Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Digestive system

Talk0
34,135pages on
this wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)


This article needs rewriting to enhance its relevance to psychologists..
Please help to improve this page yourself if you can..


Salivary glandsParotid glandSubmandibular glandSublingual glandPharynxTongueEsophagusPancreasPancreatic ductStomachIleumAnusRectumVermiform appendixCecumDescending colonAscending colonTransverse colonBile ductDuodenumGallbladderLiverOral cavityDigestive system diagram en
About this image

Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract

Human gastrointestinal tract (Digestive System)
Stomach colon rectum diagram
Latin Tractus digestorius (mouth to anus),
canalis alimentarius (esophagus to large Intestine),
canalis gastrointestinales (stomach to large Intestine)
Gray's subject #
System Digestive system
MeSH [2]
[[Image:|190px|center|]]

The human gastrointestinal tract is the stomach and intestine,[1] sometimes including all the structures from the mouth to the anus.[2] (The "digestive system" is a broader term that includes other structures, including the accessory organs of digestion).[3]

In an adult male human, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is 5 metres long in a live subject, or up to 9 metres without the effect of muscle tone, and consists of the upper and lower GI tracts. The tract may also be divided into foregut, midgut, and hindgut, reflecting the embryological origin of each segment of the tract.

The GI tract always releases hormones to help regulate the digestive process. These hormones, including gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin, are mediated through either intracrine or autocrine mechanisms, indicating that the cells releasing these hormones are conserved structures throughout evolution.[4]

Upper gastrointestinal tractEdit

Salivary glandsParotid glandSubmandibular glandSublingual glandPharynxTongueEsophagusPancreasPancreatic ductStomachIleumAnusRectumVermiform appendixCecumDescending colonAscending colonTransverse colonBile ductDuodenumGallbladderLiverOral cavityDigestive system diagram en
About this image

Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract

The upper gastrointestinal tract consists of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.[5] The exact demarcation between "upper" and "lower" can vary. Upon dissection, the duodenum may appear to be a unified organ, but it is often divided into two parts based upon function, arterial supply, or embryology.

Lower gastrointestinal tractEdit

The lower gastrointestinal tract includes most of the small intestine and all of the large intestine.[6] According to some sources, it also includes the anus.[citation needed]

The Ligament of Treitz is sometimes used to divide the upper and lower GI tracts.[7]

EmbryologyEdit

The gut is an endoderm-derived structure. At approximately the sixteenth day of human development, the embryo begins to fold ventrally (with the embryo's ventral surface becoming concave) in two directions: the sides of the embryo fold in on each other and the head and tail fold toward one another. The result is that a piece of the yolk sac, an endoderm-lined structure in contact with the ventral aspect of the embryo, begins to be pinched off to become the primitive gut. The yolk sac remains connected to the gut tube via the vitelline duct. Usually this structure regresses during development; in cases where it does not, it is known as Meckel's diverticulum.

During fetal life, the primitive gut can be divided into three segments: foregut, midgut, and hindgut. Although these terms are often used in reference to segments of the primitive gut, they are also used regularly to describe components of the definitive gut as well.

Each segment of the gut gives rise to specific gut and gut-related structures in later development. Components derived from the gut proper, including the stomach and colon, develop as swellings or dilatations of the primitive gut. In contrast, gut-related derivatives — that is, those structures that derive from the primitive gut but are not part of the gut proper, in general develop as out-pouchings of the primitive gut. The blood vessels supplying these structures remain constant throughout development.[8]

Part Part in adult Gives rise to Arterial supply
Foregut Esophagus to first 2 sections of the duodenum Esophagus, Stomach, Duodenum (1st and 2nd parts), Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas, Superior portion of pancreas
(Note that though the Spleen is supplied by the celiac trunk, it is derived from dorsal mesentery and therefore not a foregut derivative)
celiac trunk
Midgut lower duodenum, to the first two-thirds of the transverse colon lower duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, and first two-third of the transverse colon branches of the superior mesenteric artery
Hindgut last third of the transverse colon, to the upper part of the anal canal last third of the transverse colon, descending colon, rectum, and upper part of the anal canal branches of the inferior mesenteric artery

Transit timeEdit

The time taken for food or other ingested objects to transit through the gastrointestinal tract varies depending on many factors, but roughly, it takes less than an hour after a meal for 50% of stomach contents to empty into the intestines and total emptying of the stomach takes around 2 hours. Subsequently, 50% emptying of the small intestine takes 1 to 2 hours. Finally, transit through the colon takes 12 to 50 hours with wide variation between individuals.[9][10]

PathologyEdit

Main article: Digestive disease

There are a number of diseases and conditions affecting the gastrointestinal system, including:

Immune functionEdit

The gastrointestinal tract is also a prominent part of the immune system.[11] The surface area of the digestive tract is estimated to be the surface area of a football field. With such a large exposure, the immune system must work hard to prevent pathogens from entering into blood and lymph.[12][WP:V]

The low pH (ranging from 1 to 4) of the stomach is fatal for many microorganisms that enter it. Similarly, mucus (containing IgA antibodies) neutralizes many of these microorganisms. Other factors in the GI tract help with immune function as well, including enzymes in saliva and bile. Enzymes such as Cyp3A4, along with the antiporter activities, also are instrumental in the intestine's role of detoxification of antigens and xenobiotics, such as drugs, involved in first pass metabolism.

Health-enhancing intestinal bacteria serve to prevent the overgrowth of potentially harmful bacteria in the gut. These two types of bacteria compete for space and "food," as there are limited resources within the intestinal tract. A ratio of 80-85% beneficial to 15-20% potentially harmful bacteria generally is considered normal within the intestines. Microorganisms also are kept at bay by an extensive immune system comprising the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

HistologyEdit

File:Gut wall.svg

The gastrointestinal tract has a form of general histology with some differences that reflect the specialization in functional anatomy.[13] The GI tract can be divided into four concentric layers in the following order:

MucosaEdit

The mucosa is the innermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract. that is surrounding the lumen, or open space within the tube. This layer comes in direct contact with digested food (chyme),

The mucosa is made up of three layers:

  • Epithelium - innermost layer. Responsible for most digestive, absorptive and secretory processes.
  • Lamina propria - a layer of connective tissue. Unusually cellular compared to most connective tissue
  • Muscularis mucosae - a thin layer of smooth muscle. Function is still under debate

The mucosae are highly specialized in each organ of the gastrointestinal tract to deal with the different conditions. The most variation is seen in the epithelium.

In the esophagus, the epithelium is stratified, squamous and non-keratinising, for protective purposes.

In the stomach it is simple columnar, and is organised into gastric pits and glands to deal with secretion. The gastro-oesophageal junction is extremely abrupt.

The small intestine epithelium (particularly the ileum) is specialised for absorption; it is organised into plicae circulares and villi, and the enterocytes have microvilli. This creates a brush border which greatly increases the surface area for absoption. The epithelium is simple columnar with microvilli. In the ileum there are occasionally Peyer's patches in the lamina propria.

The colon has simple columnar epithelium with no villi. There are goblet cells.

The appendix has a mucosa resembling the colon but is heavily infiltrated with lymphocytes.

The ano-rectal junction (at the pectinate line) is again very abrupt; there is a transition from simple columnar to stratified squamous non-keratinising epithelium (as in the esophagus) for protective purposes.

SubmucosaEdit

The submucosa consists of a dense irregular layer of connective tissue with large blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves branching into the mucosa and muscularis externa. It contains Meissner's plexus, an enteric nervous plexus, situated on the inner surface of the muscularis externa.

Muscularis externaEdit

The muscularis externa consists of an inner circular layer and a longitudinal outer muscular layer. The circular muscle layer prevents food from traveling backward and the longitudinal layer shortens the tract. The layers are not truly longitudinal or circular, rather the layers of muscle are helical with different pitches. The inner circular is helical with a steep pitch and the outer longitudinal is helical with a much shallower pitch.

The coordinated contractions of these layers is called peristalsis and propels the food through the tract. Food in the GI tract is called a bolus (ball of food) from the mouth down to the stomach. After the stomach, the food is partially digested and semi-liquid, and is referred to as chyme. In the large intestine the remaining semi-solid substance is referred to as faeces.

Between the two muscle layers are the myenteric or Auerbach's plexus. This controls peristalsis. Activity is initiated by the pacemaker cells (interstitial cells of Cajal). The gut has intrinsic peristaltic activity (basal electrical rhythm) due to its self-contained enteric nervous system. The rate can of course be modulated by the rest of the autonomic nervous system.

The thickness of muscularis externa varies in each part of the tract. In the colon, for example, the muscularis externa is much thicker because the faeces are large and heavy, and require more force to push along. The outer longitudinal layer of the colon thins out into 3 discontinuous longitudinal bands, known as taeniae coli (bands of the colon). This is one of the 3 features helping to distinguish between the large and small intestine.

Occasionally in the large intestine (2-3 times a day) there will be mass contraction of certain segments, moving a lot of faeces along. This is generally when one gets the urge to defecate.

The pylorus of the stomach has a thickened portion of the inner circular layer: the pyloric sphincter. Alone among the GI tract, the stomach has a third layer of muscularis externa. This is the inner oblique layer, and helps churn the chyme in the stomach.

Adventitia/serosaEdit

The outermost layer of the GI tract consists of several layers of connective tissue.

Intraperitoneal parts of the GI tract are covered with serosa. These include most of the stomach, first part of the duodenum, all of the small intestine, caecum and appendix, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. In these sections of the gut there is clear boundary between the gut and the surrounding tissue. These parts of the tract have a mesentery.

Retroperitoneal parts are covered with adventitia. They blend into the surrounding tissue and are fixed in position. For example, the retroperitoneal section of the duodenum usually passes through the transpyloric plane. These include the esophagus, pylorus of the stomach, distal duodenum, ascending colon, descending colon and anal canal. In addition, the oral cavity has adventitia.


