the overflow of PhD degree holders is not as severe, 80% of [[Postdoctoral research|postdoctoral research fellows]] earn less than or equal to the average construction worker (roughly $38,000 a year) during their postdoctoral research tenure.<ref name="Economist"/> Only in the fastest developing countries (e.g. China or Brazil) is there a shortage of PhDs. Higher education systems often offer little incentive to move students through PhD programs quickly (and may even provide incentive to slow them down). To counter this, the United States introduced the [[Doctor of Arts]] degree in 1970 with seed money from the [[Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching]]. The aim of the Doctor of Arts degree was to shorten the time needed to complete the degree by focusing on pedagogy over research, although the Doctor of Arts still contains a significant research component. Germany is one of the few nations engaging these issues, and it has been doing so by reconceptualizing PhD programs to be training for careers, outside of academia, but still at high-level positions. This development can be seen in the extensive number of PhD holders, typically from the fields of law, engineering and economics, at the very top corporate and administrative positions. To a lesser extent, the UK research councils have tackled the issue by introducing, since 1992, the [[EngD]]. [[Mark C. Taylor]] opines that total reform of PhD programs in almost every field is necessary in the U.S., and that pressure to make the necessary changes will need to come from many sources (students, administrators, public and private sectors, etc.). These issues and others are discussed in an April 2011 issue of the journal ''[[Nature (journal)|Nature]]''.<ref name="doi10.1038/nj7343-381a">{{cite doi|10.1038/nj7343-381a}}</ref><ref>{{cite doi|10.1038/472259b}}</ref><ref>{{cite doi|10.1038/472261a}}</ref><ref>{{cite doi|10.1038/472276a}}</ref>
   
In general, the first two years of study are devoted to completion of coursework and the [[comprehensive examination]]s. At this stage, the student is known as a "Ph.D. student." It is usually expected that the student will have completed most of his or her required coursework by the end of this stage, and is usually required that by the end of thirty-six months after the first registration, the student will have successfully completed the comprehensive exams.
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Within the research occupations in which a PhD is widely viewed as being necessary, career progression is typically aided by publication in [[Pre-publication review|peer-reviewed journals]]; yet many such journals print research papers without any reference to academic certificates in their author by-lines. The quality of a peer reviewed publication is expected to be self-evident, and letters after authors' names are therefore superfluous. In contrast, applicants for research grants may be required to disclose which academic certificates they hold, leading to the risk that a PhD qualification representing as little as three years' work will outweigh a rival applicant's superior publication record and thus leave academic reviewers (whose employers may have a financial stake in the PhD system) open to accusations of self-interest. Given the need for self-evident quality in research publications, the role played by PhD degrees in research occupations differs markedly from the [[quality assurance]] role played by professional qualifications in other fields, and is arguably a form of [[closed shop]].
   
Upon successful completion of the comprehensive exams, the student becomes known as a "Ph.D. candidate." From this stage on, the bulk of the student's time will be devoted to his or her own research, culminating in the completion of a Ph.D. "thesis," or "dissertation." The final requirement is for a public thesis defence.
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==Doctor of Philosophy degrees across the globe==
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[[UNESCO]] states that "Programmes to be classified at ISCED level 8 are referred to in many ways across the world such as PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar terms. However, it is important to note that programmes with a similar name to "doctor" should only be included in ISCED level 8 if they satisfy the criteria described in Paragraph 263. For international comparability purposes, the term "doctoral or equivalent" is used to label ISCED level 8".<ref>{{cite web|title=Paragraph 262 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011|url=http://www.unesco.org/ulis/cgi-bin/ulis.pl?catno=211619&set=4F3F2872_2_352&database=gctd&gp=0&lin=1&ll=1}}</ref>
   
At most Canadian universities, the minimum amount of time needed to complete a Ph.D. is two years, and the maximum is six.
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===[[Argentina]]===
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{{See also|Education in Argentina}}
   
==United Kingdom==
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====Admission====
=== Admission ===
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In Argentina, the admission to a PhD program at public Argentinian University requires the full completion of a<!-- an Argentinean(?) --> [[Master's degree]] or a [[Licentiate]]'s degree. Non-Argentinian Master's titles are generally accepted into a PhD program when the degree comes from a recognized university.
Admission to a Ph.D. programme within the UK generally requires the prospective student to have completed a Bachelor's Degree, either with First Class Honours or Upper Second Class Honours (known as a 2.1).
 
   
===Funding===
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====Fundings====
In the U.K., funding for Ph.D. students is often provided by government-funded [[Research Council]]s. The funding takes the form of a [[Income tax|tax-free]] [[bursary]] of around [[Pound sterling|GBP]]12,000 per year for three years, whether or not the degree continues for longer. Research Council funding is typically allocated to an academic department which then allocate it to students. In order to ensure that students receiving such funding use it appropriately, funding is provided to departments on the basis that future funding may be reduced should students fail to complete their degree within a given timescale. This means that departments have a strong incentive to ensure that funding is allocated only to students who are likely to finish the degree. Students at British universities may also take part in tutoring, work as research assistants, or (occasionally) deliver lectures, either to supplement existing funding or as a sole means of funding.
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While a significant portion of postgraduate students finance their tuition and living costs with teaching or research work at private and state-run institutions, international institutions, such as the Fulbright Program and the Organization of American States (OAS), have been known to grant full scholarships for tuition with apportions for housing.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://spuweb.siu.edu.ar/studyinargentina/pages/study1203.php |title=Scholarships in Argentina |publisher=Spuweb.siu.edu.ar |date= |accessdate=2010-04-28}}</ref>
   
==United States==
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====Requirements for completion====
===Admission===
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Upon completion of at least two years' research and course work as a graduate student, a candidate must demonstrate truthful and original contributions to his or her specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gfme.org/global_guide/pdf/13-18%20Argentina.pdf |title=GFME: Global Foundation for Management Education |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2010-04-28}}</ref> The doctoral candidate's work should be presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a Doctoral Committee. This Committee should be composed of examiners that are external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution. The academic degree of Doctor, respective to the correspondent field of science that the candidate has contributed with original and rigorous research, is received after a successful defense of the candidate's dissertation.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.coneau.edu.ar/index.php?item=29&apps=16&id=428&act=ver&idioma=en |title=Comisión Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación Universitaria {{es icon}}&#125; |publisher=Coneau.edu.ar |date= |accessdate=2010-04-28}} {{Dead link|date=October 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref>
Admission to Ph.D. programmes in the United States is highly competitive. At minimum, applicants are typically required to have a Bachelors Degree in a relevant field, reasonably high grades and a satisfactory performance on the [[Graduate Record Exam]] (GRE). Although specific requirements vary, programmes at well-regarded research-orientated universities usually require significantly more of their applicants.
 
   
===Master's degree "in passing"===
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===[[Australia]]===
As applicants to Ph.D. programmes are not required to have Master's Degrees, many programmes award a [[Master of Arts (postgraduate)|M.A.]] or [[M.S.]] degree "in passing," meaning that they are awarded based on previously-completed work, but are not "terminal" degrees in that the recipient is expected to continue his or her education toward the Ph.D. Students who receive such Master's Degrees are usually required to complete a certain amount of coursework and a master's [[thesis]].
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{{See also|Education in Australia|Australian Qualifications Framework}}
   
