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The term “etiquette” refers to a set of rules - written and unwritten - governing what constitutes socially acceptable behavior under a variety of circumstances. Typically, these rules, based upon social norms, are not codified in criminal or civil law; but rather are enforced on an individual level by fear of community disapproval.
“Disability etiquette”, then, is a misnomer: in contrast to simple “etiquette”, guidelines dealing specifically with how to approach people with disabilities were initially created to challenge social conventions rather than to reinforce them.
There is no consensus on when this phrase first came into use, although it most likely grew out of the Disability Rights Movement that began in the early 1970s. The concept may have started as a cynical play on existing rule sheets, written for non-disabled audiences, that were seen as patronizing by civil rights activists.
Guidelines in theory and practiceEdit
Most disability etiquette guidelines seem to be predicated on a simple dictate: “Do not assume…” They are written to address real and perceived shortcomings in how society as a whole treats people with disabilities.
These guidelines can be broken down into the several broad categories. “Do not assume…”:
- “…a person with a disability either wants or requires assistance.”
- “…rejection of aid is meant as a personal affront.”
- “…upon acceptance of your help, that you know, without being told, what service to perform.”
- “…a person who appears to have one kind of disability also has others.”
- “…a disabled person is dissatisfied with her quality of life, and is thus seeking pity.”
- “…a person with a disability is easily offended.”
- "...that a person who does not appear disabled, or who uses assistive devices intermittently instead of all of the time, is faking or imagining their disability." (see invisible disability)
- “…companions accompanying a person with a disability are there strictly to render service.”
Each category encompasses specific ‘rules’. For example, the last of these would include guidelines such as:
“Ask questions of the person with a disability, and not of her companions.” “Hand grocery or other receipts to the individual who is paying the bill.”
People writing on specific disabilities have given rise to their own unique guidelines. Wheelchair users may, for example, include the rule, “do not grab the push handles of a person’s wheelchair without permission.“ Visually impaired people often list a request to, “identify yourself when you enter a room.”
Like many other minority groups, people with disabilities do not always agree on what constitutes politically correct language. However, some general do's and don'ts are listed at the List of disability-related terms with negative connotations.
“Disability etiquette” exists to draw attention to common assumptions and misconceptions through the provision of guidelines that contradict them. More than that, however, these guidelines are evolving to approximate social etiquette among the non-disabled, in hope that people with disabilities will be treated with “common courtesy.” (McGrattan, 2001)
- Disability etiquette: appropriate language and behavior
- A Way With Words: guidelines for the portrayal of people with a disability
- Etiquette: Blindness
- Etiquette: Deafness
- Etiquette: Developmental Disabilities
- Etiquette: Mental Illness
- Etiquette: Mobility Impairment
- Etiquette: Wheelchair users
- MTV's "Hitting Stereotypes at Full Speed"
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