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Template:DorlandsDict
  2. MeSH Gastrointestinal+tract
  3. Template:DorlandsDict
  4. Nelson RJ. 2005. Introduction to Behavioral Endocrinology. Sinauer Associates: Massachusetts. p 57.
  5. MeSH Upper+Gastrointestinal+Tract
  6. Template:MeSH name
  7. David A. Warrell (2005). Oxford textbook of medicine: Sections 18-33, 511–, Oxford University Press. URL accessed 1 July 2010.
  8. Bruce M. Carlson (2004). Human Embryology and Developmental Biology, 3rd, Saint Louis: Mosby.
  9. Kim SK. Small intestine transit time in the normal small bowel study. American Journal of Roentgenology 1968; 104(3):522-524.
  10. [1] Uday C Ghoshal, Vikas Sengar, and Deepakshi Srivastava. Colonic Transit Study Technique and Interpretation: Can These Be Uniform Globally in Different Populations With Non-uniform Colon Transit Time? J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012 April; 18(2): 227–228.
  11. Richard Coico, Geoffrey Sunshine, Eli Benjamini (2003). Immunology: a short course, New York: Wiley-Liss.
  12. Animal Physiology textbook
  13. Abraham L. Kierszenbaum (2002). Histology and cell biology: an introduction to pathology, St. Louis: Mosby.