===Time===
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====Admission====
Depending on the specific field of study, completion of a Ph.D. programme usually takes between four and eight years after the bachelor's degree; those students who begin a Ph.D. programme with a Master's Degree may complete their Ph.D. a year or two sooner.<ref name="usdoe">{{cite news
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Admission to a PhD program in Australia requires applicants to demonstrate capacity to undertake research in the proposed field of study. The standard requirement is a Bachelor's degree with either first-class or upper second-class honours. Research Master's degrees and coursework Master's degrees with a 25% research component are usually considered equivalent. It is also possible for research Master's degree students to 'upgrade' to PhD candidature after demonstrating sufficient progress.
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====Scholarships====
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PhD students are sometimes offered a scholarship to study for their PhD degree. The most common of these are the government-funded [[Australian Postgraduate Award]] (APA), which provides a living stipend to students of approximately [[Australian dollar|A$]]22,500 a year (tax free). APAs are paid for a duration of 3 years, while a 6 month extension is usually possible upon citing delays out of the control of the student.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.utas.edu.au/graduate-research/scholarships/domestic-scholarships/australian-postgraduate-awards |title=Home - Graduate Research - University of Tasmania, Australia |publisher=Utas.edu.au |date= |accessdate=2013-07-02}}</ref> Some universities also fund a similar scholarship that matches the APA amount. Due to a continual increase in living costs, many PhD students are forced to live under the poverty line.<ref>{{cite journal | author = ABC | title = PhD students living below poverty line | journal = ABC News | year = 2008 | volume = 2008 | pages = 1–2 | issue = April | url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/04/30/2231306.htm}}</ref> In addition to the more common APA and university scholarships, Australian students have other sources of scholarship funding.
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====Fees====
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Australian citizens, permanent residents and New Zealand citizens are not charged course fees for their PhD or research Master's degree, with exception to the student services and amenities fee (SSAF) which is set by each university and typically involves the largest amount allowed by the Australian government. All fees are paid for by the Australian government, except for the SSAF, under the Research Training Scheme.<ref>{{cite web| title =http://www.heimshelp.deewr.gov.au/2_Glossary/R/RESEARCH_TRAINING_SCHEME_RTS.htm. Research Training Scheme | publisher = DEEWR | year = 2011 }}</ref> International students and coursework Master's degree students must pay course fees, unless they receive a scholarship to cover them.
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====Requirements for completion====
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Completion requirements vary. Most Australian PhD programs do not have a required coursework component. The credit points attached to the degree are all in the product of the research, which is usually an 80,000 word thesis that makes a significant new contribution to the field. The PhD thesis is sent to external examiners who are experts in the field of research and who have not been involved in the work. Examiners are nominated by the candidate's university and their identities are often not revealed to the candidate until the examination is complete. A formal oral defence is generally not part of the examination of the thesis, largely because of the distances that would need to be traveled by the overseas examiners.
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===[[Canada]]===
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====Admission====
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Admission to a PhD program at a Canadian university usually requires completion of a [[Master's degree]] in a related field, with sufficiently high grades and proven research ability. In some cases, a student may progress directly from an Honours [[Bachelor's degree]] to a PhD program; other programs allow a student to fast-track to a doctoral program after one year of outstanding work in a Master's program (without having to complete the Master's).
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An application package typically includes a research proposal, letters of reference, transcripts, and in some cases, a writing sample or [[Graduate Record Examination]] scores. A common criterion for prospective PhD students is the comprehensive or qualifying examination, a process that often commences in the second year of a graduate program. Generally, successful completion of the qualifying exam permits continuance in the graduate program. Formats for this examination include oral examination by the student's faculty committee (or a separate qualifying committee), or written tests designed to demonstrate the student's knowledge in a specialized area (see below) or both.
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At English-speaking universities, a student may also be required to demonstrate English language abilities, usually by achieving an acceptable score on a standard examination (e.g., Test of English as a Foreign Language ([[TOEFL]])). Depending on the field, the student may also be required to demonstrate ability in one or more additional languages. A prospective student applying to French-speaking universities may also have to demonstrate some English language ability.
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====Funding====
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While some students work outside the university (or at student jobs within the university), in some programs students are advised (or must agree) not to devote more than ten hours per week to activities (e.g., employment) outside of their studies, particularly if they have been given funding. For large and prestigious scholarships, such as those from [[NSERC]], this is an absolute requirement.
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At some Canadian universities, most PhD students receive an award equivalent to part or all of the tuition amount for the first four years (this is sometimes called a tuition deferral or tuition waiver). Other sources of funding include [[teaching assistant]]ships and research assistantships; experience as a teaching assistant is encouraged but not requisite in many programs. Some programs may require all PhD candidates to teach, which may be done under the supervision of their supervisor or regular faculty. Besides these sources of funding, there are also various competitive scholarships, bursaries, and awards available, such as those offered by the federal government via [[Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council|NSERC]], [[Canadian Institutes of Health Research|CIHR]], or [[Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council|SSHRC]].
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====Requirements for completion====
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In general, the first two years of study are devoted to completion of coursework and the [[comprehensive examination]]s. At this stage, the student is known as a "PhD student" or "doctoral student". It is usually expected that the student will have completed most of his or her required coursework by the end of this stage. Furthermore, it is usually required that by the end of eighteen to thirty-six months after the first registration, the student will have successfully completed the comprehensive exams.
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Upon successful completion of the comprehensive exams, the student becomes known as a "PhD candidate". From this stage on, the bulk of the student's time will be devoted to his or her own research, culminating in the completion of a PhD thesis or dissertation. The final requirement is an oral defense of the thesis, which is open to the public in some, but not all, universities. At most Canadian universities, the time needed to complete a PhD degree typically ranges from four to six years{{Citation needed|date=June 2008}}. It is, however, not uncommon for students to be unable to complete all the requirements within six years, particularly given that funding packages often support students for only two to four years; many departments will allow program extensions at the discretion of the thesis supervisor and/or department chair. Alternate arrangements exist whereby a student is allowed to let their registration in the program lapse at the end of six years and re-register once the thesis is completed in draft form. The general rule is that graduate students are obligated to pay tuition until the initial thesis submission has been received by the thesis office. In other words, if a PhD student defers or delays the initial submission of their thesis they remain obligated to pay fees until such time that the thesis has been received in good standing.
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===[[France]]===
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====Admission====
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Students pursuing the PhD degree must first complete a Master's degree program, which takes two years after graduation with a Bachelor's degree (five years in total). The candidate must find funding and a formal [[doctoral advisor]] (Directeur de thèse) with an [[habilitation]] throughout the doctoral program.
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The Masters program is divided into two branches: "master professionnel", which orientates the students towards the working world, and Master of Research (Master-recherche), which is oriented towards research.
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The PhD admission is granted by a [[graduate school#France|graduate school (in French, "école doctorale")]]. A PhD Student has to follow some courses offered by the graduate school while continuing his/her research at laboratory. His/her research may be carried out in a laboratory, at a university, or in a company. In the last case, the company hires the student as an engineer and the student is supervised by both the company's tutor and a labs' professor. The validation of the PhD degree requires generally 3 to 4 years after the Master degree.
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====Funding====
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The financing of PhD studies comes mainly from funds for research of the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research. The most common procedure is a short-term [[employment contract]] called doctoral contract: the institution of higher education is the employer and the PhD candidate the employee. However, the student can apply for funds from a company who can host him/her at its premises (as in the case where PhD students do their research in a company). Many other resources come from some regional/city projects, some associations, etc.
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===[[India]]===
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====Admission====
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In [[India]], generally a Masters degree is required to gain admission to a doctoral program. Direct admission to a Ph.D programme after bachelors is also offered by the [[IIT]]<nowiki/>s, the [[NIT]]<nowiki/>s and the [[ACSIR]]. In some subjects, doing a Masters in Philosophy (M.Phil.) is a prerequisite to starting a Ph.D. For funding/fellowship, it is required to qualify for the [[National Eligibility Test]] for Lectureship and Junior Research fellowship (NET for LS and JRF) <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ugc.ac.in/inside/net.html |title=N E T – Inside H E – University Grants Commission |publisher=Ugc.ac.in |date=1988-07-22 |accessdate=2010-02-07}}</ref> conducted by the federal research organisation [[Council of Scientific and Industrial Research]] (CSIR) and [[University Grants Commission (India)|University Grants Commission]] (UGC).
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In the last few years, there have been many changes in the rules relating to a Ph.D in India {{Citation needed|date=May 2012}}. According to the new rules, most universities conduct entrance exams in general ability and the selected subject. After clearing these tests, the shortlisted candidates need to appear for an interview by the available supervisor/guide. The students are required to give presentations of the research proposal at the beginning, submit progress reports, give a pre-submission presentation and finally defend the [[thesis]] in an open defence [[Viva voce|viva-voce]].
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===[[Germany]]===
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{{See also|Education in Germany}}
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====Admission====
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In [[Germany]], admission to a doctoral program is generally on the basis of having an advanced degree (i.e., a [[master's degree]], [[diploma]], [[Magister (degree)|''magister'']], or ''[[staatsexamen]]''), more often than not in a related field, and above-average grades. A candidate must also find a [[tenure]]d [[professor]] or ''[[Privatdozent]]'' to serve as the formal advisor and supervisor (''Betreuer'') of the [[dissertation]] throughout the doctoral program. This supervisor is informally referred to as ''Doktorvater'' or ''Doktormutter'', which literally translate as "doctor's father" or "doctor's mother", respectively.
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====Structure====
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Doctoral candidates (''Doktorand/-in''), or doctoral students, are generally not required to attend formal classes or lectures; instead, under the tutelage of a single professor or advisory committee, they are expected to conduct independent research. In addition to doctoral studies, many doctoral candidates work as teaching assistants (TAs) or research assistants (RAs).
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Many universities have established research-intensive ''[[Graduiertenkolleg]]s'' ("graduate colleges"), which are [[graduate school]]s that provide funding for doctoral studies.
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====Duration====
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The usual duration of a doctoral program largely depends on the subject and area of research; but, often three to five years of full-time research work are required.
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As of 2012, the average age of new Ph.D. graduates is 32.7 years of age.<ref name=occ>{{citation | title=Bestandene Prüfungen | publisher=Statistisches Bundesamt | url=https://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/GesellschaftStaat/BildungForschungKultur/Hochschulen/Tabellen/BestandenePruefungenGruppen.html | accessdate=2012-03-19}}</ref>
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===Other nations===
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In [[German language|German-speaking]] nations; most [[Eastern Europe]]an nations; successor states of the former [[Soviet Union]]; most parts of [[Africa]], [[Asia]], and many [[Spanish language|Spanish-speaking]] countries, the corresponding degree to a Doctor of Philosophy is simply called "Doctor" (''Doktor''), and the subject area is distinguished by with a Latin suffix (e.g., "Dr. med." for ''{{lang|la|Doctor medicinae}}'', Doctor of Medicine; "Dr. rer. nat." for ''{{lang|la|Doctor rerum naturalium}}'', Doctor of the Natural Sciences; "Dr. phil." for ''{{lang|la|Doctor philosophiae}}'', Doctor of Philosophy; "[[Doctor of Laws#Germany|Dr. iur.]]" for ''{{lang|la|Doctor iuris}}'', Doctor of Laws).
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=== USSR, Russian Federation and former Soviet Republics ===
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{{over coverage|date=June 2013}}
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The degree of [[Candidate of Sciences]] ({{lang-ru|кандидат наук}} - Kandidat Nauk) was the first advanced research qualification in the former [[USSR]] and some [[Eastern Bloc]] countries ([[Czechoslovakia]], [[Hungary]]) and is still awarded in some [[post-Soviet states]] ([[Russian Federation]], [[Ukraine]], [[Belarus]] and others). According to [http://en.russia.edu.ru/edu/inostr/prizn/900/ "Guidelines for the recognition of Russian qualifications in the other countries"], in countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees (like [[Russian Federation]], some [[post-Soviet states]], [[Germany]], [[Poland]], [[Austria]] and [[Switzerland]]), should be considered for recognition at the level of the first doctoral degree, and in countries with only one doctoral degree, the degree of Kandidat Nauk should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this degree. As most education systems only have one advanced research qualification granting doctoral degrees or equivalent qualifications (ISCED 2011,<ref name="par270">{{cite web|title=International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011 |url=http://www.unesco.org/ulis/cgi-bin/ulis.pl?catno=211619&set=4F3F2872_2_352&database=gctd&gp=0&lin=1&ll=1}}</ref> par.270), the degree of [[Candidate of Sciences]] (Kandidat Nauk) of the former USSR counties is usually considered at the same level as the doctorate or PhD degrees of those countries.<ref name="IIEP2011">UNESCO-IIEP. Varghese, N.V.; Püttmann, V. Trends in diversification of post-secondary education (IIEP research papers). Paris: UNESCO, IIEP, 2011. p.&nbsp;11–12, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001915/191585e.pdf</ref><ref>UNESCO-CEPES. Kouptsov, O., ed. The Doctorate in the Europe Region. CEPES Studies in Higher Education. Bucharest: UNESCO, CEPES, 1994, p. 199, ISBN 92-9069-133-6, http://www.unesco.org/education/pdf/24_245.pdf</ref> According to the Joint Statement by the Permanent Conference of the Ministers for Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder of the Federal Republic of Germany ([[Kultusministerkonferenz]], KMK), [[German Rectors' Conference]] (HRK) and the [[Ministry of Education and Science (Russia)|Ministry of General and Professional Education of the Russian Federation]], the degree of Kandidat Nauk is recognised in [[Germany]] at the level of the [[Doctor of Philosophy#Germany|German degree of Doktor]] and the degree of Doktor Nauk at the level of German [[Habilitation]].<ref>Gemeinsame Erklärungzur gegenseitigen akademischen Anerkennungvon tudienzeiten und Abschlüssen im Hochschulbereichsowie von Urkunden über russische wissenschaftliche Gradeund deutsche akademische Qualifikationen zwischen HRK/ KMK und dem Ministerium für Allgemeine und Berufliche Bildungder Russischen Föderation 1999, http://www.hrk-bologna.de/de/download/dateien/HRK_Abkommen_Russland.pdf</ref><ref>Совместное заявление о взаимном академическом признании периодов обучения в высших учебных заведениях, документов о высшем образовании, российских ученых степенях и германских академических квалификациях, 1999, http://www.russia.edu.ru/information/legal/law/inter/germ/</ref> The Russian degree of Kandidat Nauk is also officially recognised by the Government of the [[French Republic]] as equivalent to [[Doctor of Philosophy#France|French doctorate]].<ref>Décret n° 2003-744 du 1er août 2003 portant publication de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la République française et le Gouvernement de la Fédération de Russie sur la reconnaissance mutuelle des documents sur les grades et titres universitaires, signé à Saint-Pétersbourg le 12 mai 2003, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000780537</ref><ref>Соглашение между Правительством Российской Федерации и Правительством Французской Республики о взаимном признании документов об ученых степенях, Санкт-Петербург, 12 мая 2003 года, http://www.russia.edu.ru/information/legal/law/inter/soglash/2538/</ref> In Ukraine, the Supreme Certifying Commission (official English self-denomination, also known as [[Higher Attestation Commission]] or "VAK", {{lang-ua|Вища атестаційна комісія України}}), before it was merged into the [[Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sport of Ukraine]], would issue official international diploma supplements to holders of Ukrainian degrees of Kandydat Nauk ([[Candidate of Sciences]], {{lang-ua|кандидат наук}})<ref>Постанова Кабінету Міністрів України від 17 березня 1993 р. N 199 Про затвердження описів дипломів доктора і кандидата наук та атестата старшого наукового співробітника і переліку галузей науки, з яких може бути присуджений науковий ступінь, http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/199-93-%D0%BF</ref> stating that the degree was "comparable to the academic degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Ph.D.".<ref>Президія ВАК України. Додаток до диплома кандидата наук // Бюлетень ВАК України. - 2004. - № 1. - С. 12, http://www.vak.org.ua/docs/diploma/supplement.pdf</ref><ref name="TechnopolisUA">Technopolis Group, GHK. Study on the organisation of doctoral programmes in EU neighbouring countries. Ukraine. December 2010, http://ec.europa.eu/education/external-relation-programmes/doc/doctoral/ukraine_en.pdf</ref><ref name="Luchuk">Лучук О. Коли ми діждемося Вашинґтона? Тоді ж і станем "докторами"! До питання про академічні посади, наукові ступені та вчені звання в українському та американському наукових дискурсах // Україна: культурна спадщина, національна свідомість, державність: Збірник наукових праць. - Випуск 21. - Львів: Інститут українознавства ім. І.Крип'якевича НАН України, 2012, http://www.nbuv.gov.ua/portal/soc_gum/Uks/2012_21/40LuchukO.pdf</ref> In several former [[Eastern Bloc]] countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary), in which the [[Candidate of Sciences]] degrees used to be modeled after the Soviet ones, those degrees have been replaced with Ph.D. or equivalent doctoral degrees, with the recognition of the essential equivalency between the old and the new degrees.<ref name="en.wikipedia.org">{{cite web|author=Česky |url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candidate_of_Sciences |title=Candidate of Sciences - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia |publisher=En.wikipedia.org |date= |accessdate=2013-07-02}}</ref><ref>Helsinki Group on Women and Science. Hrubos I. Hungarian National Report Women and Science: Review of the Situation in Hungary. November 15, 2000, http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/pdf/women_national_report_hungary.pdf</ref>
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According to the [http://www.unesco.org/ulis/cgi-bin/ulis.pl?catno=211619&set=4F3F2872_2_352&database=gctd&gp=0&lin=1&ll=1 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011], for purposes of international educational statistics, Kandidat Nauk ([[Candidate of Sciences]]) belongs to ISCED level 8, or "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar. It is mentioned in the Russian version of ISCED 2011 (par.262) on the UNESCO website as an equivalent to PhD belonging to this level.<ref name="par270" /> In the same way as PhD degrees awarded in many English-speaking countries, Kandidat Nauk ([[Candidate of Sciences]]) allows its holders to reach the level of the [[Docent]].<ref name="Luchuk" /><ref name="en.wikipedia.org"/> The second doctorate<ref name="IIEP2011" /> (or post-doctoral degree<ref name="TechnopolisUA" /><ref name="TechnopolisRU">Technopolis Group, GHK. Study on the organisation of doctoral programmes in EU neighbouring countries. The Russian Federation. December 2010, http://ec.europa.eu/education/external-relation-programmes/doc/doctoral/russia_en.pdf</ref>) in some [[post-Soviet states]] called [[Doctor of Sciences]] ({{lang-ru|доктор наук}} - Doktor Nauk) is given as an example of second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates in ISCED 2011<ref name="par270" /> (par.270) and is similar to [[Habilitation]] in Germany, Poland and several other countries.<ref name="IIEP2011" /><ref name="TechnopolisRU" /><ref>{{cite web|author=Česky |url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habilitation |title=Habilitation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia |publisher=En.wikipedia.org |date= |accessdate=2013-07-02}}</ref> It constitutes a higher qualification compared to PhD as against the [http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-policy/doc44_en.htm European Qualifications Framework (EQF)] or [http://www.jointquality.org/ Dublin Descriptors].<ref name="TechnopolisRU" />
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About 88% of Russian students studying at state universities study at the expense of budget funds.<ref>[http://stat.edu.ru/stat/tabl.php Статистика Российского образования]</ref> The average stipend in Russia (as of August 2011) is $430 a year ($35/month).<ref>http://ria.ru/edu_news/20110804/411919327.html Стипендии на приоритетных специальностях составят от 2 до 4 тыс руб // "РИА Новости", 04/08/2011</ref> The average tuition fee in graduate school is $2,000 per year.<ref>http://www.careerrussia.ru/detail_new.php?ID=5925 Молодому специалисту на заметку: образование/аспирантура</ref>
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===[[Italy]]===
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The ''[[Dottorato di ricerca]]'' (research doctorate), abbreviated to "Dott. Ric." or "Ph.D.", is an academic title awarded at the end of a course of not less than three years, admission to which is based on entrance examinations and academic rankings in the Bachelor of Arts ("Laurea Triennale") and Master of Arts ("Laurea Magistrale" or "Laurea Specialistica"). While the standard Ph.D. follows the [[Bologna process]], the [[MD/PhD]] programme may be completed in two years.
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The first institution in [[Italy]] to create a [[doctoral]] program (Ph.D.) was [[Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa]] in 1927 under the historic name ''"Diploma di Perfezionamento"''.<ref>[http://download.sns.it/SNSguida_eng.pdf Student Guidebook - Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa]</ref><ref name="sns.it">[http://www.sns.it/scuola/istituzionale/regolamentointerno/download/statuto_sns.pdf STATUTO DELLA SCUOLA NORMALE SUPERIORE DI PISA (legge 18 giugno 1986, n. 308)]</ref>
