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In [[developmental psychology]], a '''stage''' is a distinct phase in an individual's development. Many theories in psychology characterize development in terms of stages:
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{{DevPsy}}
   
*[[Erik Erikson]]'s [[Erikson's stages of psychosocial development|stages of psychosocial development]] expanding on Freud's psychosexual stages, he defined eight stages that describes how individuals relate to their social world.
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{{main|Developmental stages}}
   
*[[James W. Fowler]]'s [[stages of faith development]] theory
 
   
*[[Sigmund Freud]]'s [[Psychosexual development|Psychosexual stages]] to describe the progression of an individual's unconscious desires.
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One of the major controversies in [[developmental psychology]] centres around whether development is continuous or discontinous<ref>White, F., Hayes, B., & Livesey, D. (2005). ''Developmental Psychology: From Infancy to Adulthood.'' NSW:Pearson Education Australia</ref>. Stage theories of development rest on the assumption that development is a discontinuous process involving distinct ''stages'' which are characterised by qualitative differences in behaviour <ref>Ibid.</ref>. Stage theories can be contrasted with continuous theories, which posit that development is a incremental process <ref>Ibid.</ref>.
   
*[[Lawrence Kohlberg]]'s [[Kohlberg's stages of moral development|stages of moral development]] to describe how individuals develop in reasoning about morals.
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There are many stage theories in developmental psychology including:
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*[[Jean Piaget]]'s [[theory of cognitive development]] described how children represent and reason about the world<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[Michael Commons]]' [[Model of hierarchical complexity|Model of Hierarchical Complexity]].
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*[[Erik Erikson]]'s [[Erikson's stages of psychosocial development|stages of psychosocial development]] expanded on Freud's psychosexual stages, he defined eight stages that describe how individuals relate to their social world <ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[James W. Fowler]]'s [[stages of faith development]] theory.
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*[[Sigmund Freud]]'s [[Psychosexual development|Psychosexual stages]] described the progression of an individual's unconscious desires.
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*[[Lawrence Kohlberg]]'s [[Kohlberg's stages of moral development|stages of moral development]] described how individuals developed moral reasoning.<ref>Kohlberg, L. (1987). ''The measurement of moral judgement.''Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.</ref>
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*[[Jane Loevinger]], [[Loevinger's stages of ego development|Stages of ego development]].
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*[[Margaret Mahler]]'s [[psychoanalytic developmental theory]] contained three phases regarding the child's [[object relations]].
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*[[James Marcia]]'s [[theory of identity achievement]] and four [[identity status]]es .
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*[[Maria Montessori]]'s [[sensitive periods]] of development.
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*[[Abraham Maslow]]'s [[Maslow's hierarchy of needs|Hierarchy of Needs]].<ref> Maslow, A.H. (1987). ''Motivation and personality'' (3rd ed.), New York: Harper & Row. </ref>
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*[[Clare W. Graves]]' [[Spiral Dynamics|Emergent Cyclic Levels of Existence Theory]].
   
*[[Jane Loevinger]], [[Loevinger's stages of ego development|Stages of ego development]]
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While some of these theories focus primarily on the healthy development of children, others propose stages that are characterized by a maturity rarely reached before old age.
   
*[[Margaret Mahler]]'s [[psychoanalysis|psychoanalytic]] developmental theory contained three phases regarding the child's [[object relations]].
 
   
*[[Jean Piaget]]'s [[theory of cognitive development]] to describe how children reason and interact with their surroundings.
 
   
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
   
 
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Latest revision as of 08:53, January 22, 2009

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Main article: Developmental stages


One of the major controversies in developmental psychology centres around whether development is continuous or discontinous[1]. Stage theories of development rest on the assumption that development is a discontinuous process involving distinct stages which are characterised by qualitative differences in behaviour [2]. Stage theories can be contrasted with continuous theories, which posit that development is a incremental process [3].

There are many stage theories in developmental psychology including:

While some of these theories focus primarily on the healthy development of children, others propose stages that are characterized by a maturity rarely reached before old age.


ReferencesEdit

  1. White, F., Hayes, B., & Livesey, D. (2005). Developmental Psychology: From Infancy to Adulthood. NSW:Pearson Education Australia
  2. Ibid.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Ibid.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Kohlberg, L. (1987). The measurement of moral judgement.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  7. Maslow, A.H. (1987). Motivation and personality (3rd ed.), New York: Harper & Row.


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