Further readingEdit

  • Abramets, I. I., Komissarov, I. V., & Samoilovich, I. M. (1968). On the action of serotonin on the D-receptors of smooth muscles: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 66(8) 1968, 62-66.
  • Adam, W. R., & Dawborn, J. K. (1972). Effect of potassium depletion on mineral appetite in the rat: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 78(1) Jan 1972, 51-58.
  • Ader, R. (1970). Effects of early experience and differential housing on susceptibility to gastric erosions in lesion-susceptible rats: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 32(6) Nov 1970, 569-580.
  • Akhobadze, R. A. (1968). On the influence of stimulation and extirpation of the limbic cortex on gastric secretory activity: Sak'art'velos SSR Mets'nierebat'a Akademiis Moambe 50(2) 1968, 493-498.
  • Akhobadze, R. A. (1968). On the influence of stimulation of several thalamic nonspecific structures on gastric secretory function in the chronic experiment: Sak'art'velos SSR Mets'nierebat'a Akademiis Moambe 50(1) 1968, 233-238.
  • Allison, J. (1971). Microbehavioral features of nutritive and nonnutritive drinking in rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 76(3) Sep 1971, 408-417.
  • Almli, C. R. (1971). Hypervolemia at the polyethylene glycol induced onset of drinking: Physiology & Behavior Vol 7(3) Sep 1971, 369-373.
  • Almli, C. R. (1971). Thirst motivated behavior: Specification of the adequate internal stimulus: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Altman, J., Das, G. D., Sudarshan, K., & Anderson, J. B. (1971). The influence of nutrition on neural and behavioral development: II. Growth of body and brain in infant rats using different techniques of undernutrition: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 4(1) 1971, 55-70.
  • Amiragova, M. G., & Berlina, M. A. (1970). Mechanisms whereby hormonal influences are conducted from the dorsal hypothalamus to the cerebral cortex: Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 191(5) 1970, 1186-1188.
  • Amit, Z., & Stern, M. H. (1970). Ambulatory behavior in the rat as a function of two methods of alcohol administration: Psychonomic Science Vol 18(5) 1970, 273-274.
  • Antin, J., Gibbs, J., & Smith, G. P. (1978). Cholecystokinin interacts with pregastric food stimulation to elicit satiety in the rat: Physiology & Behavior Vol 20(1) Jan 1978, 67-70.
  • Avakumov, V. M., & Batulin, Y. M. (1970). Comparative characteristics of the distribution of aminazine and chloracyzine in rats: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya Vol 33(1) 1970, 14-17.
  • Badley, L. E., Spiro, H. M., & Senay, E. C. (1969). Effect of mental arithmetic on gastric secretion: Psychophysiology 5(6) 1969, 633-637.
  • Baichenko, P. I. (1969). On excitation of the abdominal muscles and diaphragm in the act of vomiting: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 55(5) 1969, 558-562.
  • Baile, C. A. (1971). Metabolites as feedbacks for control of feed intake and receptor sites in goats and sheep: Physiology & Behavior Vol 7(6) Dec 1971, 819-826.
  • Baile, C. A., Zinn, W., & Mayer, J. (1971). Feeding behavior of monkeys: Glucose utilization rate and site of glucose entry: Physiology & Behavior Vol 6(5) May 1971, 537-541.
  • Balagura, S., & Coscina, D. V. (1969). Influence of gastrointestinal loads on meal-eating patterns: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 69(1) Sep 1969, 101-106.
  • Balinska, H. (1970). Influence of the type of reinforcement on the conditioned alimentary reaction in rats with lesions of the lateral hypothalamus: Acta Physiologica Polonica Vol 21(1) 1970, 63-70.
  • Banuazizi, A. (1969). Modification of an autonomic response by instrumental learning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bardik, Y. V. (1969). Cellular multiplication in the basal layer of the multiply layered flat epithelium of the esophagus in hypophysectomized rats: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 68(9) 1969, 118-120.
  • Barnett, S. A., Smart, J. L., & Widdowson, E. M. (1971). Early nutrition and the activity and feeding of rats in an artificial environment: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 4(1) 1971, 1-15.
  • Barrett, J. E., & Stanely, W. C. (1969). Nasopharyngeal gastric tube as a technique in the operant analysis of neonatal sucking: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association 4(Pt 2) 1969, 805-806.
  • Beaudouard, J., Pech, P., & Martineau, J. P. (1969). Psychosomatic profile of a group of subjects afflicted with a gastric ulcer: Comparison with a normal population: Annales Medico-Psychologiques 2(3) 1969, 438-439.
  • Belikova, Z. P. (1969). The influence of level of heat production in the organism on the functional state of thermoreceptors in the human skin: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 68(10) 1969, 13-14.
  • Bennett, C. T. (1972). Electrical activity of supraoptic neurons in water deprived rats during slow intragastric infusions of water: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Berezovskii, V. A. (1968). Central and peripheral effects of alimentary excitation: Putilin, N I (Ed) (1968) Fiziologicheskoe obosnovanie rezhimov deyatel'nosti.
  • Berlin, M. M. (1968). A technique for three-dimensional Photooscillography: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(6) 1968, 741-743.
  • Birnbaum, D., Wajsbort, J., & Feldman, S. (1969). Changes in bile secretion produced by hippocampal and hypothalamic stimulation: Experimental Neurology 24(2) 1969, 265-271.
  • Blass, E. M., & Epstein, A. N. (1971). A lateral preoptic osmosensitive zone for thirst in the rat: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 76(3) Sep 1971, 378-394.
  • Blizard, D. A. (1970). The Maudsley strains: The evaluation of a possible artifact: Psychonomic Science Vol 19(3) 1970, 145-146.
  • Bogach, P. G. (1968). Role of the hypothalamus in regulating the processes of nutrition and digestion. Oxford, England: Kiev U.
  • Bogach, P. G., & Groiman, S. D. (1968). The significance of the structures of the lesser curvature in the propagation of peristaltic waves in the stomach: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 66(12) 1968, 16-19.
  • Bogach, P. G., & Groisman, S. D. (1968). Tonometric studies of the vagotomized stomach: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(4) 1968, 467-471.
  • Bogach, P. G., & Koval, L. A. (1968). On participation of the limbic cortex and amygdaloid nuclei in regulation of the motor function of the gastrointestinal tract: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 65(3) 1968, 11-15.
  • Bogach, P. G., Koval, L. A., & Groisman, S. D. (1968). On the motor activity of various sections of the small intestines: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(1) 1968, 90-97.
  • Bogolepov, N. K., Martynov, Y. S., Malkova, E. V., & Tsivil'ko, V. S. (1970). Hepatoportal encephalomyelopathy: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii Vol 70(4) Apr 1970, 496-506.
  • Bogolepov, N. K., & Vorontsova, N. I. (1968). Neurological paroxysms in esophageal diseases: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii 68(12) 1968, 1753-1760.
  • Booth, D. A. (1970). An expression of body weight regulation in feeding behavior: Psychonomic Science Vol 21(5) Dec 1970, 293.
  • Booth, D. A. (1972). Satiety and behavioral caloric compensation following intragastric glucose loads in the rat: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 78(3) Mar 1972, 412-432.
  • Booth, D. A. (2001). Sensory. digestive and metabolic influences on preference and intake: Appetite Vol 36(1) Feb 2001, 63-69.
  • Booth, D. A., Chase, A., & Campbell, A. T. (1970). Relative effectiveness of protein in the late stages of appetite suppression in man: Physiology & Behavior Vol 5(11) Nov 1970, 1299-1302.
  • Booth, D. A., & Simson, P. C. (1971). Food preferences acquired by association with variations in amino acid nutrition: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 23(1) Feb 1971, 135-145.
  • Borer, K. T. (1971). Control of food intake in Octopus briareus Robson: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 75(2) May 1971, 171-185.
  • Brion, S., Aillet, J., Graveleau, J., & Leonardon. (1968). Probable pancreatic encephalopathy cured by antitrypsics: Annales Medico-Psychologiques 2(2) 1968, 275.
  • Brockman, L. M., & Ricciuti, H. N. (1971). Severe protein-calorie malnutrition and cognitive development in infancy and early childhood: Developmental Psychology Vol 4(3) May 1971, 312-319.
  • Budgell, P. (1970). Modulation of drinking by ambient temperature changes: Animal Behaviour Vol 18(4) Nov 1970, 753-757.
  • Budylina, S. M., & Reztsova, L. D. (1969). Functional mobility of the gustatory receptors and the glycemic reaction of the organism: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 68(7) 1969, 11-13.
  • Bulygin, I. A., & Malyukovich, G. F. (1969). Features typifying the changes of adrenaline-like substances in the blood, following exposure to intero- and exteroceptive influences: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR Vol 55(10) Oct 1969, 1233-1241.
  • Bulygin, I. A., & Soltanov, V. V. (1969). New data on the features marking intero- and exteroceptive afferent impulsation: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR Vol 55(8) Aug 1969, 995-1002.
  • Bulygin, I. A., & Syusyukina, V. A. (1968). Circular connections of the intestine with the central nervous system: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(2) 1968, 166-175.
  • Burke, G. H., Mook, D. G., & Blass, E. M. (1972). Hyperactivity to quinine associated with osmotic thirst in the rat: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 78(1) Jan 1972, 32-39.
  • Cabanac, M., & Fantino, M. (1977). Origin of olfacto-gustatory alliesthesia: Intestinal sensitivity to carbohydrate concentration? : Physiology & Behavior Vol 18(6) Jun 1977, 1039-1045.
  • Cameron, H. L., & Perdue, M. H. (2005). Stress Impairs Murine Intestinal Barrier Function: Improvement by Glucagon-Like Peptide-2: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 314(1) Jul 2005, 214-220.
  • Carlisle, H. J. (1971). Fixed-ratio polydipsia: Thermal effects of drinking, pausing, and responding: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 75(1) Apr 1971, 10-22.
  • Carter, F. S. (1968). Treatment of depression associated with chronic gastrointestinal and cardiovascular disorders: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry 9(6) 1968, 314-318.
  • Castelnuovo-tedesco, P., Schwertfeger, H. D., & Janowsky, D. S. (1970). Psychological characteristics of patients with ulcerative colitis and patients with peptic ulcer: A comparison: Psychiatry in Medicine Vol 1(1) Jan 1970, 59-75.
  • Caul, W. F., Buchanan, D. C., & Hays, R. C. (1972). Effects of unpredictability of shock on incidence of gastric lesions and heart rate in immobilized rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 8(4) Apr 1972, 669-672.
  • Chaichenko, G. M. (1968). On the role of Na and Cl ions in the generation of electrical activity and in the contractile process in the intestinal smooth muscles: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(4) 1968, 477-483.
  • Chernigovskiy, V. N. (1967). The mechanisms of mechanoreception. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Chernilovskaya, P. E. (1968). The connection between the secretion and blood supply of the submaxillary gland on stimulation of the chorda tympani with stimuli of various frequencies: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 66(12) 1968, 12-15.
  • Chillag, D., & Mendelson, J. (1971). Schedule-induced airlicking as a function of body-weight deficit in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 6(5) May 1971, 603-605.
  • Ch'khenkeli, S. A. (1968). Electrophysiological study of the regulation of food intake: Sak'art'velos SSR Mets'nierebat'a Akademiis Moambe 49(3) 1968, 719-724.