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Further, the [[research]] [[doctorates]] or PhD ([[Italian language|Italian]]: ''Dottorato di ricerca'') in [[Italy]] were introduced by law and [[Presidential Decree]] in 1980,<ref>{{cite web|title=Law of February 21, 1980, No. 28|url=http://www.italgiure.giustizia.it/nir/1980/lexs_88887.html}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Presidential Decree No. 382 of 11 July 1980|url=http://www.edscuola.it/archivio/norme/decreti/dpr382_80.html}}</ref> referring to the reform of academic teaching, training and experimentation in organisation and teaching methods.<ref>[http://www.italgiure.giustizia.it/nir/1980/lexs_88887.html Law of February 21, 1980, No. 28]</ref><ref>[http://www.edscuola.it/archivio/norme/decreti/dpr382_80.html Decreto Presidente Repubblica 11 luglio 1980, n. 382]</ref>
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Hence, the [[Superior Graduate Schools in Italy]] ([[Grandes écoles]])<ref name="ricercaitaliana.it">[http://www.ricercaitaliana.it/scuole_eccellenza.htm Ricerca Italiana - Scuole di Eccellenza]</ref> ([[Italian language|Italian]]: ''Scuola Superiore Universitaria''),<ref name="bompard2000">[http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=150222&sectioncode=26 "Italy's big six form network for elite" in Times Higher Education (THE) by Paul Bompard, 18 February 2000]</ref> also called ''Schools of Excellence'' ([[Italian language|Italian]]: ''Scuole di Eccellenza'')<ref name="ricercaitaliana.it"/><ref>[http://scuoledieccellenza.it/ Scuole di Eccellenza]</ref> such as [[Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa]] and [[Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies]] still keep their reputed historical ''"Diploma di Perfezionamento"'' PhD title by [[law]]<ref name="sns.it"/><ref>[http://www.sssup.it/UploadDocs/7768_Legge_istitutiva_SSSA.pdf Article 3 of the Law of 14 February 1987, No.41 | L. 14 febbraio 1987, n. 41 Istituzione della Scuola superiore di studi universitari e di perfezionamento S. Anna di Pisa]</ref> and [[MIUR]] Decree.<ref>[http://www.istruzione.it/alfresco/d/d/workspace/SpacesStore/8efd760c-b779-4716-9566-2338ddff59e1/07_allegato_4_equipollenze_perfezionamenti_e_dottorati.pdf Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) Decree]</ref><ref>[http://guidalaureebiennali.miur.it/pdf/2008/05_Universita.pdf Università in Italia, Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR)]</ref>
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Doctorate courses are open, without age or citizenship limits, to all those who already hold a "[[Laurea|laurea magistrale]]" (master degree) or similar academic title awarded abroad which has been recognised as equivalent to an Italian degree by the Committee responsible for the entrance examinations.
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The number of places on offer each year and details of the entrance examinations are set out in the examination announcement.
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===[[Poland]]===
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A doctoral degree ([[Polish language|Pol.]] ''doktor''), abbreviated to PhD (Pol. ''dr'') is an [[postgraduate|advanced]] [[academic degree]] awarded by [[university|universities]] in most [[Faculty (university)|fields]] <ref>[http://www.ceebd.co.uk/ceeed/un/po/po066.htm Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education] in Warsaw,</ref><ref>[http://www.uj.edu.pl/ Over 600 years of [[Jagiellonian University]] ] in Cracow,</ref><ref>[http://www.uw.edu.pl/en/ [[University of Warsaw]] ],</ref><ref>[http://www.en.pk.edu.pl/ [[Cracow University of Technology]] ],</ref><ref>[http://eng.pw.edu.pl/ Warsaw University of Technology],</ref> as well as by the [[Polish Academy of Sciences]],<ref>[http://www.english.pan.pl/ [[Polish Academy of Science]] ],</ref> regulated by the [[Polish parliament]] acts<ref>[http://www.sejm.gov.pl/english.html Sejm of the Republic of Poland],</ref> and the government orders, in particular by the [[Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Poland]]. Commonly, students with a master's degree or equivalent are accepted to a doctoral entrance exam. The title of PhD is awarded to a scientist who 1) completed a minimum of 3 years of PhD studies (Pol. ''studia doktoranckie''), 2) finished his/her theoretical and/or laboratory's scientific work, 3) passed all PhD examinations, 4) submitted his/her [[Thesis (academic document)|dissertation]]- a document presenting the author's research and findings,<ref>[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20691260 Exemplary results of a laboratory studies] – publication,</ref> 5) successfully defended his/her doctoral thesis. Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, always public, by his/her supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline.
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===[[Scandinavia]]===
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The doctorate was introduced in [[Sweden]] in 1477 and in [[Denmark-Norway]] in 1479 and awarded in theology, law and medicine, while the [[Magister (degree)|magister's degree]] was the highest degree at the Faculty of Philosophy, equivalent to the doctorate.
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[[Scandinavia]]n countries were among the early adopters of a degree known as a doctorate of philosophy, based upon the German model. [[Denmark]] and [[Norway]] both introduced the Dr.Phil(os). degree in 1824, replacing the Magister's degree as the highest degree, while [[Uppsala University]] of Sweden renamed its Magister's degree ''Filosofie Doktor'' (Fil.Dr.) in 1863. These degrees, however, became comparable to the German [[Habilitation]] rather than the doctorate, as Scandinavian countries did not have a separate Habilitation.<ref>{{cite book
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| last = Dommasnes
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| first = Liv Helga
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| coauthors = Else Johansen Kleppe, Gro Mandt and Jenny-Rita Næss
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| editor = Margarita Díaz-Andreu García and Marie Louise Stig Sørensen
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| title = Excavating women: a history of women in European archaeology
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| year = 1998
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| month =
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| publisher = Routledge
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| location = London
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| isbn = 0-415-15760-9
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| oclc =
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| doi =
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| bibcode =
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| id =
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| page =
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| pages =
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| chapter = Women archeologists in retrospect – the Norwegian case
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| quote =...&nbsp;a Dr. philos. degree, which is the highest academic degree in Norway, roughly equivalent to the German Doktor Habilitation. Traditionally, this degree, which was considered a prerequisite for obtaining top positions within academia, was earned rather late in life, often after one had passed 50 years of age.
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}}</ref> The degrees were uncommon and not a prerequisite for employment as a professor; rather, they were seen as distinctions similar to the British (higher) doctorates ([[D.Litt.]], [[D.Sc.]]). Denmark introduced an American-style PhD in 1989; it formally replaced the [[Licentiate]] degree, and is considered a lower degree than the dr. phil. degree; officially, the PhD is not considered a doctorate, but unofficially, it is referred to as "the smaller doctorate", as opposed to the dr. phil., "the grand doctorate".<ref name="cfa">Elisabeth Vestergaard (2006). ''[http://www.cfa.au.dk/fileadmin/site_files/filer_forskningsanalyse/dokumenter/Notater/Notat_2006_3.pdf Den danske forskeruddannelse. Rapporter, evalueringer og anbefalinger 1992 – 2006]''. Aarhus: Dansk Center for Forskningsanalyse</ref> Currently Denmark and Norway are both awarding the traditional (higher) dr. phil(os). degree, and American-style PhDs.
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In Sweden, the doctorate of philosophy was introduced at [[Uppsala University]]'s Faculty of Philosophy in 1863. In Sweden, the Latin term is widely translated into Swedish ''filosofie doktor''. The degree represents the traditional Faculty of Philosophy and encompases subjects from biology, physics and chemistry, to languages, history and social sciences. Sweden currently has two research-level degree, the Licentiate's degree, which is comparable to the Danish degree formerly known as the Licentiate's degree and now as the PhD, and the higher doctorate of philosophy, ''Filosofie Doktor''. Some universities in Sweden also use the term ''teknologie doktor'' for PhDs rewarded from institutes of technology (for PhDs in engineering or natural science related subjects such as materials science, molecular biology, computer science etc.) which, in relation to ''teknologie magister'' being translated as ''Master of Science'', would be translated as ''Doctor of Science''. In general, however, these degrees are also referred to as PhDs in English.
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===[[Spain]]===
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Doctoral degrees are regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 778/1998),<ref>[http://www.upm.es/laupm/organos_gobierno/normativa/NormativaDoctorado0203.pdf Universidad Politécnica de Madrid] {{es icon}}</ref> ''Real Decreto'' (in [[Spanish language|Spanish]]). They are granted by a university on behalf of the King, and its diploma has the force of a public document. The Ministry of Science keeps a National Registry of Theses called TESEO.<ref>[https://www.micinn.es/teseo/listarBusqueda.do Base de Datos TESEO<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
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All doctoral programs are of a research nature. A minimum of four years of study are required, divided into two stages:
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# A 2-year-long period of studies, which concludes with a public dissertation presented to a panel of 3 professors. If the project receives approval from the university, he/she will receive a ''Diploma de Estudios Avanzados'' (part qualified doctor, literally: "Diploma of Advanced Studies").
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# A 2-year (or longer) period of research. Extensions may be requested for up to 10 years. The student must write his thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to science. If approved by his "thesis director", the study will be presented to a panel of 5 distinguished scholars. Any doctor attending the public presentations is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions on his research. If approved, he will receive the doctorate. Four marks can be granted (Unsatisfactory, Pass, "Cum laude", and "Summa cum laude"). From 2007 the mark "Cum laude" is the highest one, applicable only to the candidates who get the highest score by unanimity of the members of the tribunal.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.boe.es/aeboe/consultas/bases_datos/doc.php?id=BOE-A-2007-18770 |title=Documento BOE-A-2007-18770 |publisher=BOE.es |date= |accessdate=2013-07-02}}</ref>
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A doctoral degree is required to apply to a long-term teaching position at a university.
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The social standing of doctors in Spain is evidenced by the fact that only Ph.D. holders, [[Grandees]] and [[Duke]]s can take seat and cover their heads in the presence of the King.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.protocolo.org/gest_web/proto_Seccion.pl?rfID=459&arefid=2871&pag=8 |title=Raíces de las normas y tradiciones del protocolo y ceremonial universitario actual: las universidades del Antiguo Régimen y los actos de colación. Protocolo y Etiqueta |language={{es icon}} |publisher=Protocolo.org |date= |accessdate=2010-04-28}}</ref>
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All Doctor Degree holders are reciprocally recognized as equivalent in Germany and Spain ("Bonn Agreement of November 14, 1994").<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.boe.es/g/es/bases_datos/doc.php?coleccion=iberlex&id=1995/12243&codmap= |title=Boletín Oficial del Estado. Texto del Documento |publisher=Boe.es |date=1995-05-24 |accessdate=2010-04-28}}</ref>
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===[[United Kingdom]]===
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{{See also|Doctorate#United Kingdom|l1=Doctorates in the United Kingdom}}
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Note: The term PhD can refer to a specific type of Doctorate (a PhD), and the term is also often used generically to cover all doctorates.
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====Admission====
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Universities admit applicants to PhD programmes on a case-by-case basis; depending on the university, admission is typically conditional on the prospective student having successfully completed an undergraduate degree with at least upper second-class honours, or a postgraduate master's degree, but requirements can vary.
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In the case of the University of Oxford, for example, "The one essential condition of being accepted&nbsp;... is evidence of previous academic excellence, and of future potential."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ox.ac.uk/admissions/postgraduate_courses/index.html |title=University of Oxford |publisher=Ox.ac.uk |date= |accessdate=2010-04-28}}</ref> Commonly, students are first accepted on to an [[MPhil]] programme and may transfer to PhD regulations upon satisfactory progress and is referred to as APG (Advanced Postgraduate) status. This is typically done after one or two years, and the research work done may count towards the PhD degree. If a student fails to make satisfactory progress, he or she may be offered the opportunity to write up and submit for an MPhil degree.
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In addition, PhD students from countries outside the EU/EFTA area are required to comply with the [[Academic Technology Approval Scheme]] (ATAS), which involves undergoing a security clearance process with the [[Foreign and Commonwealth Office|Foreign Office]] for certain courses in medicine, mathematics, engineering and material sciences.<ref>FCO Counter terrorism & weapons proliferation staff: [http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/fco-in-action/counter-terrorism/weapons/atas/who-atas/phd-or-other Advice for PHD/doctoral level students applying for an ATAS certificate]. Retrieved 16 September 2008.</ref><ref name="bbcatas">[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/6441263.stm Postgrad checks worry scientists] BBC News, 12 March 2007</ref> This requirement was introduced in 2007 due to concerns about terrorism and weapons proliferation.<ref name="bbcatas"/>
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====Funding====
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In the [[United Kingdom]], funding for PhD students is sometimes provided by government-funded [[Research Council]]s or the [[European Social Fund]], usually in the form of a [[Income tax|tax-free]] [[bursary]] which consists of [[tuition fees]] together with a [[stipend]] of around [[Pound sterling|£]]13,000 per year for three years (higher in [[London]]),<ref>[http://www.ahrc.ac.uk/images/pg_grants_fees_200809.pdf Arts and Humanities Research Council]{{dead link|date=April 2010}}</ref> whether or not the degree continues for longer. Scientific studentships are usually paid at a higher rate, for example, in London, Cancer Research UK, the ICR and the Wellcome Trust stipend rates start at around £19,000 and progress annually to around £23,000 a year; an amount that is tax and national insurance free. Research Council funding is sometimes '[[earmark (finance)|earmarked]]' for a particular department or research group, who then allocate it to a chosen student, although in doing so they are generally expected to abide by the usual minimum entry requirements (typically a first degree with upper second class honours, although successful completion of a postgraduate master's degree is usually counted as raising the class of the first degree by one division for these purposes). However, the availability of funding in many disciplines (especially humanities, social studies, and pure science{{Citation needed|date=February 2007}} subjects) means that in practice only those with the best research proposals, references and backgrounds are likely to be awarded a studentship. The ESRC (Economic and Social Science Research Council) explicitly state that a 2.1 minimum (or 2.2 plus additional masters degree) is required – no additional marks are given for students with a first class honours or a distinction at masters level. Since 2002, there has been a move by research councils to fund interdisciplinary doctoral training centres which concentrate resources on fewer higher quality centres.
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Many students who are not in receipt of external funding may choose to undertake the degree part-time, thus reducing the tuition fees, as well as creating free time in which to earn money for subsistence. Students may also take part in tutoring, work as research assistants, or (occasionally) deliver lectures, at a rate of typically £25–30 per hour, either to supplement existing low income or as a sole means of funding.<ref>{{cite doi|10.1016/S0272-7757(03)00032-3}}</ref>
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====Completion====
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There is usually a preliminary assessment to remain in the programme and the thesis is submitted at the end of a 3- to 4-year programme. These periods are usually extended pro rata for part-time students. With special dispensation, the final date for the thesis can be extended for up to four additional years, for a total of seven, but this is rare.<ref>{{cite web|title=The PhD is in need of revision|url=http://www.universityaffairs.ca/the-phd-is-in-need-of-revision.aspx#latest_data|work=universityaffairs.ca}}</ref> For full-time PhDs, a 4 year time limit has now been fixed and students cannot submit a thesis past this point. Since the early 1990s, [[United Kingdom|British]] funding councils have adopted a policy of penalising departments where large proportions of students fail to submit their theses in four years after achieving PhD-student status (or pro rata equivalent) by reducing the number of funded places in subsequent years.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/Images/res_grant_linked_studentships_tcm6-12550.pdf |title=ESRC Society Today |publisher=ESRC Society Today |date= |accessdate=2010-04-28}}</ref>
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There has recently been an increase in the number of Integrated PhD programs available, such as at the University of Southampton. These courses include a Master of Research (MRes) in the first year, which consists of a taught component as well as laboratory rotation projects. The PhD must then be completed within the next 3 years. As this includes the MRes all deadlines and timeframes are brought forward to encourage completion of both MRes and PhD within 4 years from commencement. These programmes are designed to provide students with a greater range of skills than a standard PhD; and for the university they are a means of gaining an extra years' fees from public sources.
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====Other doctorates====
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In the [[United Kingdom]] PhD degrees are distinct from other doctorates, most notably the [[higher doctorate]]s such as [[Doctor of Letters|D.Litt.]] (Doctor of Letters) or [[Doctor of Science|D.Sc.]] (Doctor of Science), which may be granted on the recommendation of a committee of examiners on the basis of a substantial portfolio of submitted (and usually published) research. However, most UK universities still maintain the option of submitting a thesis for the award of a higher doctorate.
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Recent years have seen the introduction of professional doctorates (D.Prof or ProfD), which are the same level as PhDs but more specific in their field.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.professionaldoctorates.com/explained.asp |title=Professional Doctorate |date= |accessdate=2010-04-28}}</ref> These tend not to be solely academic, but combine academic research, a taught component and a professional qualification. These are most notably in the fields of engineering ([[Engineering Doctorate|Eng.D.]]), education ([[Doctor of Education|Ed.D.]]), educational psychology (D.Ed.Psych), occupational psychology (D.Occ Psych.) clinical psychology (D.Clin.Psych.), social work (D.S.W), nursing (D.N.P), public administration (D.P.A.), business administration (D.B.A.), and music ([[Doctor of Musical Arts|D.M.A.]]). These typically have a more formal taught component consisting of smaller research projects, as well as a 40,000–60,000 word thesis component, which collectively is equivalent to that of a PhD degree.
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===[[United States]]===
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====Overview====
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{{Further|Doctorate#United States}}
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In the [[United States]], the Ph.D. degree is the [[terminal degree|highest academic degree]] awarded by universities in most fields of study. American students typically undergo a series of three phases in the course of their work toward the Ph.D. degree. The first phase consists of coursework in the student's field of study and requires one to three years to complete. This often is followed by a [[preliminary examination|preliminary]], a comprehensive examination, or a series of cumulative examinations where the emphasis is on breadth rather than depth of knowledge. The student is often later required to pass oral and written examinations in the field of specialization within the discipline, and here, depth is emphasized. Some Ph.D. programs require the candidate to successfully complete requirements in pedagogy (taking courses on higher level teaching and teaching undergraduate courses) or applied science (e.g., clinical practice and predoctoral clinical internship in Ph.D. programs in [[clinical psychology|clinical]], [[counseling psychology|counseling]], or [[school psychology]]). {{Citation needed|date=May 2011}}
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Another two to four years are usually required for the composition of a substantial and original contribution to human knowledge in the form of a written [[dissertation]], which in the social sciences and humanities typically ranges from 50 to 450 pages. In many cases, depending on the discipline, a dissertation consists of a comprehensive literature review, an outline of methodology, and several chapters of scientific, social, historical, philosophical, or literary analysis. Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, sometimes public, by his or her supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline.
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====Admission====
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There are 282 universities in the United States that award the PhD degree, and those universities vary widely in their criteria for admission, as well as the rigor of their academic programs.<ref>[http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/classifications/index.asp?key=63&search_flag=true&ref=783&start=783&BASIC2005=15 Listing of Research I Universities], [[Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching]] – 282 is the sum of all three categories of doctoral universities.</ref> Typically, PhD programs require applicants to have a Bachelor's degree in a relevant field (and, in many cases in the humanities, a master's degree), reasonably high grades, several letters of recommendation, relevant academic coursework, a cogent statement of interest in the field of study, and satisfactory performance on a graduate-level exam specified by the respective program (e.g., [[Graduate Record Exam|GRE]], [[Graduate Management Admission Test|GMAT]]).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.wharton.upenn.edu/doctoral/admissions/apply/requirements.cfm#scores |title=Wharton Doctoral Programs: Application Requirements |publisher=Wharton.upenn.edu |date=2009-12-15 |accessdate=2010-04-28}}</ref><ref>[http://www2.gsb.columbia.edu/doctoral/admissions/index.html Columbia University in the City of New York]{{dead link|date=April 2010}}</ref> Specific admissions criteria differ substantially according to university admissions policies and fields of study. Some programs in well-regarded research universities may have very low acceptance rates and require excellent performances on the GRE and in undergraduate work, strong support in letters of recommendation, substantial research experience, and academically sophisticated samples of their writing. {{Citation needed|date=May 2011}}
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====Master's degree "en route"====
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As applicants to many Ph.D. programs are not required to have master's degrees, many programs award a [[Master of Arts (postgraduate)|Master of Arts]] or [[Master of Science]] degree "en route", "in passing", or "in course" based on the graduate work done in the course of achieving the Ph.D. Students who receive such master's degrees are usually required to complete a certain amount of coursework and a master's [[thesis]] or field examination. Not all Ph.D. programs require additional work to obtain a master's en route to the Ph.D. (e.g., a master's thesis). Depending on the specific program, masters-in-passing degrees can be either mandatory or optional. Not all Ph.D. students choose to complete the additional requirements necessary for the Master of Arts or the Master of Science if such requirements are not mandated by their programs. Those students will simply obtain the Ph.D. degree at the end of their graduate study. {{Citation needed|date=May 2011}}
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====Time====
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Depending on the specific field of study, completion of a PhD program usually takes four to eight years of study after the [[Bachelor's Degree]]; those students who begin a PhD program with a master's degree may complete their PhD degree a year or two sooner.<ref name="usdoe">{{cite news
 
