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Displacement (defense mechanism)

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ty into culture, for example, via sublimation. But displacement also goes the other way...social crisis and conflict are endlessly displaced into sexuality'.[1]

Cultural analogues

  • A John Aubrey anecdote about Sir Walter Raleigh - 'evidently drawn from the usage of "whipping boys" in the education of princes' - describes how at a dinner table 'Sir Walter...gives his son a damned blow over his face. His son, rude as he was, would not strike his father, but strikes over the face the gentleman that sate next to him and sayd, "Box about: 'twill come to my father anon". 'Tis now a common-used proverb'.[2]
  • The suggestion has been made of the "Freud Wars" that 'the real object of attack - for which Freud is only the stalking horse - is the very idea that humans have unconscious motivation'.[3]
  • Confucius said of his favourite disciple: '"There was Yen Hui; HE loved to learn. He did not transfer his anger; he did not repeat a fault"...i.e. his anger was no tumultuary passion in the mind, but was excited by some specific cause, to which alone it was directed'.[4]

See also




Footnotes

  1. Jonathan Dollimore, Sexual Dissidence <1991) p. 184
  2. G. Legman, Rationale of the Dirty Joke Vol 2 (1973) p. 371
  3. Jonathan Lear, in Michael Parsons, The Dove that Returns, the Dove that Vanishes (London 2000) p. 24
  4. James Legge trans., Confucius (New York 1971) p. 185

Further reading

Books

  • Berkowitz, L. (1987). Anti-Semitism and the displacement of aggression. Oxford, England: Walter De Gruyter.
  • Firestone, R. W., & Catlett, J. (1986). Displacement of negative parental characteristics and the development of a victimized or paranoid approach to life. New York, NY: Human Sciences Press.
  • Kramer, E. (2001). Sublimation and art therapy. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
  • Milburn, M. A., & Liss, J. (2008). Emotion, affect displacement, conflict, and cooperation. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Widlocher, D. (1999). Unconscious fantasy as an experience of action. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.