  • Chow, B. F., Simonson, M., Hanson, H. M., & Roeder, L. M. (1971). Behavioral measurements in nutritional studies: Conditional Reflex Vol 6(1) Jan 1971, 36-40.
  • Cloarec, A. (1974). A study of the postural variations in the foreleg of Ranatra linearis (Insecta heteroptera): Behaviour Vol 48(1-2) 1974, 89-110.
  • Coddington, R. D., & Bruch, H. (1970). Gastric perceptivity in normal, obese and schizophrenic subjects: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 11(6) Nov 1970, 571-579.
  • Comperatore, C. A., & Stephan, F. K. (1987). Entrainment of duodenal activity to periodic feeding: Journal of Biological Rhythms Vol 2(3) Fal 1987, 227-242.
  • Cox, J. E., & Smith, M. J. (1987). Dose-dependent interaction between cholecystokinin and sham feeding: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 26(2-3) Nov-Dec 1987, 109-117.
  • Croll, R. P., Albuquerque, T., & Fitzpatrick, L. (1987). Hyperphagia resulting from gut denervation in the sea slug, Pleurobranchaea: Behavioral & Neural Biology Vol 47(2) Mar 1987, 212-218.
  • Danielyan, G. A. (1968). Roentgenological (roentgenokinematographic) study of the esophageal motor function: Ek'sperimental ev Klinikakan Bzhshkowt'yan Handes 8(5) 1968, 58-65.
  • Danilova, L. K., Sheffer, S. I., & Voronin, V. M. (1986). Characteristics of formation of conditioned secretory reflexes to stimulation of various parts of the caudate nucleus in dogs: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 36(5) Sep-Oct 1986, 864-872.
  • Davidson, A. J., Poole, A. S., Yamazaki, S., & Menaker, M. (2003). Is the food-entrainable circadian oscillator in the digestive system? : Genes, Brain & Behavior Vol 2(1) Feb 2003, 32-39.
  • Davidson, A. J., & Stephan, F. K. (1999). Plasma glucagon, glucose, insulin and motilin in rats anticipating daily meals: Physiology & Behavior Vol 66(2) Apr 1999, 309-315.
  • de Mattos, H. (1968). The effect of G 33040 (insidon) on digestive system ailments influenced by psychological factors: O Hospital 74(2) 1968, 403-408.
  • de Moor, J., Salomons, M., Didden, R., Vos, H., & Tolboom, J. (2004). Serious problems with (surgically corrected) anatomical deviations: Impact of behaviour therapy in three children of primary school age: Gedragstherapie Vol 37(3) Sep 2004, 137-154.
  • Deaux, E., & Kakolewski, J. W. (1971). Stress induced osmotic changes as a function of deprivation state: Psychonomic Science Vol 22(3) Feb 1971, 171-172.
  • Deckner, C. W., Hill, J. T., & Bourne, J. R. (1972). Shaping of gastric motility in humans: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association Vol 7(Pt 2) 1972, 759-760.
  • DiCara, L. V., Braun, J. J., & Pappas, B. A. (1970). Classical conditioning and instrumental learning of cardiac and gastrointestinal responses following removal of neocortex in the rat: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 73(2) Oct 1970, 208-216.
  • Druss, R. G., O'Connor, J. F., & Stern, L. O. (1969). Psychologic response to colectomy: II. Adjustment to a permanent colostomy: Archives of General Psychiatry 20(4) 1969, 419-427.
  • Drzhevetskaya, I. A., & Mukhina, L. V. (1969). On the role of cholinergic and adrenergic mechanisms in regulation of absorption of monosaccharides in the intestine: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 67(4) 1969, 66-68.
  • Dubich, S. Y. (1969). Method for simultaneous registration of gastric secretion and motor activity: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 55(5) 1969, 647-649.
  • Dubich, S. Y., & Kreknin, A. F. (1969). Influence of sorbitol on biliary excretion and the secretion of gastric, duodenal and pancreatic juice in the normal state and in experimental pancreatitis: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya 32(1) 1969, 75-78.
  • Edwards, A. E., & Treadwell, T. (1969). Comparative effects of anger and epinephrine upon stomach motility and the cardiovascular system: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association 4(Pt 1) 1969, 249-250.
  • Ehman, G. K., Albert, D. J., & Jamieson, J. L. (1971). Injections into the duodenum and the induction of satiety in the rat: Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Vol 25(2) Apr 1971, 147-166.
  • Ercolani, M., Baldaro, B., & Trombini, G. (1989). Effects of two tasks and two levels of difficulty upon surface electrogastrograms: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 69(1) Aug 1989, 99-110.
  • Essman, W. B., Essman, S. G., & Golod, M. I. (1971). Metabolic contributions to gastric ulcerogenesis in mice: Physiology & Behavior Vol 7(4) Oct 1971, 509-516.
  • Faitelberg, R. O., & Drachuk, L. G. (1968). Influence of electrical stimulation of the limbic cortex on the absorptive activity of the small intestine in the dog: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(12) 1968, 1444-1448.
  • Faitel'berg, R. O., Vengrzhanovskii, P. N., & Nikiforova, L. P. (1968). Influence of the thalamus on glucose and lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(1) 1968, 98-102.
  • Feigel'man, S. S., Maiskii, I. N., & Kagramanov, S. V. (1968). Morphological changes arising in rabbits as a result of prolonged administration of trypsin: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 66(10) 1968, 119-122.
  • Fel'dman, A. B. (1968). Changes in some effects of the negative emotional reaction with its frequent repetition and with increase of its duration: Putilin, N I (Ed) (1968) Fiziologicheskoe obosnovanie rezhimov deyatel'nosti.
  • Fennessy, M. R., Heimanns, L. H., & Rand, M. J. (1969). Comparison of effect of morphine-like analgesics on transmurally stimulated guinea-pig ileum: British Journal of Pharmacology Vol 37(2) Oct 1969, 436-449.
  • Fife, D. D. (1970). The effects of stimuli associated with shock onset or termination on restraint-induced gastric lesions: Psychonomic Science Vol 19(3) 1970, 163-165.
  • Filaretov, A. A., & Filimonova, A. B. (1969). On proprioreception of the deglutitory muscles: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 55(5) 1969, 552-557.
  • Filippovich, S. I. (1968). On the intrasystemic interconnections of the organs of the digestive tract: Vestnik Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR 23(12) 1968, 3-11.
  • Finger, F. W., & Mook, D. G. (1971). Basic drives: Annual Review of Psychology Vol 22 1971, 1-38.
  • Fischbach, R. (1969). The influence of thymoleptic drugs on the acid production of the stomach: Arzneimittel-Forschung Vol 19(10) Oct 1969, 1640-1642.
  • Fokina, A. A. (1969). On hormonal regulation of the motor activity of the organs of the digestive tract: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 68(10) 1969, 19-22.
  • Fomicheva, E. E. (1968). On the comparative characteristics of the effects of summation due to the action of conditioned and indifferent stimuli: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti 18(6) 1968, 1063-1065.
  • Fonberg, E. (1968). The instrumental alimentary-avoidance differentiation in dogs: Acta Biologiae Experimentalis Vol 28(4) 1968, 363-373.
  • Fonberg, E. (1969). Effects of small dorsomedial amygdala lesions on food intake and acquisition of instrumental alimentary reactions in dogs: Physiology & Behavior 4(5) 1969, 739-743.
  • Fonberg, E. (1974). Amygdala functions within the alimentary system: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis Vol 34(3) 1974, 435-466.
  • Ford, C. V., Glober, G. A., & Castelnuovo-Tedesco, P. (1969). A psychiatric study of patients with regional enteritis: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 208(2) 1969, 311-315.
  • Friedman, H. (1976). Biofeedback: New therapeutic approach to psychosomatics: Feuillets Psychiatriques de Liege Vol 9(2) 1976, 178-190.
  • Frith, C. D. (1968). Personality, nicotine and the salivary response: Life Sciences Vol 7(22, Pt 2) Nov 1968, 1151-1156.
  • Frolov, V. M. (1968). Levels of functioning in secretory physiological systems: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(5) 1968, 614-617.
  • Galperin, S. I., & Rubinov, I. S. (1968). The effect of unconditioned and conditioned stimuli on periodic motor activity of the stomach and duodenum in dogs: Acta Biologiae Experimentalis Vol 28(2) 1968, 93-106.
  • Ganguli, P. C., & Forrester, J. M. (1972). Circadian rhythm in plasma level of gastrin: Nature, New Biology Vol 236(65) Mar 1972, 127-128.
  • Gano, Y., Bugaiskii, Y., Anichkov, S. V., & Zabrodin, O. N. (1970). Influence of central neurotropic agents on the development of experimental neurogenic dystrophies of the gastric wall in rats: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya Vol 33(1) 1970, 66-69.
  • Gasanov, G. G., Telegdy, G., Ibragimov, R. S., & Kadar, T. (1986). Influence of neurohypophysis peptides on formation of food conditioned reflex in rats: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 36(5) Sep-Oct 1986, 905-912.
  • Gazhala, E. M., & Kassil, Z. G. (1968). Influence of adrenalectomy on histamine-induced secretion of gastric juice in rats: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(2) 1968, 240-244.
  • Genes, S. G., & Lesnoi, N. G. (1969). Evacuatory function of the stomach in the absence of adrenals and under the influence of an excess of glucocorticoids: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR Vol 55(10) Oct 1969, 1272-1277.
  • Gertenrich, R. L., Fry, A. E., & Hart, R. W. (1969). The effects of mucoplex therapy and oral hygiene on dilantin gingival hyperlasia: American Journal of Mental Deficiency 73(6) 1969, 896-902.
  • Gharagyozyan, K. G. (1968). Changes in the level of phospholipids in the brain and liver of white rats under the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid: Ek'sperimental ev Klinikakan Bzhshkowt'yan Handes 8(1) 1968, 3-10.
  • Glavcheva, L., Rozkowska, E., & Konorski, J. (1969). Effects of alimentary reflexes on motor gastric activity: Acta Biologiae Experimentalis Vol 29(1) 1969, 63-74.
  • Glick, Z., Thomas, D. W., & Mayer, J. (1971). Absence of effect of injections of the intestinal hormones secretin and cholecystokinin-pancreozymin upon feeding behavior: Physiology & Behavior Vol 6(1) Jan 1971, 5-8.
  • Gliner, J. A., & Shemberg, K. M. (1971). Conditioned fear and gastric pathology in a continuing stress-rest paradigm in rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 74(1, Pt 1) Jan 1971, 20-22.
  • Goldberg, S. R., & Schuster, C. R. (1970). Conditioned nalorphine-induced abstinence changes: Persistence in post morphine-dependent monkeys: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 14(1) 1970, 33-46.
  • Gonzalez Menendez, R. (1985). Somatic consequence of alcohol abuse: Revista del Hospital Psiquiatrico de La Habana Vol 26(4) Oct-Dec 1985, 511-520.
  • Gralewicz, S., & Strumillo, E. (1971). Effect of lesions of the dorsal part of hippocampus on the conditioned alimentary reaction in cats under food-satiation and food-deprivation conditions: Acta Physiologica Polonica Vol 22(5) 1971, 635-645.
  • Grechishkin, L. L. (1969). The problem of the physiological role of histamine in gastric secretion: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya 32(4) 1969, 485-491.
  • Grechishkin, L. L., & Mustafina, T. K. (1970). Level of histamine and serotonin in the gastric wall in rats as a result of the development of neurogenic dystrophy: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny Vol 69(3) 1970, 31-33.
  • Grechishkina, A. P. (1969). Influence of prolonged painful stimulation on gastric electrical activity and secretion in dogs: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 67(5) 1969, 24-25.
  • Grinker, J., Cohn, C. K., & Hirsch, J. (1971). The effects of intravenous administration of glucose, saline, and mannitol on meal regulation in normal-weight human subjects: Communications in Behavioral Biology Vol 6(3-4, Pt A) Sep 1971, 4, 203-208.
  • Grosman, Y. S., & Povar, L. V. (1968). Excretion of serotonin by the intestines under the influence of hypertonic solutions: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 66(11) 1968, 34-37.