|url=http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-research-doctorate.html
 
|url=http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-research-doctorate.html
 
|publisher=US Department of Education
 
|publisher=US Department of Education
 
|title=Research Doctorate Programmes
 
|title=Research Doctorate Programmes
|date=Retrieved 6/18/06
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|date= 2006-06-18
}}</ref> As Ph.D. programmes typically lack the formal structure of undergraduate education, there are significant individual differences in the time taken to complete the degree. Many US universities have set a 10-year limit for students in Ph.D. programmes.
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}}</ref> As PhD programs typically lack the formal structure of undergraduate education, there are significant individual differences in the time taken to complete the degree. Many U.S. universities have set a ten-year limit for students in PhD programs, or refuse to consider graduate credit older than ten years as counting towards a PhD degree. Similarly, students may be required to re-take the comprehensive exam if they do not defend their dissertations within five years after submitting it to their self-chosen dissertation advisors. {{Citation needed|date=May 2011}} Overall, 57% of students who begin a PhD program in the US will complete their degree within ten years, approximately 30% will drop out or be dismissed, and the remaining 13% of students will continue on past ten years.<ref>[http://chronicle.com/weekly/v53/i47/47a00101.htm In humanities, ten years may not be enough to get a PhD], "The Chronicle of Higher Education" July 27, 2007</ref>
   
===Funding===
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====Funding====
Doctoral students are usually discouraged from engaging in external employment during the course of their graduate training. As a result, Ph.D. students at American universities typically receive a tuition waiver and some form of annual stipend. The source and amount of funding varies from field to field, and university to university. Many American graduate students work as [[teaching assistant]]s or research assistants while they are doctoral students, or obtain grants or fellowships from government research agencies such as the [[National Science Foundation]] and the [[National Institutes of Health]]. Many [[Ivy League]] and other well-endowed universities provide funding for the entire duration of the course, or for most of it.
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PhD students are usually discouraged from engaging in external employment during the course of their graduate training. As a result, PhD students at U.S. universities typically receive a tuition waiver and some form of annual stipend. {{Citation needed|date=May 2011}} The source and amount of funding varies from field to field and university to university. Many U.S. PhD students work as [[teaching assistant]]s or [[research assistant]]s. Graduate schools increasingly{{Citation needed|date=December 2008}} encourage their students to seek outside funding; many are supported by fellowships they obtain for themselves or by their advisers' research grants from government agencies such as the [[National Science Foundation]] and the [[National Institutes of Health]]. Many [[Ivy League]] and other well-endowed universities provide funding for the entire duration of the degree program (if it is short) or for most of it. {{Citation needed|date=May 2011}}Funding, availability of graduate/teaching assistantships, tuition waivers, grants, scholarships etc. will vary greatly based on their classification (see [[Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education]]). Smaller private universities that grant doctoral degrees may not provide any source of funding to doctoral students. The same is true for many online doctoral programs.
   
== Comparative value ==
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====PhD candidacy====
A Ph.D. does not confer commensurate advantage in every sphere. For example, many commercial organizations regard a [[professional Master's degree]], such as an [[Master of Business Administration|MBA]], or professional designation, such as [[Certified Public Accountant|CPA]], as the highest level of education that is desirable. Traditional views of the value of academic study in commerce are changing {{inote|MacGillivray, Alex; Potts, Gareth; Raymond, Polly. ''Secrets of Their Success'' (London: New Economics Foundation, 2002) pp. 16-19|NEF2002}} but skepticism about the commercial value of a Ph.D. prevails. Some departments in medical schools may offer research Ph.D. degrees although only an M.D., not a Ph.D., is required to practice medicine.
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[[Candidate of Philosophy]] is a certification or a status, rather than a separate degree, that a postgraduate student achieves ''en route'' to a doctorate. It is abbreviated PhD (cand), PhDc, or simply PhC. Postgraduate programs vary in their requirements for completion of a doctorate, but most follow a pattern: completion of class requirements, a lower level exam, an upper level exam, and a final exam.
   
==Criticism==
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Candidacy is conferred or certified when the student has successfully satisfied specific requirements towards a doctorate, pending the completion of research projects and defense of a written dissertation. The completion of research, however, might or might not be necessary for candidacy. Rather, it depends on requirements that are specific to the program of study. The term "ABD" (''All But Dissertation'' or ''All But Defended'') usually means that a candidate has only to complete the writing and defense of the dissertation.
Within the USA, the value of a Ph.D. degree is often the topic of scholarly debate and criticism, given its almost exclusive concern with [[research]] and publication and the alleged neglect of numerous other faculty responsibilities that include [[teaching]], collegial evaluation, collective and individual curricular planning, etc {{citation needed}}. Solutions have been met with varying degrees of success. In the 1960s, the prestigious [[Carnegie Foundation]] helped promote and establish the [[Doctor of Arts]] degree as an alternative to the Ph.D. The D.A. degree, with its focus on content specialty, curriculum design, and [[pedagogy]], was designed to help prepare expert teachers in various fields. Its well-defined disciplinary focus makes it different from the [[Ed.D.]] (Doctor of Education) while still embracing the Ed.D.'s concern for issues in education. The D.A. continues to be offered in many universities across the United States and in other countries{{citation needed}}, though a few D.A. programs have since been converted to the Ph.D. model. Still, the D.A. has many steadfast supporters. Other solutions include a re-thinking of the Ph.D. in order to address its perceived shortcomings. [[William Henry Bragg]], the noted physicist, was famously known to have said, "whatever you do, don't do a Ph.D.".{{citation needed}}
 
   
In reality, however, almost all the top research and development jobs (at least in technical areas such as physics, mathematics, materials, engineering, numerical analysis, etc.) in high ranking universities and increasingly investment banks hiring for financial modelling (Quant roles) and industry require a Ph.D. It is unlikely that someone will head their own research group in the defense or private research sectors unless they possess a Ph.D. {{citation needed}}. Furthermore a Ph.D. is a good way to make the transition from a masters project or undergraduate study to full scale research.
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Although it is a minor distinction in postgraduate study, candidacy occasionally provides some benefits. It might mean an increase in the student's stipend and/or make the student eligible for employment opportunities. Neither of these, however, is guaranteed by candidacy. The primary benefit of PhD candidacy is that completion of the doctorate is nominally imminent so long as the student completes the final defense. This is, of course, not a given because a written dissertation and an oral defense of the student's work are typically not treated lightly by the faculty.
   
==Categories==
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It is worth noting that the Candidate of Philosophy is not to be confused with [[Candidate of Sciences]], an academic degree that has been used in certain countries in place of a PhD.
While the Ph.D. is the most common doctoral degree in the United States, it is often misunderstood to be synonymous with the term "[[doctorate]]". The [[U.S. Department of Education]] and the [[National Science Foundation]] recognize numerous doctoral degrees as "equivalent", and do not discriminate between them (e.g., Doctor of Arts (D.A.), Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.), Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Doctor of Theology (Th.D.). [http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-research-doctorate.html List of equivalent doctorates]
 
   
In the United Kingdom and other countries of the world, Ph.D.s are distinguishable from the higher doctorates that outrank them, such as (D.Litt.) Doctor of Letters or (D.Sc.) Doctor of Science, which are issued by a committee on the basis of a long record of research and publication. They are also distinct from ''professional'' doctorates such as those conferred in medicine, education, engineering and jurisprudence -- M.D., Ed.D., Eng.D., and D.Jur. (also known as J.D.). In most universities, professional doctorates involve coursework or a much smaller research component, so the Ph.D. is therefore understood formally to outrank them.
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Some programs also include a [[Master of Philosophy]] degree as part of the PhD program.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.columbia.edu/cu/gsas/rules/chapter-7/pages/deg-req/sec/mphil.html |title=Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) |publisher=Columbia.edu |date=1999-02-22 |accessdate=2010-04-28}}</ref> The MPhil, in those universities that offer it, is usually awarded after the appropriate MA or MS (as above) is awarded, and the degree candidate has completed all further requirements for the PhD degree (which may include additional language requirements, course credits, teaching experiences, and comprehensive exams) aside from the writing and defense of the dissertation itself. {{Citation needed|date=May 2011}} This formalizes the "all but dissertation" (ABD) status used informally by some students, and represents that the student has achieved a higher level of scholarship than the MA/MS would indicate – as such, the MPhil is sometimes a helpful credential for those applying for teaching or research posts while completing their dissertation work for the PhD degree itself.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/bulletin/html2003/grad/policies.html |title=Policies and Regulations |publisher=Yale.edu |date= |accessdate=2010-04-28}}</ref>
   