Papers

  • Abramsky, M. F. (1996). Displacement: A major casual contribution to prolonged post traumatic stress disorder: Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior Vol 33(1) 1996, 1-9.
  • Aisenstein, M. (1994). The writing of the Marquis de Sade: Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse Vol 58(2) Apr-Jun 1994, 451-461.
  • Anselme, P. (2008). Abnormal patterns of displacement activities: A review and reinterpretation: Behavioural Processes Vol 79(1) Sep 2008, 48-58.
  • Banks, M. J. (1977). A family's over-concern about a child in the first two years of life: Maternal-Child Nursing Journal Vol 6(3) Fal 1977, 187-194.
  • Barash, D. P. (1974). Human ethology: Displacement activities in a dental office: Psychological Reports Vol 34(3, Pt 1) Jun 1974, 947-949.
  • Berkowitz, L., & Frodi, A. (1979). Reactions to a child's mistakes as affected by her/his looks and speech: Social Psychology Quarterly Vol 42(4) Dec 1979, 420-425.
  • Denson, T. F., Pedersen, W. C., & Miller, N. (2006). The displaced aggression questionnaire: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 90(6) Jun 2006, 1032-1051.
  • Derzelle, M., & Gayda, M. (2003). Painful symptom displacements: Annales Medico-Psychologiques Vol 161(7) Sep 2003, 538-543.
  • Evans, F. J. (1990). Will the real pain say "yes." American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis Vol 33(1) Jul 1990, 12-13.
  • Fenigstein, A., & Buss, A. H. (1974). Association and affect as determinants of displaced aggression: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 7(4) Mar 1974, 306-313.
  • Flug, A., & Sandler, J. (1983). An instance of "displacement from above downward" in a congenitally blind child: The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child Vol 38 1983, 429-438.
  • Frost, R. O., & Holmes, D. S. (1979). Effect of displacing aggression by annoyed and nonannoyed subjects: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 13(2) Jun 1979, 221-233.
  • Furman, R. A. (1988). Object removal revisited: International Review of Psycho-Analysis Vol 15(2) 1988, 165-176.
  • Herzog, J. M. (2005). Los Degradados: Out, down, dead: Transmitted and inflicted trauma as encountered in the analysis of a 6-year-old girl: International Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 86(2) Apr 2005, 291-310.
  • Houtkooper, J. M. (2003). An ESP experiment with natural and simulated Sferics: Displacement scores and psychological variables: European Journal of Parapsychology Vol 18 2003, 49-63.
  • Huebner, D. L. (1977). Scapegoating the attorney, a displacement of marital anguish: [[]Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy]] Vol 9(1)p112-115.
  • Kanas, N., Salnitskiy, V., Weiss, D. S., Grund, E. M., Gushin, V., Kozerenko, O., et al. (2001). Crewmember and ground personnel interactions over time during Shuttle/Mir space missions: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 72(5) May 2001, 453-461.
  • Kluft, R. (1990). "Dissociation and displacement: Where goes the 'ouch'?" Comment: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis Vol 33(1) Jul 1990, 13-15.
  • Konecni, V. J., & Doob, A. N. (1972). Catharsis through displacement of aggression: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 23(3) Sep 1972, 379-387.
  • Kuiken, D., & Powell, R. (1980). Spatio-temporal displacement and expression of feeling in dreams of emotionally expressive persons: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 51(2) Oct 1980, 455-461.
  • LaGuardia, E. (1984). Priority and deferral: The text of Beyond the pleasure principle: Psychoanalysis & Contemporary Thought Vol 7(2) 1984, 269-288.
  • Lebedev, B. A., Petrova, N. N., & Vasilyeva, I. A. (1991). The mechanisms of psychological defense in patients on chronic hemodialysis: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 91(5) 1991, 58-62.
  • Levine, M. G. (1989). From Vanna to Amana: The price is White: Literature and Psychology Vol 35(4)p 1-9.
  • Levitt, L., & Viney, W. (1973). Inhibition of aggression against the physically disabled: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 36(1), 255-258.
  • Marcus-Newhall, A., Pedersen, W. C., Carlson, M., & Miller, N. (2000). Displaced aggression is alive and well: A meta-analytic review: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 78(4), 670-689.
  • Margolis, C. G. (1990). "Dissociation and displacement: Where goes the 'ouch'?" Comment: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis Vol 33(1), 15-17.
  • Martinez, M. A., Zeichner, A., Reidy, D. E., & Miller, J. D. (2008). Narcissism and displaced aggression: Effects of positive, negative, and delayed feedback: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 44(1) Jan 2008, 140-149.
  • Martius, B. (2004). Vertical Splitting and its Treatment: Selbstpsychologie: Europaische Zeitschrift fur psychoanalytische Therapie und Forschung/ Self Psychology: European Journal for Psychoanalytic Therapy and Research Vol 5(15) 2004, 77-102.
  • Melburg, V., & Tedeschi, J. T. (1989). Displaced aggression: Frustration or impression management? : European Journal of Social Psychology Vol 19(2) Mar-Apr 1989, 139-145.
  • Miller, N., Pedersen, W. C., Earleywine, M., & Pollock, V. E. (2003). A theoretical model of triggered displaced aggression: Personality and Social Psychology Review Vol 7(1) 2003, 75-97.
  • Miller, P. H., & DeMarie-Dreblow, D. (1990). Social-cognitive correlates of children's understanding of displaced aggression: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 49(3) Jun 1990, 488-504.
  • Neubauer, P. B. (1994). The role of displacement in psychoanalysis: The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child Vol 49 1994, 107-119.
  • Nicolaidis, G. (1993). Displacement onto color: Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse Vol 57(Spec Issue) 1993, 1659-1661.
  • Noonan, E. (1973). An investigation into sibling and sibling-in-law relationships: II. Research report: British Journal of Projective Psychology & Personality Study Vol 18(1) Jun 1973, 21-26.
  • Podlesek, A., & Komidar, L. (2006). Comparison of three psychophysical methods for measuring displacement in frontal plane motion: Review of Psychology Vol 13(1) 2006, 51-60.
  • Powell, T. J. (1973). Negative expectations of treatment: Some ideas about the source and management of two types: Clinical Social Work Journal Vol 1(3) Fal 1973, 177-186.
  • Poznanski, E. O. (1973). Children with excessive fears: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Vol 43(3)p428-438.
  • Rynearson, E. K. (1978). Humans and pets and attachment: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 133 Dec 1978, 550-555.
  • Schneck, J. M. (1977). Hypnotic elucidation of isolation and displacement following a sexual assault. Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 38(11),p934-935.
  • Seih, Y. T., Lin, Y. C., Huang, C. L., Peng, C. W., & Huang, S. P. (2008). The benefits of psychological displacement in diary writing when using different pronouns: British Journal of Health Psychology Vol 13(1) Feb 2008, 39-41.
  • Singer, M. (1978). Pygmies and their dogs: A note on culturally constituted defense mechanisms: Ethos Vol 6(4) Win 1978, 270-277.
  • Sultana, P. (1986). A study of displacement process among low and high aggressive adolescents: Indian Journal of Behaviour Vol 10(2) Apr 1986, 1-7.
  • Sultana, P. (1986). A study of the dissipation process with respect to equity and inequity: Indian Journal of Behaviour Vol 10(3) Jul 1986, 23-30.
  • Sultana, P. (1987). A study of the displacement process among adolescent boys and girls: Indian Journal of Behaviour Vol 11(1) Jan 1987, 1-6.
  • Troisi, A. (2002). Displacement activities as a behavioral measure of stress in nonhuman primates and human subjects: Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress Vol 5(1) 2002, 47-54.
  • Wain, H. J. (1990). "Dissociation and displacement: Where goes the 'ouch'?" Comment: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis Vol 33(1) Jul 1990, 17-19.
  • Watkins, J. G., & Watkins, H. H. (1990). Dissociation and displacement: Where goes the "ouch"? : American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis Vol 33(1) Jul 1990, 1-10.
  • Watkins, J. G., & Watkins, H. H. (1990). "Dissociation and displacement: Where goes the 'ouch'?": Reply: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis Vol 33(1) Jul 1990, 19-21.
  • Weatherley, D. (1987). Anti-Semitism and the expression of fantasy aggression. Oxford, England: Walter De Gruyter.
  • Weiss, M. G., & Miller, P. H. (1983). Young children's understanding of displaced aggression: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 35(3) Jun 1983, 529-539.
  • Winestine, M. C. (1987). Reaction to the end of the analytic hour as a derivative of an early childhood experience: Couch or crib: Psychoanalytic Quarterly Vol 56(4) 1987, 689-692.

Dissertations

  • Arendsen, B. A. (1999). Mother loss, exile, and the imagination of displacement. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kauffman, L. S. (1978). Psychic displacement and adaptation in the novels of Dickens and Faulkner: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lanyi, R. L. (1978). Comic book creativity as displaced aggression: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Melburg, V. (1984). An impression management interpretation of some displacement of aggression experiments: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Vickroy, K. L. (1991). Affective knowledge: Transference and social values in the novels of Marguerite Duras and Toni Morrison: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Watford, V. W. (1976). Mothers' aggressive responses toward their preschool children following insults from an adult male: A test of catharsis and displacement: Dissertation Abstracts International.

Further reading

  • Arthur J. Clark, Defense Mechanismss in the Counselling Process (1998) Chap. 3 "Displacement"
  • Mark Krupnick, Displacement: Derrida and After (1983)


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