  • Grossarth-Maticek, R., & Eysenck, H. J. (1990). Personality, smoking, and alcohol as synergistic risk factors for cancer of the mouth and pharynx: Psychological Reports Vol 67(3, Pt 1) Dec 1990, 1024-1026.
  • Gutkin, V. I. (1968). Membrane potential of glandular cells in various functional states: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(2) 1968, 227-231.
  • Hagedorn, E. (1969). Psychosomatic aspects in functional disturbances and diseases of the liver: Zeitschrift fur Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychoanalyse Vol 15(1) Jan 1969, 1-31.
  • Herner, D., & Caul, W. F. (1972). Restraint induced ulceration in rats during estrus and diestrus: Physiology & Behavior Vol 8(4) Apr 1972, 777-779.
  • Hillman, N. M., & Riopelle, A. J. (1971). Acceptance and palatability of foods by protein-deprived monkeys: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 33(3, Pt 1) Dec 1971, 918.
  • Hornbuckle, P. A., & Isaac, W. (1969). Activation level and the production of gastric ulceration in the rat: Psychosomatic Medicine 31(3) 1969, 247-250.
  • Houpt, K. A., & Epstein, A. N. (1971). The complete dependence of beta-adrenergic drinking on the renal dipsogen: Physiology & Behavior Vol 7(6) Dec 1971, 897-902.
  • Hsiao, S., & Langenes, D. J. (1971). Liquid intake, initiation and amount of eating as determined by osmolality of drinking liquids: Physiology & Behavior Vol 7(2) Aug 1971, 233-237.
  • Hsiao, S., & Tuntland, P. (1971). Short-term satiety signals generated by saccharin and glucose solutions: Physiology & Behavior Vol 7(2) Aug 1971, 287-289.
  • Huston, J. P. (1971). Effect of glucose on threshold of intracranial reinforcement: Psychopharmacologia Vol 19(2) 1971, 105-113.
  • Isakhanov, G. I. (1968). Changes in periodic motor activity of the stomach after intestinal transections at different levels: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 66(7) 1968, 45-48.
  • Isakhanov, G. I. (1968). Influence of sectioning of the small intestine at various levels on the gastric secretory function: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(9) 1968, 1094-1101.
  • Itina, L. V. (1968). Role of the vagal and splanchnic nerves in effecting the secretory gastrointestinal reflex to glucose: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(1) 1968, 73-80.
  • Itina, L. V. (1969). Inhibitory efferent effects of the vagus and splanchnic nerves on the receptors of the small intestine: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR Vol 55(10) Oct 1969, 1261-1271.
  • Ivanova-Smolenskaya, I. A., Levchenko, N. I., & Chernigovskaya, N. V. (1968). Experience and method of applying puncture biopsy of the liver in the clinical picture of nervous diseases: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii 68(12) 1968, 1806-1809.
  • Jakubczak, L. F. (1969). Effects of injection of glucose on food intake of mature and old food-deprived rats: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association 4(Pt 2) 1969, 723-724.
  • Jeschke, J. M., & Tollrian, R. (2005). Predicting Herbivore Feeding Times: Ethology Vol 111(2) Feb 2005, 187-206.
  • Jing, G., Zhang, L., Gao, B., Xue, W., & Li, B. (1996). Roles of cortisol and life event in the onset of digestive cancers and patient's mental health: Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 4(1) Feb 1996, 41-43, 40.
  • Jordan, H. A. (1969). Voluntary intragastric feeding: Oral and gastric contributions to food intake and hunger in man: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 68(4) Aug 1969, 498-506.
  • Junien, J. L., Gue, M., & Bueno, L. (1991). Neuropeptide Y and sigma ligand (JO 1784) act through a Gi protein to block the psychological stress and corticotropin-releasing factor-induced colonic motor activation in rats: Neuropharmacology Vol 30(10) Oct 1991, 1119-1124.
  • Kadowaki, M., Nagakura, Y., Tomoi, M., Mori, J., & et al. (1993). Effect of FK1052, a potent 5-hydroxytryptamine-sub-3 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-sub-4 receptor dual antagonist, on colonic function in vivo: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 266(1) Jul 1993, 74-80.
  • Kadyrov, U. Z. (1969). On the participation of bile in regulation of small intestinal motor activity: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 55(4) 1969, 491-495.
  • Kakolewski, J. W., & Deaux, E. (1970). Influence of sham stomach loading on serum osmolality: Physiology & Behavior Vol 5(10) Oct 1970, 1205-1206.
  • Kaplan, H. S., & et al. (1970). Post-gastrectomy pain and schizophrenia: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 11(3) May 1970, 157-163.
  • Kasich, A. M. (1969). Clinical evaluation of doxepin and diazepam in patients with gastrointestinal disease and anxiety: A controlled double blind study and long-term evaluation: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry 10(3) 1969, 18-20.
  • Kas'yanov, V. M. (1969). Copper content in the saliva of the parotid glands with due consideration of their joint function: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 19(5) 1969, 886-888.
  • Kateb, C. C., & Merali, Z. (1992). A single meal elicits regional changes in bombesin-like peptide levels in the gut and brain: Brain Research Vol 596(1-2) Nov 1992, 10-16.
  • Kehoe, M. (1971). Pain and gastric acid secretion: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 15(1) Mar 1971, 47-53.
  • Kenward, R. E., & Sibly, R. M. (1978). Woodpigeon feeding behaviour at brassica sites: A field and laboratory investigation of woodpigeon feeding behaviour during adoption and maintenance of a brassica diet: Animal Behaviour Vol 26(3) Aug 1978, 778-790.
  • Khadzhai, Y. I., Obolentseva, G. V., & Serdyuk, A. D. (1969). On the pharmacology of acacetine: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya 32(4) 1969, 451-453.
  • Klimov, P. K. (1968). Influence of interoceptive stimulation on the functions of the bile-excretory system: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(2) 1968, 245-251.
  • Klimov, P. K., & Nozdrachev, A. D. (1968). On nervous regulation of the motor function of the gallbladder: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 65(6) 1968, 16-19.
  • Kobakova, E. M. (1968). Nervous regulation of motor function of the small intestine in ontogenesis. Oxford, England: Nauka.
  • Kolomiitsev, A. K. (1969). Migration of autonomic neurons in regenerating tissues: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 68(7) 1969, 109-112.
  • Kontsevoi, V. M. (1970). Influence of some autonomotropic poisons on mitotic activity of the regenerating gastric mucosal epithelium: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny Vol 69(2) 1970, 98-100.
  • Kontsevoi, V. M. (1970). Influence of some autonomotropic poisons on the reproduction rate of the gastric mucosal epithelial cells: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya Vol 33(1) 1970, 74-75.
  • Koos, E. M. (1968). Psychophysiological stress reactions of outpatients treated for respiratory or gastro-intestinal cancer: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Korot'ko, G. F., & Musaev, A. M. (1969). Gastric secretion as a function of pressure in the gastric cavity: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 68(10) 1969, 22-24.
  • Kosenko, A. F. (1969). On the role of the hypothalamus in the pathogenesis of gastric and duodenal ulcers: Problemy Fiziologii Gipotalamusa No 3 1969, 39-46.
  • Kosenko, A. F., & Koval, L. A. (1968). All-Union Symposium on the Role of the Hypothalamus in the Regulation of the Processes of Nutrition and Digestion: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(6) 1968, 750-751.
  • Kotch, J. (1970). Protein-calorie malnutrition and mental retardation: Social Science & Medicine Vol 4(6) Dec 1970, 629-644.
  • Koval, L. A. (1969). Influence of adrenaline, acetylcholine and pituitrine injections into the hypothalamus on the motor behavior of the gastrointestinal tract and on the reflex interactions between its different parts: Problemy Fiziologii Gipotalamusa No 3 1969, 29-38.
  • Kraly, F. S., & Blass, E. M. (1976). Mechanisms for enhanced feeding in the cold in rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 90(7) Jul 1976, 714-726.
  • Krasnogorskii, N. N., & Soboleva, V. M. (1968). On methods of procuring and recording saliva from the submaxillary salivary glands in man: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti 18(3) 1968, 545-547.
  • Krasnykh, I. G., Mansurov, A. R., Razgovorov, B. L., & Tyutin, L. A. (1969). Influence of cystamine on the functional state of the gastro-intestinal tract in healthy and irradiated rats: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya 32(6) 1969, 696-698.
  • Krauklis, I. A. (1969). Autonomic components of the anxiety reaction in situational neuroses. Oxford, England: Zinatne.
  • Kulakov, A. E. (1968). Influence of different stimuli on the temperature of the parotid salivary gland: Putilin, N I (Ed) (1968) Fiziologicheskoe obosnovanie rezhimov deyatel'nosti.
  • Kutscher, C. L. (1971). Hematocrit, plasma osmolality, and plasma protein concentration as estimators of plasma volume in hooded rats during food and water deprivation: Physiology & Behavior Vol 7(2) Aug 1971, 283-285.
  • Kutscher, C. L. (1971). Incidence of food-deprivation polydipsia in the white Swiss mouse: Physiology & Behavior Vol 7(3) Sep 1971, 395-399.
  • Kuzmicheva, N. A., & et al. (1968). Sensitivity to noradrenaline of intestinal muscles with hypertrophic sympathetic innervation: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(10) 1968, 1218-1222.
  • Kvasov, D. G., & Filimonova, A. B. (1968). On summational occurrences in the reflex deglutitory center: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(9) 1968, 1025-1033.
  • Lanter, J. J. (1971). Ingestion as an operant response under the control of a discriminative stimulus in the euthyroid, normal and hyperthyroid rat: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Laplace, J. P. (1970). Omaso-abomasal motility and feeding behavior in sheep: A new concept: Physiology & Behavior 5(1) 1970, 61-65.
  • Larin, E. F., Sukhodolo, V. D., & Gratsianova, A. D. (1969). On the mechanism of nervous regulation of periodic motor and secretory activity of the duodenum: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 55(2) 1969, 213-220.
  • Larsson, G., Von Essen, L., & Sjoden, P. O. (2007). Are importance-satisfaction discrepancies with regard to ratings of specific health-related quality-of-life aspects valid indicators of disease- and treatment-related distress among patients with endocrine gastrointestinal tumours? : European Journal of Cancer Care Vol 16(6) Nov 2007, 493-499.
  • Lauffer, S., & Schmid, E. (1969). Thin-layer chromatographic spectrophotofluorometric determination of 7-chloro-2, 3-dihydro-1- methyl-5- phenyl-1h-1, 4-benzodiazepine (medazepam): Arzneimittel-Forschung Vol 19(5) May 1969, 740-741.
  • Lee, Y.-h. (1969). A pharmacological and physiological study of gastric secretion in the Sprague-Dawley rat: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lekar, P. G., & et al. (1970). On the role of hepatic puncture biopsy in the diagnosis of hepatocerebral diseases: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii Vol 70(3) 1970, 345-351.
  • Leon-Sanchez, R., Palafox, G. P., & Garcia, K. B. (2005). Children's ideas about the digestive process: Revista Mexicana de Psicologia Vol 22(1) Jun 2005, 137-158.
  • Lesnoff-Caravaglia, G. (2007). Age-Related Changes Within Biological Systems: Circulatory, Respiratory, and Digestive. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher.
  • Levine, R. J., & Senay, E. C. (1970). Studies on the role of acid in the pathogenesis of experimental stress ulcers: Psychosomatic Medicine 32(1) 1970, 61-65.
  • Levitsky, D. A. (1969). Feeding patterns and the regulation of food intake: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Levy, N., & Turner, D. R. (1969). Novelty as a basis for the reinforcing effects of saccharine: Psychonomic Science Vol 15(3) 1969, 133-134.