In German speaking countries, most Eastern European countries, the former Soviet Union, most parts of Africa, Asia, and many countries in Latin America the corresponding degree is simply called "Doctor" and is distinguished by subject area with a Latin suffix (e.g. "Dr.med." &mdash; {{lang|la|doctor medicinæ}} &mdash; which is not equal to a M.D., "Dr.rer.nat &mdash; {{lang|la|doctor rerum naturalium}} (Doctor of Science) &mdash;, "Dr. phil." &mdash; {{lang|la|doctor philosophiæ}}, etc.)
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==Models of supervision==
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At some universities, there may be training for those wishing to supervise PhD studies. There is now a lot of literature published for academics who wish to do this, such as Delamont, Atkinson and Parry (1997). Indeed, Dinham and Scott (2001) have argued that the worldwide growth in research students has been matched by increase in a number of what they term "how-to" texts for both students and supervisors, citing examples such as Pugh and Phillips (1987). These authors report empirical data on the benefits that a PhDc may gain if he or she publishes work, and note that PhD students are more likely to do this with adequate encouragement from their supervisors.
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Wisker (2005) has noticed how research into this field has distinguished between two models of supervision:
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The technical-rationality model of supervision, emphasising technique;
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The negotiated order model, being less mechanistic and emphasising fluid and dynamic change in the PhD process.
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These two models were first distinguished by Acker, Hill and Black (1994; cited in Wisker, 2005).
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Considerable literature exists on the expectations that supervisors may have of their students (Phillips & Pugh, 1987) and the expectations that students may have of their supervisors (Phillips & Pugh, 1987; Wilkinson, 2005) in the course of PhD supervision. Similar expectations are implied by the Quality Assurance Agency's Code for Supervision (Quality Assurance Agency, 1999; cited in Wilkinson, 2005).
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== International PhD equivalent degrees ==
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* Afghanistan: [[ډاکټر]]
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* Algeria : Doctorat, دكتوراه
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* Argentina: Doctorado (Dr.)
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* Azerbaijan: Doktorantura (Dr.)
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* Armenia: գիտությունների թեկնածու, դոցենտ
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* Austria: Doktor (Dr., plural: DDr.)
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* Belarus: [[:by: кандидат наук]]
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* Belgium (Dutch-speaking): [[Doctor (title)|Doctor]]
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* Belgium (French-speaking): [[Doctorat]]
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* Brazil: [[:pt:Doutorado|Doutorado]]
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* Bulgaria: [[:bg:Доктор|Доктор]]
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* China: [[:zh:博士|博士]]
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* Chile: Doctorado
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* Colombia: Doctorado
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* Croatia: Doktor
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* Czech Republic: [[Candidate of Sciences|CSc.]] and [[Doctor of Science|DrSc.]] was used till 1998, since 1998 PhD written as Ph.D. is used
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* Denmark: [[Licentiate]], [[Magister (degree)|Magister]], PhD (the ''doctorates'' are higher degrees)
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* Dominican Republic: [[Doctorado]]
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* Ecuador: Doctorado
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* El Salvador: [[Doctorado]]
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* Egypt: [[Doctorat]]
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* Estonia: Doktor
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* Finland: [[Tohtori]]
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* France: [[doctorate#Country-specific practice|Doctorat]]
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* Germany: [[:de:Doktor|Doktor]]
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* Greece: [[:el:Διδακτορικό δίπλωμα|Διδακτορικό]]
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* Hong Kong: [[:zh:博士|博士]] ([[Doctor (title)|Doctor]])
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* India: [[Doctorate]]
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* Indonesia: Doktor
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* Iran: [[:fa: دکترا|دکترا]](Doctora)
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* Iraq: [[:ar:دكتوراه|دكتوراه]] (Duktorah)
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* Ireland: an Doctúireacht
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* Israel: [[:he: דוקטור|דוקטורט]] ("doctorat")
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* Italy: [[Dottorato di ricerca]]
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* Japan: [[博士]]
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* Korea: [[박사]]
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* Kuwait: دكتوراه (Dektoraah)
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* Latin America: [[Doctorado]]/[[Doctorate]]
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* Latvia: [[Zinātņu doktors]]
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* Lebanon: [[دكتوراه (doktorah)]]
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* Lithuania: [[:lt:Daktaras|Daktaras]]
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* Macau: [[:zh:博士|博士]] ([[:pt:Doutoramento|Doutoramento]])
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* Macedonia: [[Докторат]]
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* Malaysia: Doktor Falsafah
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* Mexico: [[Doctorado]]
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* Mongolia: [[Эрдэмтэн]]
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* Morocco: [[Doctorat]]
  +
* Netherlands: [[Doctor (title)|Doctor]]
  +
* Norway: [[Magister (degree)|Magister]], [[Licentiate]], [[doctorate]]s (traditionally considered higher degrees), PhD
  +
* Pakistan: [[Doctor (title)|Doctor]]
  +
* Paraguay: PhD or Doctorado (Dr.)
  +
* Peru: [[Doctorado]]
  +
* Philippines: Doktor
  +
* Poland: [[:pl:Doktor (stopień naukowy)|Doktor]]
  +
* Portugal: [[Doutoramento]]
  +
* Romania: [[Doctorat]]
  +
* Russia: [[:ru: кандидат наук]]
  +
* Singapore: [[Doctor (title)|Doctor]]
  +
* Serbia: [[:sr:Доктор наука|Доктор]]
  +
* Slovakia: [[Doktor, PhD]]
  +
* Slovenia: [[Doktor]]
  +
* Spain: [[Doctorado]]
  +
* Syria: [[:ar:دكتوراه|دكتوراه]] (doktorah)
  +
* Taiwan: [[:zh:博士|博士]]
  +
* Thailand: [[ดุษฎีบัณฑิต]]
  +
* Tunisia: [[:ar:دكتوراه|دكتوراه]] (doktorah)
  +
* Turkey: [[Doctorate|Doktora]]
  +
* Ukraine: [[:uk: кандидат наук]] ([[Candidate of Sciences|CSc.]])
  +
* Uzbekistan: Fan nomzodi ([[Candidate of Sciences|CSc.]])
  +
* Venezuela: [[Doctorado]]
  +
* Vietnam: [[:vi:Tiến sĩ|Tiến sĩ]]
   
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
*[[Doctorate]] A general term describing a set of degrees equivalent to the Ph.D.
+
'''Related terminology:'''
*[[Terminal degree]] The highest degree awarded in a field, usually a Ph.D.
+
* [[Doctor of Arts]]&mdash;Preparation for academic position in the arts.
*[[Graduate student]] A student pursuing education past the bachelor's degree, such as a Ph.D.
+
* [[Doctor of Education]]&mdash;Preparation for academic, administrative, clinical, or research positions in the field of education.
*[[C.Phil.]] Also [[ABD]]. Unofficial term for graduate student who has completed all Ph.D. coursework, but has yet to defend dissertation.
+
* [[PhD in Management]]&mdash;A program designed for students interested in becoming university professors in the field of business.
*[[Dottorato di ricerca]] Italian equivalent of Ph.D.
+
* [[Doctorate]]&mdash;A general term describing a set of degrees analogous to the PhD.
*[[Kandidat]] Degree awarded by USSR and post-Soviet states
+
* [[Magister (degree)]]&mdash;A degree awarded in Argentina and Uruguay.
*[[Piled Higher and Deeper]], a [[webcomic]] which satirizes the life of graduate students earning a Ph.D.
+
* [[Terminal degree]]&mdash;The highest degree awarded in a field, usually a PhD.
  +
* [[Graduate student]]&mdash;A student pursuing education past the bachelor's degree, such as a master's degree or a PhD.
  +
* [[C.Phil.]] (also ABD)&mdash;Term, usually used unofficially, for a graduate student who has completed all PhD coursework but has yet to defend his or her dissertation.
  +
* [[Candidate of sciences|Кандидат наук]] (''Kandidat nauk'')&mdash;Degree awarded by the USSR and some post-Soviet states (e.g., Russia, Ukraine).
  +
* [[Doktor nauk|Доктор наук]] (''Doktor nauk'')&mdash;Degree awarded by the USSR and some post-Soviet states (e.g., Russia, Ukraine).
  +
* [[Licentiate]] – Degree awarded in various countries, including [[Portugal]], [[Belgium]], the [[UK]], [[Argentina]], [[Germany]], [[Sweden]], [[Finland]], [[Australia]], [[New Zealand]], [[Mexico]], and [[Poland]].
  +
* [[Postdoctoral research]]
  +
* [[Sandwich PhD Programme]]
   
==References==
+
'''PhD in popular culture:'''
*Estelle M Phillips and Derek.S. Pugh How to Get a Ph.D.: A Handbook for Students and Their Supervisors ISBN 033520550X,
+
* [[Piled Higher and Deeper]] Life (or the lack thereof) in Academia, a comic strip by Jorge Cham
*MacGillivray, Alex; Potts, Gareth; Raymond, Polly. ''Secrets of Their Success'' (London: New Economics Foundation, 2002)
+
* [http://www.arkeotopia.org/site/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=121&Itemid=71&lang=en Humor - Nicholas does a PhD] or PhD explained to everyone.
<references/>
 
   
== External links==
+
== Notes ==
*[http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/heresearch/historydocdegree.htm History of the doctoral degree (PhD) and dissertations]
+
{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}
*[http://www.aut.ac.nz/conferences/innovation/papersthemetwo/sutherlandpapertwo.pdf The New Zealand PhD--Who wants it? (.pdf)] Contains comments on practice in other countries as well.
 
   
  +
== References ==
  +
* Delamont, S., Atkinson, P. & Parry, O. (1997). Supervising the Ph.D.: A guide to success. Buckingham: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-19516-4
  +
* Dinham, S. & Scott, C. (2001). The experience of the results of disseminating the results of doctoral research. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 25 (1) 45–55. ISSN: 1469-9486
  +
* Drury, V., Francis, K., & Chapman, Y. (2006). Walking the void – being a rural PhD student. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 14, p233.
  +
* MacGillivray, Alex; Potts, Gareth; Raymond, Polly. ''Secrets of Their Success'' (London: New Economics Foundation, 2002).
  +
* Phillips, E. & Pugh, D.S. (1987). How to get a PhD : managing the peaks and troughs of research / Estelle M. Phillips and D.S. Pugh. Milton Keynes: [[Open University Press]] ISBN 0-335-15537-5
  +
* Simpson, Renate. ''How the PhD came to Britain: A century of struggle for postgraduate education'', Society for Research into Higher Education, Guildford (1983).
  +
* Wellington, J. Bathmaker, A._M., Hunt, C., McCullough, G. & Sikes, P. (2005). Succeeding with your doctorate. London: Sage. ISBN 1-4129-0116-2
  +
* Wilkinson, D. (2005) The essential guide to postgraduate study. London : SAGE ISBN 1-4129-0062-X (hbk.)
  +
* Wisker, G. (2005) The Good Supervisor: Supervising Postgraduate and Undergraduate Research for Doctoral Theses and Dissertations. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-0395-6.
   
  +
{{Academic degrees}}
   
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Doctor Of Philosophy}}
 
[[Category:Doctoral degrees|Philosophy, Doctor of]]
 
[[Category:Doctoral degrees|Philosophy, Doctor of]]
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[[Category:Titles]]
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  +
[[es:Doctorado]]
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[[ml:ഡോക്ടർ (വിദ്യാഭ്യാസം)]]
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[[fi:Tohtori]]
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[[fi:Filosofian tohtori]]
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{{enWP|Doctor of Philosophy}}
 
{{enWP|Doctor of Philosophy}}

Latest revision as of 21:41, August 13, 2013

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Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated as Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil in English-speaking countries and originally as Dr.Philos. (for the Latin philosophiae doctor or doctor philosophiae), is in many countries a postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities. The academic level known as a Doctorate of philosophy varies considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates. A person who attains a doctorate of philosophy is automatically awarded the academic title of doctor.

File:Dphil gown.jpg
A University of Oxford Doctor of Philosophy in full academic dress.

In the context of academic degrees, the term "philosophy" does not refer solely to the field of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is "love of wisdom". In most of Europe, all fields other than theology, law and medicine were traditionally known as philosophy, and in Germany and elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of (liberal) arts was known as the faculty of philosophy. The doctorate of philosophy as it exists today thus originated as a doctorate in the liberal arts at the Friedrich-Wilhelms Universität, the buildings of which are today used by the Humboldt University of Berlin, becoming common in large parts of the world in the 20th century.[1] In many countries, the doctorate of philosophy is still awarded only in philosophy, i.e., liberal arts.

HistoryEdit

In the universities of Medieval Europe, study was organised in four faculties: the basic faculty of arts, and the three higher faculties of theology, medicine and law (canonical and civil). All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees (bachelor of arts, of theology, of laws, of medicine) and final degrees. Initially, the titles of master and doctor were used interchangeably for the final degrees, but by the late Middle Ages the terms Master of Arts and Doctor of Theology/Divinity, Doctor of Law and Doctor of Medicine had become standard in most places (though in the German and Italian universities the term Doctor was used for all faculties). The doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current Ph.D. degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship, not original research. No dissertation or original work was required, only lengthy residency requirements and examinations. Besides these degrees there was the licentiate. Originally this was a license to teach, awarded shortly before the award of the master or doctor degree by the diocese in which the university was located, but later it evolved into an academic degree in its own right, in particular in the continental universities. So in theory the full course of studies might lead in succession to the degrees of, e.g., Bachelor of Arts, Licentiate of Arts, Master of Arts, Bachelor of Medicine, Licentiate of Medicine, Doctor of Medicine. There were many exceptions to this however, e.g., most students left the university before becoming masters of arts, whereas regulars (members of monastic orders) could skip the arts faculty entirely.[2][3][4]

This situation changed in the early 19th century through the educational reforms in Germany, most strongly embodied in the model of the Humboldt University. The arts faculty, which in Germany was labelled the faculty of philosophy, started demanding contributions to research, attested by a dissertation, for the award of their final degree, which was labelled Doctor of Philosophy (abbreviated as Ph.D.) - originally this was just the German equivalent of the Master of Arts degree. Whereas in the Middle Ages the arts faculty had a set curriculum, based upon the trivium and the quadrivium, by the 19th century it had come to house all the courses of study in subjects now commonly referred to as sciences and humanities.[5]

These reforms proved extremely successful, and fairly quickly the German universities started attracting foreign students, notably from the United States. The American students would go to Germany to obtain a Ph.D. after having studied for a bachelor's degrees at an American college. So influential was this practice that it was imported to the United States, where in 1861 Yale University started granting the Ph.D. degree to younger students who, after having obtained the bachelor's degree, had completed a prescribed course of graduate study and successfully defended a thesis/dissertation containing original research in science or in the humanities.[6] This research degree of doctor of philosophy was the first to be given in North America.[7] The current triple structure of bachelor-master-doctor degrees in one discipline was therefore created on American soil by fusing two different European traditions - the medieval B.A. and M.A. degrees, awarded after a course of study and inherited from the British Universities, and the research based Ph.D. taken over from the early 19th century German educational reforms. Even though in Germany the name of the doctorate was adapted accordingly after the philosophy faculty started being split up - e.g. Dr. rer. nat. for doctorates in the faculty of natural sciences - in most of the Anglo-Saxon world the name of Doctor of Philosophy was retained for research doctorates in all disciplines.

From the United States, the Ph.D. degree spread to Canada in 1900, and then to the United Kingdom in 1917.[8] In particular in the English universities the introduction of the research doctorate largely happened to compete with Germany for American students, but the initiative was first halted by internal criticism. In first instance, in particular at the University of London (from about 1860 onwards), the degrees of Doctor of Science (DSc) and Doctor of Literature (DLit) were introduced, which could be awarded upon presentation of a thesis containing original work. This involved no research training however, and did not have the desired effect of attracting foreign research students. Finally in 1917 the current degree of Ph.D. (or D.Phil.) was introduced, along the lines of the American and German model, and quickly became popular with both British and foreign students.[9] The slightly older degrees of Doctor of Science and Doctor of Literature/Letters still exist in British universities; together with the much older degrees of Doctor of Divinity, Doctor of Music, Doctor of Law/Civil Law and Doctor of Medicine they form the higher doctorates, but apart from honorary degrees they are only infrequently awarded.