  • Linich, E. P. (1970). Influence of several adrenergic preparations on the development of experimental neurodystrophies in the gastric wall in rats: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya Vol 33(1) 1970, 69-71.
  • Lipton, J. M., & Marotto, D. R. (1969). Effects of desalivation on behavioral thermoregulation against heat: Physiology & Behavior 4(5) 1969, 723-727.
  • Liss, J., & Sharma, C. N. (1970). Multi-generational dynamics in a case of ulcerative colitis: Psychiatric Quarterly Vol 44(3) Jul 1970, 461-475.
  • Lockard, J. S., Ehle, A. L., & Foltz, E. L. (1972). Diurnal variation of ileum motility in monkey during different feeding and avoidance-conditioning schedules: Physiology & Behavior Vol 8(2) Feb 1972, 195-200.
  • Loop, M. S. (1970). Effects of deprivation on the tongue flicking and orientation of young rat snakes to water: Psychonomic Science Vol 21(1) Oct 1970, 49-51.
  • Lozowski, S. Z. (1971). Effect of ascorbic acid, glutathione, and some aminoacids on adrenaline- and noradrenaline-induced motor reactions of the rabbit small intestine: Acta Physiologica Polonica Vol 22(2) 1971, 175-184.
  • Lundquist, F. (1971). Influence of ethanol on carbohydrate metabolism: A review: Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 32(1-A) Mar 1971, 1-12.
  • Luoma, P. (1971). Studies on drugs affecting the choledochoduodenal junction in rabbits: With special reference to the action of spasmolytic and analgesic drugs: Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica Vol 29(Suppl 1) 1971, 55.
  • MacKinnon, R. C. (1969). Discrimination and maze learning associated with tapeworm and diets in rats: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Maevskaya, N. V. (1968). Influence of repeated emotional reactions of various duration on gastric secretion in dogs: Putilin, N I (Ed) (1968) Fiziologicheskoe obosnovanie rezhimov deyatel'nosti.
  • Maidanova, N. V. (1970). Hepatic and erythrocytic transketolase activity in rats under the action of sound: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny Vol 69(2) 1970, 47-49.
  • Maisaia, V. R., Kharazishvili, G. D., Bak'radze, G. A., & Jalaghonia, E. K. (1968). On morphological changes in several digestive organs in acute intracranial trauma: Sak'art'velos SSR Mets'nierebat'a Akademiis Moambe 50(3) 1968, 759-764.
  • Makarenko, Y. A. (1969). Features of the central mechanisms of the autonomic reactions in self-stimulation. Oxford, England: Meditsina.
  • Makovskaya, V. A., & Tkachenko, B. I. (1969). On the mechanism of vasomotor reactions, arising in the abdominal organs on stimulation of the vagus nerves: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 55(3) 1969, 345-350.
  • Markosyan, A. A. (1967). Transactions of the 7th Scientific Conference on Ontological Morphology, Physiology and Biochemistry. Oxford, England: Prosveshchenie.
  • Markov, K. M., & Bankova, V. V. (1968). On the role of the central nervous system in regulation of lipid metabolism in rabbits: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(3) 1968, 375-379.
  • Matrosova, E. M. (1968). Influence of drainage of bile from the duodenal intestine on the motility and secretory activity of the stomach: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(12) 1968, 1449-1456.
  • Matrosova, E. M. (1968). Influence of isolation of the pylorus on issue of the bile into the duodenum: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(1) 1968, 81-89.
  • Mayer, J. (1970). Some aspects of the problem of regulating food intake and obesity: International Psychiatry Clinics Vol 7(1) 1970, 255-334.
  • Mayer, O., & Michalek, H. (1971). Effects of DFP and obidoxime on brain acetylcholine levels and on brain and peripheral cholinesterases: Biochemical Pharmacology Vol 20(11) Nov 1971, 3029-3037.
  • Mei, N. (1994). Role of digestive afferents in food intake regulation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Meiselman, H. L., & Halpern, B. P. (1970). Effects of Gymnema sylvestre on complex tastes elicited by amino acids and sucrose: Physiology & Behavior Vol 5(12) Dec 1970, 1379-1384.
  • Mekhedova, A. Y. (1969). Pharmacological regulation of formation of a probability stereotype in dogs (acephane effects): Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 19(2) 1969, 366-368.
  • Mel'man, E. P., Maslennikova, L. D., & Atamanchuk, E. I. (1970). An experiment in the mathematical analysis of the capillary-neurocellular relationships in intestinal autonomic ganglia: Vestnik Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR Vol 25(2) 1970, 56-62.
  • Mel'nikov, V. P. (1969). On the role of the vagus nerves in regulating the bile-expelling action of bile and bile acids: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 55(7) 1969, 874-879.
  • Mendelson, J., & Zec, R. (1972). Effects of lingual denervation and desalivation on airlicking in the rat: Physiology & Behavior Vol 8(4) Apr 1972, 711-714.
  • Mendelson, J., Zec, R., & Chillag, D. (1972). Effects of desalivation on drinking and air licking induced by water deprivation and hypertonic saline injections: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 80(1) Jul 1972, 30-42.
  • Messing, R. B., & Campbell, B. A. (1971). Dissociation of arousal and regulatory behaviors induced by hypertonic and hypovolemic thirst: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 76(2) Aug 1971, 305-310.
  • Messing, R. B., & Campbell, B. A. (1971). Effect of nonnutritive bulk and food deprivation on wheel-running of vagotomized rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 77(3) Dec 1971, 403-405.
  • Mezinskis, J., Gliner, J., & Shemberg, K. (1971). Somatic response as a function of no signal, random signal, or signaled shock with variable or constant durations of shock: Psychonomic Science Vol 25(5) Dec 1971, 271-272.
  • Michell, A. R. (1970). Biochemical observations on spontaneous salt appetite in sheep: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association 5(Pt 1) 1970, 211-212.
  • Mikhail, A., & Hirschberg, J. (1972). Ulceration in the rat's forestomach: Its reduction by non-nutritive bulky substances: Physiology & Behavior Vol 8(4) Apr 1972, 769-770.
  • Mikhail, A. A. (1969). Genetic predisposition to stomach ulceration in emotionally reactive strains of rats: Psychonomic Science Vol 15(5) 1969, 245-247.
  • Mikhail, A. A. (1969). Relationship of conditioned anxiety to stomach ulceration and acidity in rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 68(4) Aug 1969, 623-626.
  • Mikhail, A. A. (1971). Effects of acute and chronic stress situations on stomach acidity in rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 74(1, Pt 1) Jan 1971, 23-27.
  • Mirzoyan, S. A., & Nazaretyan, R. A. (1968). Influence of quateron on the histaminopexic capacity of the gastric wall in dystrophy: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 65(2) 1968, 55-58.
  • Mirzoyan, S. A., Nazaretyan, R. A., & Sarkisyan, A. M. (1969). Catecholamine content in different parts of the stomach in experimental dystrophy and with the use of quateron: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya 32(3) 1969, 301-304.
  • Mirzoyan, S. A., & Virabyan, T. L. (1969). Analysis of quateron action on the level of adrenaline and noradrenaline in the different layers of the stomach: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 68(10) 1969, 56-58.
  • Mogendovich, M. R. (1968). Motor-visceral reflexes in physiology and the clinic. Oxford, England: Perm Medical Inst.
  • Montgomery, R. L., & Berkut, M. K. (1970). A morphological study of viscera in aged rats with lesions in the limbic system: Physiology & Behavior Vol 5(9) Sep 1970, 989-992.
  • Mook, D. G., & Yoo, D. K. (1991). Inhibition of sham feeding by hyperosmotic gastric infusions in rat: Psychobiology Vol 19(4) Dec 1991, 359-364.
  • Moot, S. A., Cebulla, R. P., & Crabtree, J. M. (1970). Instrumental control and ulceration in rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 71(3) Jun 1970, 405-410.
  • Mordovtsev, A. I. (1968). The influence of chlorophos and sevine on the periodic motor activity of the stomach: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya 31(6) 1968, 720-721.
  • Mukhina, A. P. (1968). Motor activity of the gastro-intestinal tract in dogs in experimental renal hypertonia: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 66(7) 1968, 49-50.
  • Mustafina, T. K. (1970). Antihistamine properties of several cholinolytic agents: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya Vol 33(1) 1970, 28-31.
  • Musty, R. E., & Chipault, J. R. (1971). Behavioral effects of fats in the diets of male weanling rats: T -I -T Journal of Life Sciences Vol 1(2) Jun 1971, 59-65.
  • Nazaretyan, R. A. (1968). Changes in the system of acetylcholine-cholinesterase and ATP-ATP-ase in the stomach wall during its experimental dystrophy and in the course of its treatment with ganglioblocking agents: Ek'sperimental ev Klinikakan Bzhshkowt'yan Handes 8(3) 1968, 21-26.
  • Nazaretyan, R. A. (1969). The influence of benzofuran derivatives on several functions of the stomach in the normal state and in experimental ulceration: Ek'sperimental ev Klinikakan Bzhshkowt'yan Handes 9(2) 1969, 18-26.
  • Nesen, K. I. (1969). Some mechanisms underlying the action of pituitrin and oxytocin on motor activity of the digestive tract: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 55(4) 1969, 486-490.
  • Netesin, G. V. (1969). Electrophysiological study of duodenal motor activity before and after a stomach operation: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 68(9) 1969, 32-35.
  • Neville, H. E., & Chase, H. P. (1971). Undernutrition and cerebellar development: Experimental Neurology Vol 33(3) Dec 1971, 485-497.
  • Nicolaidis, S. (1969). Early systemic response to orogastic stimulations in regulation of food and water balance: Functional and electrophysiological data: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 157(2) 1969, 1176-1200.
  • Nicolaidis, S. (1971). Parenteral alimentation and regulation of energy balance in rat: Physiology & Behavior Vol 7(6) Dec 1971, 939-940.
  • Niijima, A. (1969). Afferent impulse discharges from glucoreceptors in the liver of the guinea pig: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 157(2) 1969, 690-700.
  • Nikitina, A. A., Filaretova, L. P., Egorova, V. V., & Timofeeva, N. M. (1994). The activity of digestive enzymes in digestive and nondigestive organs under stress: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR im I M Sechenova Vol 80(5) May 1994, 67-74.
  • Noble, P., & Lader, M. (1971). Salivary secretion and depressive illness: A physiological and psychometric study: Psychological Medicine Vol 5(1) Nov 1971, 372-376.
  • Norman, A. (1969). Response contingency and human gastric acidity: Psychophysiology 5(6) 1969, 673-682.
  • Nunez, F., & Banet, E. (1996). Conceptual models on the relation of digestion, respiration and circulation: Ensenanza de las Ciencias Revista de investigacion y experiencias didacticas Vol 14(3) Nov 1996, 261-278.
  • Oatley, K., & Toates, F. M. (1969). The passage of food through the gut of rats and its uptake of fluid: Psychonomic Science Vol 16(5) 1969, 225-226.
  • Ockel, H. H. (1968). On the beginning of structure development in psychogenic bodily symptoms in early childhood: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie 17(8) 1968, 279-283.
  • Oleinik, A. N. (1969). Influence of adrenaline, noradrenaline and ephedrine on the tonus of the terminal apparatus of the common biliary canal: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya 32(1) 1969, 73-75.
  • Oren, B. G. (1969). Stress-related gastrointestinal dysfunction and combined antidepressant-tranquilizer therapy: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry 10(4) 1969, 258-263.
  • Pangborn, R. M., Chrisp, R. B., & Bertolero, L. L. (1970). Gustatory, salivary, and oral thermal responses to solutions of sodium chloride at four temperatures: Perception & Psychophysics 8(2) 1970, 69-75.
  • Panksepp, J. (1971). Effects of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates on food intake in rats: Psychonomic Monograph Supplements Vol 4(5) 1971, 85-95.
  • Panksepp, J., & Booth, D. A. (1971). Decreased feeding after injections of amino-acids into the hypothalamus: Nature Vol 233(5318) Oct 1971, 341-342.
  • Panksepp, J., Tonge, D., & Oatley, K. (1972). Insulin and glucostatic control of feeding: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 78(2) Feb 1972, 226-232.
  • Paradis, S., Philippe, E., & Cabanac, M. (2007). Does intestinal absorption participate in the ponderostat? : Physiology & Behavior Vol 90(4) Mar 2007, 664-668.
  • Pare, W. P. (1968). Effect of duration of environmental stress on stomach ulceration and adrenal ascorbic acid: Psychological Reports 23(3, Pt 1) 1968, 683-688.
  • Pare, W. P. (1971). Six-hour escape-avoidance work shift and production of stomach ulcers: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 74(3) Mar 1971, 459-466.
  • Pare, W. P. (1972). Conditioning and avoidance responding effects on gastric secretion in the rat with chronic fistula: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 80(1) Jul 1972, 150-162.
  • Pare, W. P., & Livingston, A., Jr. (1970). Brain norepinephrine and stomach ulcers in rats exposed to chronic conflict: Physiology & Behavior 5(2) 1970, 215-220.
  • Pavlov, I. P., & Thompson, W. H. (1997). Excerpts from The Work of the Digestive Glands: American Psychologist Vol 52(9) Sep 1997, 936-940.
  • Pennington, S. N., Chattopadhyay, S. K., & Brown, H. D. (1970). A possible pathway for ethanol-induced fatty liver and modification of liver injury by antioxidants: Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 31(1-A) Mar 1970, 13-19.
  • Peters, R. H., & Kent, M. A. (1970). Preoptic temperature during oral and intragastric feeding: Psychonomic Science Vol 20(3) Aug 1970, 135-136.
  • Piersma, T., & Gill, R. E., Jr. (1998). Guts don't fly: Small digestive organs in obese Bar-tailed Godwits: Auk Vol 115(1) Jan 1998, 196-203.
  • Pierson, A., & Le Magnen, J. (1969). Quantitative study of regulatory processes of digestive responses in humans: Physiology & Behavior 4(1) 1969, 61-67.
  • Pliner, P. L. (1970). Internal regulation of food intake by normal and obese subjects as a function of various preloads: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Pogady, I., & et al. (1971). A contribution to the etiopathogenesis of disulfiram-alcoholic psychoses: Ceskoslovenska Psychiatrie Vol 67(1) Feb 1971, 8-13.
  • Poletaev, G. I. (1968). Influence of ablation of the pancreatic gland on the function of the neuromuscular conjunction in the frog: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(5) 1968, 596-602.
  • Popov, M. M., Vlasov, P. V., & Kir'yakov, M. A. (1968). Comparative data from the study of several motor processes in the digestive tract, making use of X-ray and window methods: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 65(4) 1968, 122-124.
  • Razvodovsky, Y. E. (2003). Aggregate Level Time Series Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Cancer Mortality Rate: Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions Vol 39(1) 2003, 11-20.
  • Reynier, M. (1970). A study of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition induced by pyrazol: I. In vivo action on ethanol and 2-phenylethanol: Agressologie Vol 11(5) 1970, 401-406.
  • Richardson, A. J. (1970). The role of the crop in the feeding behaviour of the domestic chicken: Animal Behaviour Vol 18(4) Nov 1970, 633-639.
  • Rivera-Calimlim, L., & et al. (1970). L-dopa treatment failure: Explanation and correction: BMJ: British Medical Journal Vol 4(5727) Oct 1970, 93-94.
  • Rizhinashvili, R. S. (1967). On the mechanism of activity of the salivary glands. Oxford, England: Metsniereba.
  • Roth, R. P. (1971). Gaseous air pollutants and the secreto-motor activities of the gastrointestinal tract: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Ruckebusch, Y., Grivel, M. L., & Fargeas, M. J. (1971). Electrical activity of the intestine and feeding associated with a visual conditioning in the rabbit: Physiology & Behavior Vol 6(4) Apr 1971, 359-365.
  • Russek, M. (1970). Demonstration of the influence of an hepatic glucosensitive mechanism on food-intake: Physiology & Behavior Vol 5(10) Oct 1970, 1207-1209.
  • Ryan, N. M. (1985). Schoolage children's ways of thinking about physiological phenomena: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sallows, G. O. (1980). Behavioral treatment of swallowing difficulty: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 11(1) Mar 1980, 45-47.
  • Samoilovich, I. M. (1968). On the mechanism of spontaneous relaxation of the smooth musculature under the action of stimulating substances: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 66(11) 1968, 6-9.
  • Samoshkin, N. P. (1968). On the functional interrelationships between the trophic and secretory processes in the pancreatic and salivary glands: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(8) 1968, 961-965.
  • Sandulyak, L. I. (1969). The influence of paranephric novocaine blockade on the concentration of zinc in the pancreas, on the histophysiology of its insular apparatus and on sensitivity to insulin in white rats: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 67(3) 1969, 60-63.
  • Saragnano, G., & Tedesco, I. (1989). The relationship between the physiology of the digestive tract and D. W. Bion's Alpha-Function theory: Psichiatria e Psicoterapia Analitica Vol 8(1) Apr 1989, 5-9.
  • Schapiro, H., Britt, L. G., Gross, C. W., & Gaines, K. J. (1971). Sensory deprivation on visceral activity: III. The effect of olfactory deprivation of canine gastric secretion: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 33(5) Sep 1971, 429-435.
  • Schapiro, H., & et al. (1970). Sensory deprivation on visceral activity: Ii. the effect of auditory and vestibular deprivation on canine gastric secretion: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 32(5) Sep 1970, 515-521.
  • Schapiro, H., Wruble, L. D., Britt, L. G., & Bell, T. A. (1970). Sensory deprivation on visceral activity: I. The effect of visual deprivation on canine gastric secretion: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 32(4) Jul 1970, 379-396.
  • Schmidt, K. M., Kangas, J. A., & Solomon, G. F. (1971). The effects of ethanol on the development of gastric ulceration in the rat: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 15(1) Mar 1971, 55-61.
  • Sclafani, A. (2001). Post-ingestive positive controls of ingestive behavior: Appetite Vol 36(1) Feb 2001, 79-83.
  • Seifert, A. M., Thomas, D. W., & Mayer, J. (1971). Operant performance of rats reared for short and long periods on nutritionally adequate diets varied in fat, carbohydrate, and protein content: Journal of General Psychology Vol 85(2) Oct 1971, 155-163.
  • Seligman, M. E., & Meyer, B. (1970). Chronic fear and ulcers in rats as a function of the unpredictability of safety: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 73(2) Oct 1970, 202-207.
  • Selivanova, L. N., & Vorob'eva, E. N. (1969). On the toxicology of ammonium perchlorate with its repeated action on the organism: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya 32(4) 1969, 480-482.
  • Sharapova, P. K. (1968). Influence of removal of the pancreatic gland and of cholinacetylase inhibitors on the posttetanic potentiation of neuromuscular transmission: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 66(10) 1968, 12-14.
  • Sharpe, L. G. (1969). Changes in ingestive behavior from chemical stimulation of the diencephalon in monkeys: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Shchukina, T. M. (1969). The influence of glycerine and glutaminic acid on the gastric secretory function: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 55(6) 1969, 745-750.
  • Shemberg, K., Green, P. C., & Gliner, J. (1970). A note on the effects of chlorpromazine upon ulceration in the rat: Psychonomic Science Vol 20(5) Sep 1970, 272-273.
  • Shidlovskii, V. A. (1969). The problem of the autonomic components of conditioned responses and unconditioned responses, motivations, and emotions. Oxford, England: Meditsina.
  • Shumake, R. A. (1970). Schedule-induced polydipsia: An analysis of licking patterns on VR, FR, and FFI food-reinforcement schedules: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Skakun, N. P. (1968). On the postcastrational parabiotic state of the liver in animals: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(12) 1968, 1457-1462.
  • Smith, D. F., Balagura, S., & Lubran, M. (1971). Antidotal thirst and lithium excretion in rats with hypothalamic lesions: Psychology & Behavior Vol 6(3) Mar 1971, 209-213.
  • Smith, R. M., & Hain, J. D. (1970). Relationship between somatization and effects of stress on electrogastric waveforms in humans: Psychological Reports Vol 27(3) Dec 1970, 755-765.
  • Snowdon, C. T. (1969). Motivation, regulation, and the control of meal parameters with oral and intragastric feeding: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 69(1) Sep 1969, 91-100.
  • Snowdon, C. T. (1970). Gastrointestinal sensory and motor control of food intake: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 71(1) Apr 1970, 68-76.
  • Snowdon, C. T., & Epstein, A. N. (1970). Oral and intragastric feeding in vagotomized rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 71(1) Apr 1970, 59-67.
  • Sobakin, M. A., & Todorov, D. P. (1968). Implantation of nonpolarizing electrodes for registration of ultraslow potentials of the gastrointestinal tract in chronic experiments: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 65(4) 1968, 120-122.
  • Sokur, V. D. (1969). Influence of stimulation of the hypothalamus and the structures of the limbic system on motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract in small ruminant animals: Problemy Fiziologii Gipotalamusa No 3 1969, 22-28.
  • Soldatenkov, P. F., Gorshkov, G. I., & Aristarkhova, L. N. (1969). Intermediate metabolism of sugar and volatile fatty acids in sheep with exclusion of autonomic innervation at the level of the N-cholinoreactive systems: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR Vol 55(10) Oct 1969, 1288-1292.
  • Solov'ev, V. S. (1969). On the influence of phenyl-alpha-alanine on the bile-producing function of the liver: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 55(4) 1969, 496-500.
  • Solv'ev, V. S. (1968). On the influence of glycine on the bile-producing function of the liver: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(3) 1968, 357-360.
  • Sone, Y., Hyun, K. J., Nishimura, S., Lee, Y.-A., & Tokura, H. (2003). Effects of dim or bright-light exposure during the daytime on human gastrointestinal activity: Chronobiology International Vol 20(1) 2003, 123-133.
  • Sonina, R. S. (1968). Changes in systemic and regional vasomotor reflexes from the receptor zone of the small intestine after anemic exclusion of the brain: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(5) 1968, 568-576.
  • Spence, D. P. (1970). Human and computer attempts to decode symptom language: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 32(6) Nov 1970, 615-625.
  • Sprince, H. (1970). An appraisal of methionine-tryptophan interrelationships in mental illness: Methylation reactions involved: Biological Psychiatry Vol 2(2) Apr 1970, 109-117.
  • Steffens, A. B. (1969). Rapid absorption of glucose in the intestinal tract of the rat after ingestion of a meal: Physiology & Behavior 4(5) 1969, 829-832.
  • Stephan, F. K. (2002). The "Other" circadian system: Food as a zeitgeber: Journal of Biological Rhythms Vol 17(4) Aug 2002, 284-292.
  • Sterescu-Volanschi, M., & Floru, R. (1970). Effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD25) on short-term memory in cat: Revue Roumaine de Physiologie Vol 7(3) 1970, 225-234.