It should be noted that in the English (but not the Scottish) universities the Faculty of Arts had become dominant by the early 19th century. Indeed, the higher faculties had largely atrophied, since medical training had shifted to teaching hospitals,[10] the legal training for the common law system was provided by the Inns of Court (with some minor exceptions, see Doctors' Commons), and few students undertook formal study in theology. This is contrast with the situation in the continental European universities at the time, where the preparatory role of the Faculty of Philosophy or Arts was to a great extent taken over by secondary education, as is testified by the ongoing use to this day of the degree of Baccalaureat in France as the qualification obtained after secondary studies. The reforms at the Humboldt University transformed the Faculty of Philosophy or Arts (and its more recent successors such as the Faculty of Sciences) from a lower faculty into one on par with the Faculties of Law and Medicine. A similar evolution happened in many other continental European universities, and at least until reforms in the early 21st century many European countries (e.g. Belgium, Spain and the Scandinavian countries) had in all faculties triple degree structures of bachelor (or candidate) - licentiate - doctor as opposed to bachelor - master - doctor; the meaning of the different degrees varied a lot from country to country however. To this day this is also still the case for the pontifical degrees in theology and canon law: for instance, in Sacred theology the degrees are Bachelor of Sacred Theology (STB), Licentiate of Sacred Theology (STL), and Doctor of Sacred Theology (STD), and in Canon law: Bachelor of Canon Law (JCB), Licentiate of Canon Law(JCL), and Doctor of Canon Law (JCD).

RequirementsEdit

The detailed requirements for award of a Ph.D. degree vary throughout the world and even from school to school. It is usually required for the student to hold an Honours degree or a Master's Degree with high academic standing, in order to be considered for a PhD programme. In some schools in the US, Canada and Denmark, for example, many universities require coursework in addition to research for Ph.D. degrees. In other countries (such as the UK) there is generally no such condition. Some individual universities or departments specify additional requirements for students not already in possession of a bachelor's degree or equivalent or higher.

A candidate must submit a project or thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed context.[11] In many countries a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university; in other countries, the dissertation is examined by a panel of expert examiners who stipulate whether the dissertation is in principle passable and the issues that need to be addressed before the dissertation can be passed.

Some universities in the non-English-speaking world have begun adopting similar standards to those of the Anglophone PhD degree for their research doctorates (see the Bologna process).[12]

A Ph.D. student or candidate (abbreviated to Ph.D.c)[13] is conventionally required to study on campus under close supervision. With the popularity of distance education and e-learning technologies, some universities now accept students enrolled into a distance education part-time mode.

In a "sandwich Ph.D." program, Ph.D. candidates do not spend their entire study period at the same university. Instead, the Ph.D. candidates spend the first and last periods of the program at their home universities, and in between conduct research at another institution or field research.[14] Occasionally a "sandwich Ph.D." will be awarded by two universities.[15]

Value and criticismEdit

PhD students are often motivated to pursue the PhD by the desire for further education beyond the undergraduate level, scientific and humanistic curiosity, the desire to contribute to the academic community, service to others, or personal development. A career in academia generally requires a PhD, though in some countries, it is possible to reach relatively high positions without a doctorate. The motivation may also include increased salary, but in many cases this is not the result. Research by Casey suggests that, over all subjects, PhDs provide an earnings premium of 26%, but notes that masters degrees provide a premium of 23% already. While this is a small return to the individual (or even an overall deficit when lost earnings during training are accounted for), he claims there are significant benefits to society for the extra research training.[16] However, some research suggests that overqualified workers are often less satisfied and less productive at their jobs.[17] These difficulties are increasingly being felt by graduates of professional degrees, such as law school, looking to find employment. PhD students often have to take on debt to undertake their degree.

The Economist published an article citing various criticisms against the state of PhDs.[17] Richard B. Freeman explains that, based on pre-2000 data, at most only 20% of life science PhD students end up getting jobs specifically in research. In Canada, where the overflow of PhD degree holders is not as severe, 80% of postdoctoral research fellows earn less than or equal to the average construction worker (roughly $38,000 a year) during their postdoctoral research tenure.[17] Only in the fastest developing countries (e.g. China or Brazil) is there a shortage of PhDs. Higher education systems often offer little incentive to move students through PhD programs quickly (and may even provide incentive to slow them down). To counter this, the United States introduced the Doctor of Arts degree in 1970 with seed money from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The aim of the Doctor of Arts degree was to shorten the time needed to complete the degree by focusing on pedagogy over research, although the Doctor of Arts still contains a significant research component. Germany is one of the few nations engaging these issues, and it has been doing so by reconceptualizing PhD programs to be training for careers, outside of academia, but still at high-level positions. This development can be seen in the extensive number of PhD holders, typically from the fields of law, engineering and economics, at the very top corporate and administrative positions. To a lesser extent, the UK research councils have tackled the issue by introducing, since 1992, the EngD. Mark C. Taylor opines that total reform of PhD programs in almost every field is necessary in the U.S., and that pressure to make the necessary changes will need to come from many sources (students, administrators, public and private sectors, etc.). These issues and others are discussed in an April 2011 issue of the journal Nature.[18][19][20][21]

Within the research occupations in which a PhD is widely viewed as being necessary, career progression is typically aided by publication in peer-reviewed journals; yet many such journals print research papers without any reference to academic certificates in their author by-lines. The quality of a peer reviewed publication is expected to be self-evident, and letters after authors' names are therefore superfluous. In contrast, applicants for research grants may be required to disclose which academic certificates they hold, leading to the risk that a PhD qualification representing as little as three years' work will outweigh a rival applicant's superior publication record and thus leave academic reviewers (whose employers may have a financial stake in the PhD system) open to accusations of self-interest. Given the need for self-evident quality in research publications, the role played by PhD degrees in research occupations differs markedly from the quality assurance role played by professional qualifications in other fields, and is arguably a form of closed shop.

Doctor of Philosophy degrees across the globeEdit

UNESCO states that "Programmes to be classified at ISCED level 8 are referred to in many ways across the world such as PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar terms. However, it is important to note that programmes with a similar name to "doctor" should only be included in ISCED level 8 if they satisfy the criteria described in Paragraph 263. For international comparability purposes, the term "doctoral or equivalent" is used to label ISCED level 8".[22]

ArgentinaEdit

AdmissionEdit

In Argentina, the admission to a PhD program at public Argentinian University requires the full completion of a Master's degree or a Licentiate's degree. Non-Argentinian Master's titles are generally accepted into a PhD program when the degree comes from a recognized university.

FundingsEdit

While a significant portion of postgraduate students finance their tuition and living costs with teaching or research work at private and state-run institutions, international institutions, such as the Fulbright Program and the Organization of American States (OAS), have been known to grant full scholarships for tuition with apportions for housing.[23]

Requirements for completionEdit

Upon completion of at least two years' research and course work as a graduate student, a candidate must demonstrate truthful and original contributions to his or her specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.[24] The doctoral candidate's work should be presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a Doctoral Committee. This Committee should be composed of examiners that are external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution. The academic degree of Doctor, respective to the correspondent field of science that the candidate has contributed with original and rigorous research, is received after a successful defense of the candidate's dissertation.[25]

AustraliaEdit

AdmissionEdit

Admission to a PhD program in Australia requires applicants to demonstrate capacity to undertake research in the proposed field of study. The standard requirement is a Bachelor's degree with either first-class or upper second-class honours. Research Master's degrees and coursework Master's degrees with a 25% research component are usually considered equivalent. It is also possible for research Master's degree students to 'upgrade' to PhD candidature after demonstrating sufficient progress.

ScholarshipsEdit

PhD students are sometimes offered a scholarship to study for their PhD degree. The most common of these are the government-funded Australian Postgraduate Award (APA), which provides a living stipend to students of approximately A$22,500 a year (tax free). APAs are paid for a duration of 3 years, while a 6 month extension is usually possible upon citing delays out of the control of the student.[26] Some universities also fund a similar scholarship that matches the APA amount. Due to a continual increase in living costs, many PhD students are forced to live under the poverty line.[27] In addition to the more common APA and university scholarships, Australian students have other sources of scholarship funding.

FeesEdit

Australian citizens, permanent residents and New Zealand citizens are not charged course fees for their PhD or research Master's degree, with exception to the student services and amenities fee (SSAF) which is set by each university and typically involves the largest amount allowed by the Australian government. All fees are paid for by the Australian government, except for the SSAF, under the Research Training Scheme.[28] International students and coursework Master's degree students must pay course fees, unless they receive a scholarship to cover them.

Requirements for completionEdit

Completion requirements vary. Most Australian PhD programs do not have a required coursework component. The credit points attached to the degree are all in the product of the research, which is usually an 80,000 word thesis that makes a significant new contribution to the field. The PhD thesis is sent to external examiners who are experts in the field of research and who have not been involved in the work. Examiners are nominated by the candidate's university and their identities are often not revealed to the candidate until the examination is complete. A formal oral defence is generally not part of the examination of the thesis, largely because of the distances that would need to be traveled by the overseas examiners.

CanadaEdit

AdmissionEdit

Admission to a PhD program at a Canadian university usually requires completion of a Master's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades and proven research ability. In some cases, a student may progress directly from an Honours Bachelor's degree to a PhD program; other programs allow a student to fast-track to a doctoral program after one year of outstanding work in a Master's program (without having to complete the Master's).

An application package typically includes a research proposal, letters of reference, transcripts, and in some cases, a writing sample or Graduate Record Examination scores. A common criterion for prospective PhD students is the comprehensive or qualifying examination, a process that often commences in the second year of a graduate program. Generally, successful completion of the qualifying exam permits continuance in the graduate program. Formats for this examination include oral examination by the student's faculty committee (or a separate qualifying committee), or written tests designed to demonstrate the student's knowledge in a specialized area (see below) or both.

At English-speaking universities, a student may also be required to demonstrate English language abilities, usually by achieving an acceptable score on a standard examination (e.g., Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)). Depending on the field, the student may also be required to demonstrate ability in one or more additional languages. A prospective student applying to French-speaking universities may also have to demonstrate some English language ability.

FundingEdit

While some students work outside the university (or at student jobs within the university), in some programs students are advised (or must agree) not to devote more than ten hours per week to activities (e.g., employment) outside of their studies, particularly if they have been given funding. For large and prestigious scholarships, such as those from NSERC, this is an absolute requirement.

At some Canadian universities, most PhD students receive an award equivalent to part or all of the tuition amount for the first four years (this is sometimes called a tuition deferral or tuition waiver). Other sources of funding include teaching assistantships and research assistantships; experience as a teaching assistant is encouraged but not requisite in many programs. Some programs may require all PhD candidates to teach, which may be done under the supervision of their supervisor or regular faculty. Besides these sources of funding, there are also various competitive scholarships, bursaries, and awards available, such as those offered by the federal government via NSERC, CIHR, or SSHRC.

Requirements for completionEdit

In general, the first two years of study are devoted to completion of coursework and the comprehensive examinations. At this stage, the student is known as a "PhD student" or "doctoral student". It is usually expected that the student will have completed most of his or her required coursework by the end of this stage. Furthermore, it is usually required that by the end of eighteen to thirty-six months after the first registration, the student will have successfully completed the comprehensive exams.

Upon successful completion of the comprehensive exams, the student becomes known as a "PhD candidate". From this stage on, the bulk of the student's time will be devoted to his or her own research, culminating in the completion of a PhD thesis or dissertation. The final requirement is an oral defense of the thesis, which is open to the public in some, but not all, universities. At most Canadian universities, the time needed to complete a PhD degree typically ranges from four to six years[citation needed]. It is, however, not uncommon for students to be unable to complete all the requirements within six years, particularly given that funding packages often support students for only two to four years; many departments will allow program extensions at the discretion of the thesis supervisor and/or department chair. Alternate arrangements exist whereby a student is allowed to let their registration in the program lapse at the end of six years and re-register once the thesis is completed in draft form. The general rule is that graduate students are obligated to pay tuition until the initial thesis submission has been received by the thesis office. In other words, if a PhD student defers or delays the initial submission of their thesis they remain obligated to pay fees until such time that the thesis has been received in good standing.

FranceEdit

AdmissionEdit

Students pursuing the PhD degree must first complete a Master's degree program, which takes two years after graduation with a Bachelor's degree (five years in total). The candidate must find funding and a formal doctoral advisor (Directeur de thèse) with an habilitation throughout the doctoral program.

The Masters program is divided into two branches: "master professionnel", which orientates the students towards the working world, and Master of Research (Master-recherche), which is oriented towards research. The PhD admission is granted by a graduate school (in French, "école doctorale"). A PhD Student has to follow some courses offered by the graduate school while continuing his/her research at laboratory. His/her research may be carried out in a laboratory, at a university, or in a company. In the last case, the company hires the student as an engineer and the student is supervised by both the company's tutor and a labs' professor. The validation of the PhD degree requires generally 3 to 4 years after the Master degree.

FundingEdit

The financing of PhD studies comes mainly from funds for research of the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research. The most common procedure is a short-term employment contract called doctoral contract: the institution of higher education is the employer and the PhD candidate the employee. However, the student can apply for funds from a company who can host him/her at its premises (as in the case where PhD students do their research in a company). Many other resources come from some regional/city projects, some associations, etc.

IndiaEdit

AdmissionEdit

In India, generally a Masters degree is required to gain admission to a doctoral program. Direct admission to a Ph.D programme after bachelors is also offered by the IITs, the NITs and the ACSIR. In some subjects, doing a Masters in Philosophy (M.Phil.) is a prerequisite to starting a Ph.D. For funding/fellowship, it is required to qualify for the National Eligibility Test for Lectureship and Junior Research fellowship (NET for LS and JRF) [29] conducted by the federal research organisation Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and University Grants Commission (UGC).

In the last few years, there have been many changes in the rules relating to a Ph.D in India [citation needed]. According to the new rules, most universities conduct entrance exams in general ability and the selected subject. After clearing these tests, the shortlisted candidates need to appear for an interview by the available supervisor/guide. The students are required to give presentations of the research proposal at the beginning, submit progress reports, give a pre-submission presentation and finally defend the thesis in an open defence viva-voce.

GermanyEdit

AdmissionEdit

In Germany, admission to a doctoral program is generally on the basis of having an advanced degree (i.e., a master's degree, diploma, magister, or staatsexamen), more often than not in a related field, and above-average grades. A candidate must also find a tenured professor or Privatdozent to serve as the formal advisor and supervisor (Betreuer) of the dissertation throughout the doctoral program. This supervisor is informally referred to as Doktorvater or Doktormutter, which literally translate as "doctor's father" or "doctor's mother", respectively.

StructureEdit

Doctoral candidates (Doktorand/-in), or doctoral students, are generally not required to attend formal classes or lectures; instead, under the tutelage of a single professor or advisory committee, they are expected to conduct independent research. In addition to doctoral studies, many doctoral candidates work as teaching assistants (TAs) or research assistants (RAs).

Many universities have established research-intensive Graduiertenkollegs ("graduate colleges"), which are graduate schools that provide funding for doctoral studies.

DurationEdit

The usual duration of a doctoral program largely depends on the subject and area of research; but, often three to five years of full-time research work are required.

As of 2012, the average age of new Ph.D. graduates is 32.7 years of age.[30]

Other nationsEdit

In German-speaking nations; most Eastern European nations; successor states of the former Soviet Union; most parts of Africa, Asia, and many Spanish-speaking countries, the corresponding degree to a Doctor of Philosophy is simply called "Doctor" (Doktor), and the subject area is distinguished by with a Latin suffix (e.g., "Dr. med." for Doctor medicinae, Doctor of Medicine; "Dr. rer. nat." for Doctor rerum naturalium, Doctor of the Natural Sciences; "Dr. phil." for Doctor philosophiae, Doctor of Philosophy; "Dr. iur." for Doctor iuris, Doctor of Laws).

USSR, Russian Federation and former Soviet Republics Edit

Template:Over coverage The degree of Candidate of Sciences (Russian: кандидат наук

- Kandidat Nauk) was the first advanced research qualification in the former USSR and some Eastern Bloc countries (Czechoslovakia, Hungary) and is still awarded in some post-Soviet states (Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus and others). According to "Guidelines for the recognition of Russian qualifications in the other countries", in countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees (like Russian Federation, some post-Soviet states, Germany, Poland, Austria and Switzerland), should be considered for recognition at the level of the first doctoral degree, and in countries with only one doctoral degree, the degree of Kandidat Nauk should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this degree. As most education systems only have one advanced research qualification granting doctoral degrees or equivalent qualifications (ISCED 2011,[31] par.270), the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Kandidat Nauk) of the former USSR counties is usually considered at the same level as the doctorate or PhD degrees of those countries.[32][33] According to the Joint Statement by the Permanent Conference of the Ministers for Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder of the Federal Republic of Germany (Kultusministerkonferenz, KMK), German Rectors' Conference (HRK) and the Ministry of General and Professional Education of the Russian Federation, the degree of Kandidat Nauk is recognised in Germany at the level of the German degree of Doktor and the degree of Doktor Nauk at the level of German Habilitation.[34][35] The Russian degree of Kandidat Nauk is also officially recognised by the Government of the French Republic as equivalent to French doctorate.[36][37] In Ukraine, the Supreme Certifying Commission (official English self-denomination, also known as Higher Attestation Commission or "VAK", Template:Lang-ua), before it was merged into the Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sport of Ukraine, would issue official international diploma supplements to holders of Ukrainian degrees of Kandydat Nauk (Candidate of Sciences, Template:Lang-ua)[38] stating that the degree was "comparable to the academic degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Ph.D.".[39][40][41] In several former Eastern Bloc countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary), in which the Candidate of Sciences degrees used to be modeled after the Soviet ones, those degrees have been replaced with Ph.D. or equivalent doctoral degrees, with the recognition of the essential equivalency between the old and the new degrees.[42][43]

According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, for purposes of international educational statistics, Kandidat Nauk (Candidate of Sciences) belongs to ISCED level 8, or "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar. It is mentioned in the Russian version of ISCED 2011 (par.262) on the UNESCO website as an equivalent to PhD belonging to this level.[31] In the same way as PhD degrees awarded in many English-speaking countries, Kandidat Nauk (Candidate of Sciences) allows its holders to reach the level of the Docent.[41][42] The second doctorate[32] (or post-doctoral degree[40][44]) in some post-Soviet states called Doctor of Sciences (Russian: доктор наук

- Doktor Nauk) is given as an example of second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates in ISCED 2011[31] (par.270) and is similar to Habilitation in Germany, Poland and several other countries.[32][44][45] It constitutes a higher qualification compared to PhD as against the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) or Dublin Descriptors.[44]

About 88% of Russian students studying at state universities study at the expense of budget funds.[46] The average stipend in Russia (as of August 2011) is $430 a year ($35/month).[47] The average tuition fee in graduate school is $2,000 per year.[48]

ItalyEdit

The Dottorato di ricerca (research doctorate), abbreviated to "Dott. Ric." or "Ph.D.", is an academic title awarded at the end of a course of not less than three years, admission to which is based on entrance examinations and academic rankings in the Bachelor of Arts ("Laurea Triennale") and Master of Arts ("Laurea Magistrale" or "Laurea Specialistica"). While the standard Ph.D. follows the Bologna process, the MD/PhD programme may be completed in two years.

The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program (Ph.D.) was Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa in 1927 under the historic name "Diploma di Perfezionamento".[49][50] Further, the research doctorates or PhD (Italian: Dottorato di ricerca) in Italy were introduced by law and Presidential Decree in 1980,[51][52] referring to the reform of academic teaching, training and experimentation in organisation and teaching methods.[53][54]

Hence, the Superior Graduate Schools in Italy (Grandes écoles)[55] (Italian: Scuola Superiore Universitaria),[56] also called Schools of Excellence (Italian: Scuole di Eccellenza)[55][57] such as Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa and Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies still keep their reputed historical "Diploma di Perfezionamento" PhD title by law[50][58] and MIUR Decree.[59][60]

Doctorate courses are open, without age or citizenship limits, to all those who already hold a "laurea magistrale" (master degree) or similar academic title awarded abroad which has been recognised as equivalent to an Italian degree by the Committee responsible for the entrance examinations.

The number of places on offer each year and details of the entrance examinations are set out in the examination announcement.

PolandEdit

A doctoral degree (Pol. doktor), abbreviated to PhD (Pol. dr) is an advanced academic degree awarded by universities in most fields [61][62][63][64][65] as well as by the Polish Academy of Sciences,[66] regulated by the Polish parliament acts[67] and the government orders, in particular by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Poland. Commonly, students with a master's degree or equivalent are accepted to a doctoral entrance exam. The title of PhD is awarded to a scientist who 1) completed a minimum of 3 years of PhD studies (Pol. studia doktoranckie), 2) finished his/her theoretical and/or laboratory's scientific work, 3) passed all PhD examinations, 4) submitted his/her dissertation- a document presenting the author's research and findings,[68] 5) successfully defended his/her doctoral thesis. Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, always public, by his/her supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline.

ScandinaviaEdit

The doctorate was introduced in Sweden in 1477 and in Denmark-Norway in 1479 and awarded in theology, law and medicine, while the magister's degree was the highest degree at the Faculty of Philosophy, equivalent to the doctorate.

Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a degree known as a doctorate of philosophy, based upon the German model. Denmark and Norway both introduced the Dr.Phil(os). degree in 1824, replacing the Magister's degree as the highest degree, while Uppsala University of Sweden renamed its Magister's degree Filosofie Doktor (Fil.Dr.) in 1863. These degrees, however, became comparable to the German Habilitation rather than the doctorate, as Scandinavian countries did not have a separate Habilitation.[69] The degrees were uncommon and not a prerequisite for employment as a professor; rather, they were seen as distinctions similar to the British (higher) doctorates (D.Litt., D.Sc.). Denmark introduced an American-style PhD in 1989; it formally replaced the Licentiate degree, and is considered a lower degree than the dr. phil. degree; officially, the PhD is not considered a doctorate, but unofficially, it is referred to as "the smaller doctorate", as opposed to the dr. phil., "the grand doctorate".[70] Currently Denmark and Norway are both awarding the traditional (higher) dr. phil(os). degree, and American-style PhDs.

In Sweden, the doctorate of philosophy was introduced at Uppsala University's Faculty of Philosophy in 1863. In Sweden, the Latin term is widely translated into Swedish filosofie doktor. The degree represents the traditional Faculty of Philosophy and encompases subjects from biology, physics and chemistry, to languages, history and social sciences. Sweden currently has two research-level degree, the Licentiate's degree, which is comparable to the Danish degree formerly known as the Licentiate's degree and now as the PhD, and the higher doctorate of philosophy, Filosofie Doktor. Some universities in Sweden also use the term teknologie doktor for PhDs rewarded from institutes of technology (for PhDs in engineering or natural science related subjects such as materials science, molecular biology, computer science etc.) which, in relation to teknologie magister being translated as Master of Science, would be translated as Doctor of Science. In general, however, these degrees are also referred to as PhDs in English.

SpainEdit

Doctoral degrees are regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 778/1998),[71] Real Decreto (in Spanish). They are granted by a university on behalf of the King, and its diploma has the force of a public document. The Ministry of Science keeps a National Registry of Theses called TESEO.[72]

All doctoral programs are of a research nature. A minimum of four years of study are required, divided into two stages:

  1. A 2-year-long period of studies, which concludes with a public dissertation presented to a panel of 3 professors. If the project receives approval from the university, he/she will receive a Diploma de Estudios Avanzados (part qualified doctor, literally: "Diploma of Advanced Studies").
  2. A 2-year (or longer) period of research. Extensions may be requested for up to 10 years. The student must write his thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to science. If approved by his "thesis director", the study will be presented to a panel of 5 distinguished scholars. Any doctor attending the public presentations is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions on his research. If approved, he will receive the doctorate. Four marks can be granted (Unsatisfactory, Pass, "Cum laude", and "Summa cum laude"). From 2007 the mark "Cum laude" is the highest one, applicable only to the candidates who get the highest score by unanimity of the members of the tribunal.[73]

A doctoral degree is required to apply to a long-term teaching position at a university.

The social standing of doctors in Spain is evidenced by the fact that only Ph.D. holders, Grandees and Dukes can take seat and cover their heads in the presence of the King.[74] All Doctor Degree holders are reciprocally recognized as equivalent in Germany and Spain ("Bonn Agreement of November 14, 1994").[75]

United KingdomEdit

Note: The term PhD can refer to a specific type of Doctorate (a PhD), and the term is also often used generically to cover all doctorates.

AdmissionEdit

Universities admit applicants to PhD programmes on a case-by-case basis; depending on the university, admission is typically conditional on the prospective student having successfully completed an undergraduate degree with at least upper second-class honours, or a postgraduate master's degree, but requirements can vary.

In the case of the University of Oxford, for example, "The one essential condition of being accepted ... is evidence of previous academic excellence, and of future potential."[76] Commonly, students are first accepted on to an MPhil programme and may transfer to PhD regulations upon satisfactory progress and is referred to as APG (Advanced Postgraduate) status. This is typically done after one or two years, and the research work done may count towards the PhD degree. If a student fails to make satisfactory progress, he or she may be offered the opportunity to write up and submit for an MPhil degree.

In addition, PhD students from countries outside the EU/EFTA area are required to comply with the Academic Technology Approval Scheme (ATAS), which involves undergoing a security clearance process with the Foreign Office for certain courses in medicine, mathematics, engineering and material sciences.[77][78] This requirement was introduced in 2007 due to concerns about terrorism and weapons proliferation.[78]

FundingEdit

In the United Kingdom, funding for PhD students is sometimes provided by government-funded Research Councils or the European Social Fund, usually in the form of a tax-free bursary which consists of tuition fees together with a stipend of around £13,000 per year for three years (higher in London),[79] whether or not the degree continues for longer. Scientific studentships are usually paid at a higher rate, for example, in London, Cancer Research UK, the ICR and the Wellcome Trust stipend rates start at around £19,000 and progress annually to around £23,000 a year; an amount that is tax and national insurance free. Research Council funding is sometimes 'earmarked' for a particular department or research group, who then allocate it to a chosen student, although in doing so they are generally expected to abide by the usual minimum entry requirements (typically a first degree with upper second class honours, although successful completion of a postgraduate master's degree is usually counted as raising the class of the first degree by one division for these purposes). However, the availability of funding in many disciplines (especially humanities, social studies, and pure science[citation needed] subjects) means that in practice only those with the best research proposals, references and backgrounds are likely to be awarded a studentship. The ESRC (Economic and Social Science Research Council) explicitly state that a 2.1 minimum (or 2.2 plus additional masters degree) is required – no additional marks are given for students with a first class honours or a distinction at masters level. Since 2002, there has been a move by research councils to fund interdisciplinary doctoral training centres which concentrate resources on fewer higher quality centres.

Many students who are not in receipt of external funding may choose to undertake the degree part-time, thus reducing the tuition fees, as well as creating free time in which to earn money for subsistence. Students may also take part in tutoring, work as research assistants, or (occasionally) deliver lectures, at a rate of typically £25–30 per hour, either to supplement existing low income or as a sole means of funding.[80]

CompletionEdit

There is usually a preliminary assessment to remain in the programme and the thesis is submitted at the end of a 3- to 4-year programme. These periods are usually extended pro rata for part-time students. With special dispensation, the final date for the thesis can be extended for up to four additional years, for a total of seven, but this is rare.[81] For full-time PhDs, a 4 year time limit has now been fixed and students cannot submit a thesis past this point. Since the early 1990s, British funding councils have adopted a policy of penalising departments where large proportions of students fail to submit their theses in four years after achieving PhD-student status (or pro rata equivalent) by reducing the number of funded places in subsequent years.[82]

There has recently been an increase in the number of Integrated PhD programs available, such as at the University of Southampton. These courses include a Master of Research (MRes) in the first year, which consists of a taught component as well as laboratory rotation projects. The PhD must then be completed within the next 3 years. As this includes the MRes all deadlines and timeframes are brought forward to encourage completion of both MRes and PhD within 4 years from commencement. These programmes are designed to provide students with a greater range of skills than a standard PhD; and for the university they are a means of gaining an extra years' fees from public sources.

Other doctoratesEdit

In the United Kingdom PhD degrees are distinct from other doctorates, most notably the higher doctorates such as D.Litt. (Doctor of Letters) or D.Sc. (Doctor of Science), which may be granted on the recommendation of a committee of examiners on the basis of a substantial portfolio of submitted (and usually published) research. However, most UK universities still maintain the option of submitting a thesis for the award of a higher doctorate.

Recent years have seen the introduction of professional doctorates (D.Prof or ProfD), which are the same level as PhDs but more specific in their field.[83] These tend not to be solely academic, but combine academic research, a taught component and a professional qualification. These are most notably in the fields of engineering (Eng.D.), education (Ed.D.), educational psychology (D.Ed.Psych), occupational psychology (D.Occ Psych.) clinical psychology (D.Clin.Psych.), social work (D.S.W), nursing (D.N.P), public administration (D.P.A.), business administration (D.B.A.), and music (D.M.A.). These typically have a more formal taught component consisting of smaller research projects, as well as a 40,000–60,000 word thesis component, which collectively is equivalent to that of a PhD degree.

United StatesEdit

OverviewEdit

Further information: Doctorate#United States

In the United States, the Ph.D. degree is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most fields of study. American students typically undergo a series of three phases in the course of their work toward the Ph.D. degree. The first phase consists of coursework in the student's field of study and requires one to three years to complete. This often is followed by a preliminary, a comprehensive examination, or a series of cumulative examinations where the emphasis is on breadth rather than depth of knowledge. The student is often later required to pass oral and written examinations in the field of specialization within the discipline, and here, depth is emphasized. Some Ph.D. programs require the candidate to successfully complete requirements in pedagogy (taking courses on higher level teaching and teaching undergraduate courses) or applied science (e.g., clinical practice and predoctoral clinical internship in Ph.D. programs in clinical, counseling, or school psychology). [citation needed]

Another two to four years are usually required for the composition of a substantial and original contribution to human knowledge in the form of a written dissertation, which in the social sciences and humanities typically ranges from 50 to 450 pages. In many cases, depending on the discipline, a dissertation consists of a comprehensive literature review, an outline of methodology, and several chapters of scientific, social, historical, philosophical, or literary analysis. Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, sometimes public, by his or her supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline.

AdmissionEdit

There are 282 universities in the United States that award the PhD degree, and those universities vary widely in their criteria for admission, as well as the rigor of their academic programs.[84] Typically, PhD programs require applicants to have a Bachelor's degree in a relevant field (and, in many cases in the humanities, a master's degree), reasonably high grades, several letters of recommendation, relevant academic coursework, a cogent statement of interest in the field of study, and satisfactory performance on a graduate-level exam specified by the respective program (e.g., GRE, GMAT).[85][86] Specific admissions criteria differ substantially according to university admissions policies and fields of study. Some programs in well-regarded research universities may have very low acceptance rates and require excellent performances on the GRE and in undergraduate work, strong support in letters of recommendation, substantial research experience, and academically sophisticated samples of their writing. [citation needed]

Master's degree "en route"Edit

As applicants to many Ph.D. programs are not required to have master's degrees, many programs award a Master of Arts or Master of Science degree "en route", "in passing", or "in course" based on the graduate work done in the course of achieving the Ph.D. Students who receive such master's degrees are usually required to complete a certain amount of coursework and a master's thesis or field examination. Not all Ph.D. programs require additional work to obtain a master's en route to the Ph.D. (e.g., a master's thesis). Depending on the specific program, masters-in-passing degrees can be either mandatory or optional. Not all Ph.D. students choose to complete the additional requirements necessary for the Master of Arts or the Master of Science if such requirements are not mandated by their programs. Those students will simply obtain the Ph.D. degree at the end of their graduate study. [citation needed]

TimeEdit

Depending on the specific field of study, completion of a PhD program usually takes four to eight years of study after the Bachelor's Degree; those students who begin a PhD program with a master's degree may complete their PhD degree a year or two sooner.[87] As PhD programs typically lack the formal structure of undergraduate education, there are significant individual differences in the time taken to complete the degree. Many U.S. universities have set a ten-year limit for students in PhD programs, or refuse to consider graduate credit older than ten years as counting towards a PhD degree. Similarly, students may be required to re-take the comprehensive exam if they do not defend their dissertations within five years after submitting it to their self-chosen dissertation advisors. [citation needed] Overall, 57% of students who begin a PhD program in the US will complete their degree within ten years, approximately 30% will drop out or be dismissed, and the remaining 13% of students will continue on past ten years.[88]

FundingEdit

PhD students are usually discouraged from engaging in external employment during the course of their graduate training. As a result, PhD students at U.S. universities typically receive a tuition waiver and some form of annual stipend. [citation needed] The source and amount of funding varies from field to field and university to university. Many U.S. PhD students work as teaching assistants or research assistants. Graduate schools increasingly[citation needed] encourage their students to seek outside funding; many are supported by fellowships they obtain for themselves or by their advisers' research grants from government agencies such as the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. Many Ivy League and other well-endowed universities provide funding for the entire duration of the degree program (if it is short) or for most of it. [citation needed]Funding, availability of graduate/teaching assistantships, tuition waivers, grants, scholarships etc. will vary greatly based on their classification (see Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education). Smaller private universities that grant doctoral degrees may not provide any source of funding to doctoral students. The same is true for many online doctoral programs.

PhD candidacyEdit

Candidate of Philosophy is a certification or a status, rather than a separate degree, that a postgraduate student achieves en route to a doctorate. It is abbreviated PhD (cand), PhDc, or simply PhC. Postgraduate programs vary in their requirements for completion of a doctorate, but most follow a pattern: completion of class requirements, a lower level exam, an upper level exam, and a final exam.

Candidacy is conferred or certified when the student has successfully satisfied specific requirements towards a doctorate, pending the completion of research projects and defense of a written dissertation. The completion of research, however, might or might not be necessary for candidacy. Rather, it depends on requirements that are specific to the program of study. The term "ABD" (All But Dissertation or All But Defended) usually means that a candidate has only to complete the writing and defense of the dissertation.

Although it is a minor distinction in postgraduate study, candidacy occasionally provides some benefits. It might mean an increase in the student's stipend and/or make the student eligible for employment opportunities. Neither of these, however, is guaranteed by candidacy. The primary benefit of PhD candidacy is that completion of the doctorate is nominally imminent so long as the student completes the final defense. This is, of course, not a given because a written dissertation and an oral defense of the student's work are typically not treated lightly by the faculty.

It is worth noting that the Candidate of Philosophy is not to be confused with Candidate of Sciences, an academic degree that has been used in certain countries in place of a PhD.

Some programs also include a Master of Philosophy degree as part of the PhD program.[89] The MPhil, in those universities that offer it, is usually awarded after the appropriate MA or MS (as above) is awarded, and the degree candidate has completed all further requirements for the PhD degree (which may include additional language requirements, course credits, teaching experiences, and comprehensive exams) aside from the writing and defense of the dissertation itself. [citation needed] This formalizes the "all but dissertation" (ABD) status used informally by some students, and represents that the student has achieved a higher level of scholarship than the MA/MS would indicate – as such, the MPhil is sometimes a helpful credential for those applying for teaching or research posts while completing their dissertation work for the PhD degree itself.[90]

Models of supervisionEdit

At some universities, there may be training for those wishing to supervise PhD studies. There is now a lot of literature published for academics who wish to do this, such as Delamont, Atkinson and Parry (1997). Indeed, Dinham and Scott (2001) have argued that the worldwide growth in research students has been matched by increase in a number of what they term "how-to" texts for both students and supervisors, citing examples such as Pugh and Phillips (1987). These authors report empirical data on the benefits that a PhDc may gain if he or she publishes work, and note that PhD students are more likely to do this with adequate encouragement from their supervisors.

Wisker (2005) has noticed how research into this field has distinguished between two models of supervision: The technical-rationality model of supervision, emphasising technique; The negotiated order model, being less mechanistic and emphasising fluid and dynamic change in the PhD process. These two models were first distinguished by Acker, Hill and Black (1994; cited in Wisker, 2005). Considerable literature exists on the expectations that supervisors may have of their students (Phillips & Pugh, 1987) and the expectations that students may have of their supervisors (Phillips & Pugh, 1987; Wilkinson, 2005) in the course of PhD supervision. Similar expectations are implied by the Quality Assurance Agency's Code for Supervision (Quality Assurance Agency, 1999; cited in Wilkinson, 2005).

International PhD equivalent degrees Edit

See also Edit

Related terminology:

PhD in popular culture:

Notes Edit

  1. History of the Ph.D.. Phdcourse.net. URL accessed on 2011-02-01.
  2. Pedersen, Olaf (1997). The first universities: Studium generale and the origins of university education in Europe, Cambridge University Press.
  3. de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde (2003). A history of the university in Europe: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press.
  4. Rashdall, Hastings (1964). The universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, Oxford University Press.
  5. Rüegg, Walter. A History of the University in Europe: Volume 3, Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945), Cambridge University Press.
  6. See, for instance, DOI:10.2307/1979947
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  7. Science, October 11, 1929, Volume LXX/July-Dec 1929, pg. 337
  8. The Mathematics PhD in the United Kingdom. URL accessed on 2010-11-17.
  9. Simpson, Renate (1984). How the PhD came to Britain : A Century of Struggle for Postgraduate Education, Taylor and Francis.
  10. C. Singer and S.W.F. Holloway, Early Medical Education in England in Relation to the Pre-History of the University of London, Med Hist. 1960 January; 4(1): 1–17.
  11. DOI:10.1080/03098770020030498
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  12. The term "doctor of philosophy" is not always applied by those countries to graduates in disciplines other than philosophy itself. These doctoral degrees, however, are sometimes identified in English as Ph.D. degrees.
  13. What does PhDc stand for? Acronyms and abbreviations by the Free Online Dictionary
  14. PhD Categories, Wageningen University; PhD scholarship programmes, University of Groningen Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science; Sandwich PhD, Technissche Universitat Kaiserslautern.
  15. "Higher education: Agreement reached with Glasgow for 'sandwich' PhD (February 11, 2012). Express Tribune.
  16. Journal of Higher Education Management and Policy, the economic contribution of PhDs, http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a912992314
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 includeonly>"Doctoral degrees: The disposable academic", The Economist. Retrieved on 25 December 2012.
  18. DOI:10.1038/nj7343-381a
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  19. DOI:10.1038/472259b
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  20. DOI:10.1038/472261a
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  21. DOI:10.1038/472276a
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  22. Paragraph 262 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011.
  23. Scholarships in Argentina. Spuweb.siu.edu.ar. URL accessed on 2010-04-28.
  24. GFME: Global Foundation for Management Education. (PDF) URL accessed on 2010-04-28.
  25. [http://www.coneau.edu.ar/index.php?item=29&apps=16&id=428&act=ver&idioma=en Comisión Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación Universitaria (Spanish) }]. Coneau.edu.ar. URL accessed on 2010-04-28. [dead link]
  26. Home - Graduate Research - University of Tasmania, Australia. Utas.edu.au. URL accessed on 2013-07-02.
  27. ABC (2008). PhD students living below poverty line. ABC News 2008 (April): 1–2.
  28. Error on call to template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified (2011). DEEWR.
  29. N E T – Inside H E – University Grants Commission. Ugc.ac.in. URL accessed on 2010-02-07.
  30. Bestandene Prüfungen, Statistisches Bundesamt, https://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/GesellschaftStaat/BildungForschungKultur/Hochschulen/Tabellen/BestandenePruefungenGruppen.html, retrieved on 2012-03-19 
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011.
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 UNESCO-IIEP. Varghese, N.V.; Püttmann, V. Trends in diversification of post-secondary education (IIEP research papers). Paris: UNESCO, IIEP, 2011. p. 11–12, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001915/191585e.pdf
  33. UNESCO-CEPES. Kouptsov, O., ed. The Doctorate in the Europe Region. CEPES Studies in Higher Education. Bucharest: UNESCO, CEPES, 1994, p. 199, ISBN 92-9069-133-6, http://www.unesco.org/education/pdf/24_245.pdf
  34. Gemeinsame Erklärungzur gegenseitigen akademischen Anerkennungvon tudienzeiten und Abschlüssen im Hochschulbereichsowie von Urkunden über russische wissenschaftliche Gradeund deutsche akademische Qualifikationen zwischen HRK/ KMK und dem Ministerium für Allgemeine und Berufliche Bildungder Russischen Föderation 1999, http://www.hrk-bologna.de/de/download/dateien/HRK_Abkommen_Russland.pdf
  35. Совместное заявление о взаимном академическом признании периодов обучения в высших учебных заведениях, документов о высшем образовании, российских ученых степенях и германских академических квалификациях, 1999, http://www.russia.edu.ru/information/legal/law/inter/germ/
  36. Décret n° 2003-744 du 1er août 2003 portant publication de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la République française et le Gouvernement de la Fédération de Russie sur la reconnaissance mutuelle des documents sur les grades et titres universitaires, signé à Saint-Pétersbourg le 12 mai 2003, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000780537
  37. Соглашение между Правительством Российской Федерации и Правительством Французской Республики о взаимном признании документов об ученых степенях, Санкт-Петербург, 12 мая 2003 года, http://www.russia.edu.ru/information/legal/law/inter/soglash/2538/
  38. Постанова Кабінету Міністрів України від 17 березня 1993 р. N 199 Про затвердження описів дипломів доктора і кандидата наук та атестата старшого наукового співробітника і переліку галузей науки, з яких може бути присуджений науковий ступінь, http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/199-93-%D0%BF
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References Edit

  • Delamont, S., Atkinson, P. & Parry, O. (1997). Supervising the Ph.D.: A guide to success. Buckingham: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-19516-4
  • Dinham, S. & Scott, C. (2001). The experience of the results of disseminating the results of doctoral research. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 25 (1) 45–55. ISSN: 1469-9486
  • Drury, V., Francis, K., & Chapman, Y. (2006). Walking the void – being a rural PhD student. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 14, p233.
  • MacGillivray, Alex; Potts, Gareth; Raymond, Polly. Secrets of Their Success (London: New Economics Foundation, 2002).
  • Phillips, E. & Pugh, D.S. (1987). How to get a PhD : managing the peaks and troughs of research / Estelle M. Phillips and D.S. Pugh. Milton Keynes: Open University Press ISBN 0-335-15537-5
  • Simpson, Renate. How the PhD came to Britain: A century of struggle for postgraduate education, Society for Research into Higher Education, Guildford (1983).
  • Wellington, J. Bathmaker, A._M., Hunt, C., McCullough, G. & Sikes, P. (2005). Succeeding with your doctorate. London: Sage. ISBN 1-4129-0116-2
  • Wilkinson, D. (2005) The essential guide to postgraduate study. London : SAGE ISBN 1-4129-0062-X (hbk.)
  • Wisker, G. (2005) The Good Supervisor: Supervising Postgraduate and Undergraduate Research for Doctoral Theses and Dissertations. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-0395-6.


Academic degrees
Associate's degrees (U.S.) AA, ABA, ABS, AS
Foundation degrees (U.K.) FdA, FdEd, FdEng, FdMus, FdBus, FdSc, FdTech
Bachelor's degrees B.Accty, AB or BA, BSc or SB, BBus, BCom or BComm, BCS, BEc, BEng or BE, BS or BSc, BFA, BD, BHE, BJ, BPharm, BPE, BHK, BCL, LL.B., MB ChB or MB BS or BM BS or MB BChir or MB BCh BAO, BMus, B.Math, BTech, BBA, BAdm, MA (Oxon.), MA (Cantab.), MA (Dubl.), MA (Hons)
Master's degrees MA, MS or MSc, MSt, MALD, MApol, MPhil, MRes, MFA, MTh, MTS, M.Div., MBA, MPA, MJ, MSW, MPAff, MLIS, MLitt, MPH, MPM, MPP, MPT, MRE, MTheol, LLM, MEng, MSci, MBio, MChem, MPhys, MMath, MMus, MESci, MGeol, MTCM, MSSc, BCL (Oxon), BPhil (Oxon), ThM
Specialist degrees Ed.S., SSP, B.Acc., C.A.S.
Doctoral degrees PhD, EdD, EngD, DNursSci, DBA, DC, DD, DSc, DLitt, DA, MD, DDS, DMD, DMA, DMus, DCL, ThD, JD, OD, DO, PharmD, DrPH, DPT, DPhil, DOM, OMD, DPM, PsyD, DSW, LL.D., J.S.D., S.J.D. S.T.D


es:Doctorado

ml:ഡോക്ടർ (വിദ്യാഭ്യാസം) fi:Tohtori fi:Filosofian tohtori


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