  • Sterman, M. B., Wyrwicka, W., & Roth, S. (1969). Electrophysiological correlates and neural substrates of alimentary behavior in the cat: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 157(2) 1969, 723-739.
  • Stovichek, G. V., Nikulin, V. M., & Zelenkov, R. I. (1970). Some morphological criteria of afferent cerebrospinal innervation of the internal organs: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny Vol 69(3) 1970, 113-116.
  • Stricker, E. M. (1971). Effects of hypovolemia and/or caval ligation on water and NaCl solution drinking by rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 6(4) Apr 1971, 299-305.
  • Strzyzewski, W. (1970). The value of water-loading test in pitressin hydration method as a clinical-electroencephalographic test in epilepsy: Polish Medical Journal Vol 9(4) 1970, 996-1003.
  • Stunkard, A. J., & Fox, S. (1971). The relationship of gastric motility and hunger: A summary of the evidence: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 33(2) Mar 1971, 123-134.
  • Sudakov, K. V. (1969). Role of the cortical-subcortical mechanisms of alimentary motivation in the functional system of nutrition. Oxford, England: Meditsina.
  • Sukhinina, G. P. (1968). Pharmacological properties of noscapine: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya 31(6) 1968, 702-705.
  • Sukhodolo, V. D. (1969). Role of the parasympathetic nerves in regulation of the periodic salivary outflow in dogs: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 67(3) 1969, 13-16.
  • Suvorov, V. V. (1971). Changes in alimentary conditioned reflexes induced by stimulation of cholinoreactive structures of the globus pallidus in dogs: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 21(3) May 1971, 465-471.
  • Szantay, I., & Szirmai, E. (1970). 35S-methionine incorporation in liver proteins on the rat under stress induced by restraint: Agressologie Vol 11(5) 1970, 427-430.
  • Tabolin, V. A., Fadeeva, M. A., Deshchekina, M. F., & Efimov, M. S. (1970). On the pathogenesis of so-called protracted physiological jaundice in neonates: Pediatriya Vol 49(3) 1970, 11-17.
  • Tagiev, S. K. (1969). Interoceptive influences on the electroencephalogram of animals at different phylogenetic levels: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 19(1) 1969, 149-155.
  • Talalaenko, A. N. (1969). On the nature of the increase in sensitivity of smooth muscles to acetylcholine under the influence of catecholamines and serotonin: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 68(9) 1969, 13-16.
  • Tank, L. I., Yusipov, V. S., Zherebchenko, P. G., & Zaitseva, T. G. (1969). Influence of sulfur-containing radioprotective agents and indolylalkylamines on the evacuative function of the stomach: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya 32(4) 1969, 456-460.
  • Tatevosyan, A. T. (1969). Level of total and free histamine and the histaminopexic activity of the mucosa of different regions of the stomach and duodenum in the normal and pathological states: Ek'sperimental ev Klinikakan Bzhshkowt'yan Handes 9(2) 1969, 27-31.
  • Ter-Akopyan, V. A., & Egiazaryan, V. G. (1969). Motor-evacuatory activity of antiperistaltically engaged portions of the intestine after extensive resection of the large intestine: Ek'sperimental ev Klinikakan Bzhshkowt'yan Handes 9(2) 1969, 49-52.
  • Thetford, W. N., & Schucman, H. (1968). Personality patterns in migraine and ulcerative colitis patients: Psychological Reports 23(3, Pt 2) 1968, 1206.
  • Thuret, F., Lamothe, C., & Laborit, H. (1970). In vivo and vitro effect of N-morpholino-3-ethylamino-4-methyl-6-phenylpyridazine (Agr 620) on rat liver and brain mitochondria monoamine oxidase: Agressologie Vol 11(5) 1970, 417-420.
  • Tkhyong, N. (1969). On the mechanism of steady secretion of gastric juice in lower simians when the stomach is empty: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR Vol 55(9) Sep 1969, 1132-1135.
  • Tobach, E., & et al. (1966). Digestive transit time and open-field behavior of rats: Physiology & Behavior 1(2) 1966, 125-131.
  • Todd, T. W., & Rowlands, M. E. (1930). Studies in the alimentary canal of man. VI. Emotional interferences in gastric behavior patterns: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 10(2) Apr 1930, 167-188.
  • Toner, B. B., & Casati, J. (2002). Diseases of the digestive system. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Tsarikov, N. N., Vil'-Vil'yams, I. A., & Sobakin, M. A. (1968). A rheographic technique for the study of gastric motor activity in birds: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(7) 1968, 862-863.
  • Udalova, G. P. (1968). Influence of chemical stimulation of the small intestinal receptors on electrical activity of the hypothalamus and motor region of the rat cerebral cortex: Nervnaya Sistema No 9 1968, 103-108.
  • Udalova, G. P. (1968). On participation of the hypothalamus in the activity of the viscerochemical analyzer: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti 18(6) 1968, 1066-1068.
  • Udalova, G. P. (1969). Influence of extirpation of certain hypothalamic nuclei on viscerochemical conditioned reflexes: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 19(2) 1969, 360-362.
  • Vakolyuk, N. I. (1968). On the interrelationships between the motor, secretory and trophic components of the alimentary reflex: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(1) 1968, 68-72.
  • Vakolyuk, N. I. (1968). On the trophic component of the alimentary reflex reaction: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(6) 1968, 728-732.
  • Vakolyuk, N. I. (1968). On the trophic component of the alimentary reflex under prolonged alimentary stimulation: Putilin, N I (Ed) (1968) Fiziologicheskoe obosnovanie rezhimov deyatel'nosti.
  • Van Hemel, S. B., & Myer, J. S. (1969). Feeding patterns and response to caloric dilution in the Japanese quail: Physiology & Behavior 4(3) 1969, 339-344.
  • Vorob'eva, N. M. (1968). Influence of stimulation of the interoceptors of the ileocecal region on the motor activity of the large intestine: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 65(6) 1968, 13-16.
  • Vorob'eva, N. M. (1968). Interotseptivnye vliyaniya s zheludka na motornuyu deyatel'nost' tolstogo kishechnika: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 54(9) 1968, 1090-1093.
  • Vorob'eva, N. M. (1968). On the motor function of the large intestine on stimulation of the receptors of the duodenal intestine: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 66(9) 1968, 11-13.
  • Vorob'eva, N. M. (1970). Pathways for transmission of duodenal receptor action on the motor activity of the large intestine: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny Vol 69(1) 1970, 13-16.
  • Walike, B. C., Jordan, H. A., & Stellar, E. (1969). Studies of eating behavior: Nursing Research 18(2) 1969, 108-113.
  • Webb, C. H., & McBurney, D. H. (1971). Salivary habituation: Quantitative similarities to sensory adaptation: American Journal of Psychology Vol 84(4) Dec 1971, 501-512.
  • Weiss, I. P. (1970). Nutritional and non-nutritional factors underlying food-deprivation-polydipsia in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Weiss, J. M. (1971). Effects of coping behavior in different warning signal conditions on stress pathology in rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 77(1) Oct 1971, 1-13.
  • Weiss, J. M. (1971). Effects of coping behavior with and without a feedback signal on stress pathology in rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 77(1) Oct 1971, 22-30.
  • Weiss, J. M. (1971). Effects of punishing the coping response (conflict) on stress pathology in rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 77(1) Oct 1971, 14-21.
  • Weiss, J. M. (1972). Psychological factors in stress and disease: Scientific American Vol 226(6) Jun 1972, 104-113.
  • Wiepkema, P. R. (1971). Positive feedbacks at work during feeding: Behaviour Vol 39(2-4) 1971, 266-273.
  • Wijsenbeek, H., Maoz, B., Nitzan, I., & Gill, R. (1968). Ulcerative colitis: Psychiatric and psychological study of 22 patients: Psychiatria, Neurologia, Neurochirurgia Vol 71(5) Sep 1968, 409-420.
  • Wilcove, W. G. (1973). The effect of the oral environment on ingestive behavior through the process of gustatory adaptation: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Winer, D. (1970). A test of the Malmo activation hypothesis: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Wyrwicka, W. (1969). Sensory regulation of food intake: Physiology & Behavior 4(5) 1969, 853-858.
  • Yakimovsky, A. F., & Bobrova, I. V. (1992). The influence of LEU-enkephalin and its tetrapeptide analogue chronic microinjection into dog caudate nucleus on the alimentary conditioned reflexes' realization: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 42(2) Mar-Apr 1992, 378-380.
  • Yaksh, T. L. (1972). Neurochemical and neuroanatomical correlates of ingestive and thermoregulatory behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Yin, T. H. (1969). Nutritional and osmotic effects of intragastric dextrose administration on feeding in normal rats and rats with hypothalamic lesions: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Zabrodin, O. N. (1969). The influence of DOPA and reserpine on development of neurogenic dystrophy of the stomach: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya 32(5) 1969, 559-561.
  • Zabrodin, O. N. (1970). Influence of adrenergic agents on the development in rats of reserpine-induced ulcers of the gastric wall and on catecholamine level therein: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya Vol 33(1) 1970, 71-73.
  • Zafra, M. A., Molina, F., & Puerto, A. (2006). The neural/cephalic phase reflexes in the physiology of nutrition: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Vol 30(7) 2006, 1032-1044.
  • Zafra, M. A., Simon, M. J., Molina, F., & Puerto, A. (2002). The role of the external lateral parabrachial subnucleus in flavor preferences induced by predigested food administered intragastrically: Brain Research Vol 950(1-2) Sep 2002, 155-164.
  • Zagorodneva, A. G. (1968). The change in quantity of protein in gastric juice during the secretory process: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 65(2) 1968, 14-16.
  • Zahorik, D. M. (1972). Conditioned physiological changes associated with learned aversions to tastes paired with thiamine deficiency in the rat: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 79(2) May 1972, 189-200.
  • Zakirov, U. B., Makhsumov, S. M., & Teshabayev, D. Y. (1991). Effect of methacin on the activity of digestive enzymes involved in lipolysis under normal and stress conditions: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya Vol 54(3) May-Jun 1991, 39-41.
  • Zarkeshev, E. G., Kosubaeva, M. K., Nevidimov, M. G., & Dyusenbayev, A. R. (1986). Dogs' behavior in a situation of simplified conditioned choice: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 36(5) Sep-Oct 1986, 873-879.
  • Zavodskaya, I. S., Moreva, E. V., & Bul'on, V. V. (1969). Alteration of optic density of the mitochondria in the gastric mucosa and in the liver as a result of neurogenic dystrophies: Byulleten' Eksperimental'Noi Biologii i Meditsiny 67(2) 1969, 33-35.
  • Zec, R. F. (1978). Studies of nonnutritive reinforcers for water-deprived rats: Suppression of fluid intake, licking "in vacuo", and an oral-oropharyngeal gradient of reinforcement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Zil'berman, M. N. (1969). Formation of an intestinal fistula from a free segment of the small intestine by means of migrational plastic surgery in the omentum: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR Vol 55(10) Oct 1969, 1300-1301.


External linksEdit






Human organ systems
Cardiovascular system - Digestive system - Endocrine system - Immune system - Integumentary system - Lymphatic system - Muscular system - Nervous system - Skeletal system - Reproductive system - Respiratory system - Urinary system
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki