Ad blocker interference detected!
Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers
Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.
Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Color blindness, (also known as Dyschromatopsia) or color vision deficiency, in humans is the inability to perceive differences between some or all colors that other people can distinguish. It is most often of genetic nature, but may also occur because of eye, nerve, or brain damage, or due to exposure to certain chemicals. The English chemist John Dalton in 1798 published the first scientific paper on the subject, "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours", after the realization of his own color blindness; because of Dalton's work, the condition is sometimes called Daltonism, although this term is now used for a type of color blindness called deuteranopia.
Color blindness is usually classed as disability; however, in selected situations color blind people may have advantages over people with normal color vision. There is anecdotal evidence that color blind individuals are better at penetrating color camouflage and at least one scientific study confirms this under controlled conditions. Monochromats may have a minor advantage in dark vision, but only in the first five minutes of dark adaptation.
- Main article: Trichromatic color vision
The normal human retina contains two kinds of light sensitive cells: the rod cells (active in low light) and the cone cells (active in normal daylight). Normally, there are three kinds of cones, each containing a different pigment. The cones are activated when the pigments absorb light. The absorption spectra of the pigments differ; one is maximally sensitive to short wavelengths, one to medium wavelengths, and the third to long wavelengths (their peak sensitivities are in the blue, yellowish-green, and yellow regions of the spectrum, respectively). The absorption spectra of all three systems cover much of the visible spectrum, so it is not entirely accurate to refer to them as "blue", "green" and "red" receptors, especially because the "red" receptor actually has its peak sensitivity in the yellow. The sensitivity of normal color vision actually depends on the overlap between the absorption spectra of the three systems: different colors are recognized when the different types of cone are stimulated to different extents. For example, red light stimulates the long wavelength cones much more than either of the others, but the gradual change in hue seen, as wavelength reduces, is the result of the other two cone systems being increasingly stimulated as well.
Causes of color blindnessEdit
There are many types of color blindness. The most common are red-green hereditary (genetic) photoreceptor disorders, but it is also possible to acquire color blindness through damage to the retina, optic nerve, or higher brain areas. Higher brain areas implicated in color processing include the parvocellular pathway of the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, and visual area V4 of the visual cortex. Acquired color blindness is generally unlike the more typical genetic disorders. For example, it is possible to acquire color blindness only in a portion of the visual field but maintain normal color vision elsewhere. Some forms of acquired color blindness are reversible. Transient color blindness also occurs (very rarely) in the aura of some migraine sufferers.
The different kinds of inherited color blindness result from partial or complete loss of function of one or more of the different cone systems. When one cone system is compromised, dichromacy results. The most frequent forms of human color blindness result from problems with either the middle or long wavelength sensitive cone systems, and involve difficulties in discriminating reds, yellows, and greens from one another. They are collectively referred to as "red-green color blindness", though the term is an over-simplification and somewhat misleading. Other forms of color blindness are much more rare. They include problems in discriminating blues from yellows, and the rarest forms of all, complete color blindness or monochromacy, where one cannot distinguish any color from grey, as in a black-and-white movie or photograph.
Classification of color deficienciesEdit
- Inherited/congenital. There are three types of inherited or congenital color vision deficiencies: monochromacy, dichromacy, and anomalous trichromacy.
- Monochromacy, also known as "total color blindness", is the lack of ability to distinguish colors; caused by cone defect or absence. Monochromacy occurs when two or all three of the cone pigments are missing and color and lightness vision is reduced to one dimension.
- Rod monochromacy (achromatopsia) is a rare, nonprogressive inability to distinguish any colors as a result of absent or nonfunctioning retinal cones. It is associated with light sensitivity (photophobia), involuntary eye oscillations (nystagmus), and poor vision.
- Cone monochromacy is a rare, total color blindness that is accompanied by relatively normal vision, electoretinogram, and electrooculogram.
- Dichromacy is a moderately severe color vision defect in which one of the three basic color mechanisms is absent or not functioning. It is hereditary and sex-linked, affecting predominantly males. Dichromacy occurs when one of the cone pigments is missing and color is reduced to two dimensions.
- Protanopia is a severe type of color vision deficiency caused by the complete absence of red retinal photoreceptors. It is a form of dichromatism in which red appears dark. It is congenital, sex-linked, and present in 1% of all males.
- Deuteranopia is a color vision deficiency, in which the green retinal photoreceptors are absent, moderately affecting red-green hue discrimination in 1% of all males. It is a form of dichromatism in which there are only two cone pigments present. It is hereditary and sex-linked.
- Tritanopia is an exceedingly rare color vision disturbance in which there are only two cone pigments present and a total absence of blue retinal receptors.
- Anomalous trichromacy is a common type of congenital color vision deficiency, occuring when one of the three cone pigments is altered in its spectral sensitivity. This results in an impairment, rather than loss, of trichromacy (normal three-dimensional color vision).
- Protanomaly is a mild color vision defect in which an altered spectral sensitivity of red retinal receptors (closer to green receptor response) results in poor red-green hue discrimination. It is congenital, sex-linked, and present in 1% of all males.
- Deuteranomaly, caused by a similar shift in the green retinal receptors, is the most common type of color vision deficiency, mildly affecting red-green hue discrimination in 5% of all males. It is hereditary and sex-linked.
- Tritanomaly is a rare, hereditary color vision deficiency affecting blue-yellow hue discrimination.
By clinical appearanceEdit
Based on clinical appearance, color blindness may be described as total or partial. Total color blindness is much less common than partial color blindness. There are two major types of color blindness: those who have difficulty distinguishing between red and green, and those who have difficulty distinguishing between blue and yellow.
- Total color blindness
- Partial color blindness
- Dichromacy (protanopia and deuteranopia)
- Anomalous trichromacy (protanomaly and deuteranomaly)
- Dichromacy (tritanopia)
- Anomalous trichromacy (tritanomaly)
Congenital color vision deficienciesEdit
Congenital color vision deficiencies are subdivided based on the number of primary hues needed to match a given sample in the visible spectrum.
Monochromacy is the condition of possessing only a single channel for conveying information about color. Monochromats possess a complete inability to distinguish any colors and perceive only variations in brightness. It occurs in two primary forms:
- Rod monochromacy, frequently called achromatopsia, where the retina contains no cone cells, so that in addition to the absence of color discrimination, vision in lights of normal intensity is difficult. While normally rare, achromatopsia is very common on the island of Pingelap, a part of the Pohnpei state, Federated States of Micronesia, where it is called maskun: about 1/12 of the population there has it. The island was devastated by a storm in the 18th century, and one of the few male survivors carried a gene for achromatopsia; the population is now several thousand, of whom about 30% carry this gene.
- Cone monochromacy is the condition of having both rods and cones, but only a single kind of cone. A cone monochromat can have good pattern vision at normal daylight levels, but will not be able to distinguish hues. Blue cone monochromacy (X chromosome) is caused by a complete absence of L- and M-cones. It is encoded at the same place as red-green color blindness on the X chromosome. Peak spectral sensitivities are in the blue region of the visible spectrum (near 440 nm). They generally show nystagmus ("jiggling eyes"), photophobia (light sensitivity), reduced visual acuity, and myopia (nearsightedness).</blockquote> Visual acuity usually falls to the 20/50 to 20/400 range
Protanopes, deuteranopes, and tritanopes are dichromats; that is, they can match any color they see with some mixture of just two spectral lights (whereas normally humans are trichromats and require three lights). These individuals normally know they have a color vision problem and it can affect their lives on a daily basis. Protanopes and deuteranopes see no perceptible difference between red, orange, yellow, and green. All these colors that seem so different to the normal viewer appear to be the same color for this two percent of the population.
- Protanopia (1% of the males): Lacking the long-wavelength sensitive retinal cones, those with this condition are unable to distinguish between colors in the green-yellow-red section of the spectrum. They have a neutral point at a wavelength of 492 nm—that is, they cannot discriminate light of this wavelength from white. For the protanope, the brightness of red, orange, and yellow is much reduced compared to normal. This dimming can be so pronounced that reds may be confused with black or dark gray, and red traffic lights may appear to be extinguished. They may learn to distinguish reds from yellows and from greens primarily on the basis of their apparent brightness or lightness, not on any perceptible hue difference. Violet, lavender, and purple are indistinguishable from various shades of blue because their reddish components are so dimmed as to be invisible. E.g. Pink flowers, reflecting both red light and blue light, may appear just blue to the protanope. Very few people have been found who have one normal eye and one protanopic eye. These unilateral dichromats report that with only their protanopic eye open, they see wavelengths below the neutral point as blue and those above it as yellow. This is a rare form of color blindness.
- Deuteranopia(1% of the males): Lacking the medium-wavelength cones, those affected are again unable to distinguish between colors in the green-yellow-red section of the spectrum. Their neutral point is at a slightly longer wavelength, 498 nm. The deuteranope suffers the same hue discrimination problems as the protanope, but without the abnormal dimming. The names red, orange, yellow, and green really mean very little to him aside from being different names that every one else around him seems to be able to agree on. Similarly, violet, lavender, purple, and blue, seem to be too many names to use logically for hues that all look alike to him. This is one of the rarer forms of colorblindness making up about 1% of the male population, also known as Daltonism after John Dalton. (Dalton's diagnosis was confirmed as deuteranopia in 1995, some 150 years after his death, by DNA analysis of his preserved eyeball.) Deuteranopic unilateral dichromats report that with only their deuteranopic eye open, they see wavelengths below the neutral point as blue and those above it as yellow.
Those with protanomaly, deuteranomaly, or tritanomaly are trichromats, but the color matches they make differ from the normal. They are called anomalous trichromats. In order to match a given spectral yellow light, protanomalous observers need more red light in a red/green mixture than a normal observer, and deuteranomalous observers need more green. From a practical stand point though, many protanomalous and deuteranomalous people breeze through life with very little difficulty doing tasks that require normal color vision. Some may not even be aware that their color perception is in any way different from normal. The only problem they have is passing a color vision test.
Protanomaly and deuteranomaly can be readily observed using an instrument called an anomaloscope, which mixes spectral red and green lights in variable proportions, for comparison with a fixed spectral yellow. If this is done in front of a large audience of men, as the proportion of red is increased from a low value, first a small proportion of people will declare a match, while most of the audience sees the mixed light as greenish. These are the deuteranomalous observers. Next, as more red is added the majority will say that a match has been achieved. Finally, as yet more red is added, the remaining, protanomalous, observers will declare a match at a point where everyone else is seeing the mixed light as definitely reddish.
- Protanomaly (1% of males, 0.01% of females): Having a mutated form of the long-wavelength pigment, whose peak sensitivity is at a shorter wavelength than in the normal retina, protanomalous individuals are less sensitive to red light than normal. This means that they are less able to discriminate colors, and they do not see mixed lights as having the same colors as normal observers. They also suffer from a darkening of the red end of the spectrum. This causes reds to reduce in intensity to the point where they can be mistaken for black. Protanomaly is a fairly rare form of color blindness, making up about 1% of the male population.
- Deuteranomaly (most common - 6% of males, 0.4% of females): Having a mutated form of the medium-wavelength pigment. The medium-wavelength pigment is shifted towards the red end of the spectrum resulting in a reduction in sensitivity to the green area of the spectrum. Unlike protanomaly the intensity of colors is unchanged. This is the most common form of color blindness, making up about 6% of the male population. The deuteranomalous person is considered "green weak". Similar to the protanomates, deuteranomates are poor at discriminating small differences in hues in the red, orange, yellow, green region of the spectrum. They make errors in the naming of hues in this region because the hues appear somewhat shifted towards red. One very important difference between deuteranomalous individuals and protanomalous individuals is deuteranomalous individuals do not have the loss of "brightness" problem.
- Tritanomaly (equally rare for males and females): Having a mutated form of the short-wavelength (blue) pigment. The short-wavelength pigment is shifted towards the green area of the spectrum. This is the rarest form of anomalous trichromasy color blindness. Unlike the other anomalous trichromasy color deficiencies, the mutation for this color blindness is carried on Chromosome #7. Therefore it is equally prevalent in both male & female populations. The OMIM gene code for this mutation is 304000 “Colorblindness, Partial Tritanomaly”.
Clinical forms of color blindnessEdit
Total color blindnessEdit
Achromatopsia is strictly defined as the inability to see color. Although the term may refer to acquired disorders such as color agnosia and cerebral achromatopsia, it typically refers to congenital color vision disorders (i.e. more frequently rod monochromacy and less frequently cone monochromacy).
In color agnosia and cerebral achromatopsia, a person cannot perceive colors even though the eyes are capable of distinguishing them. Some sources do not consider these to be true color blindness, because the failure is of perception, not of vision. They are forms of visual agnosia.
Red-green color blindnessEdit
Those with protanopia, deuteranopia, protanomaly, and deuteranomaly have difficulty with discriminating red and green hues.
Genetic red-green color blindness affects men much more often than women, because the genes for the red and green color receptors are located on the X chromosome, of which men have only one and women have two. Such a trait is called sex-linked. Genetic females (46, XX) are red-green color blind only if both their X chromosomes are defective with a similar deficiency, whereas genetic males (46, XY) are color blind if their single X chromosome is defective.
The gene for red-green color blindness is transmitted from a color blind male to all his daughters who are heterozygote carriers and are perceptually unaffected. In turn, a carrier woman has a fifty percent chance of passing on a mutated X chromosome region to each of her male offspring. The sons of an affected male will not inherit the trait, since they receive his Y chromosome and not his (defective) X chromosome.
Because one X chromosome is inactivated at random in each cell during a woman's development, it is possible for her to have four different cone types, as when a carrier of protanomaly has a child with a deuteranomalic man. Denoting the normal vision alleles by P and D and the anomalous by p and d, the carrier is PD pD and the man is Pd. The daughter is either PD Pd or pD Pd. Suppose she is pD Pd. Each cell in her body expresses either her mother's chromosome pD or her father's Pd. Thus her red-green sensing will involve both the normal and the anomalous pigments for both colors. Such women are tetrachromats, since they require a mixture of four spectral lights to match an arbitrary light.
Blue-yellow color blindnessEdit
Those with tritanopia and tritanomaly have difficulty with discriminating blue and yellow hues.
Color blindness involving the inactivation of the short-wavelength sensitive cone system (whose absorption spectrum peaks in the bluish-violet) is called tritanopia or, loosely, blue-yellow color blindness. The tritanopes neutral point occurs at 570 nm; where green is perceived at shorter wavelengths and red at longer wavelengths. Mutation of the short-wavelength sensitive cones is called tritanomaly. Tritanopia is equally distributed among males and females. Jeremy H. Nathans (with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute) proved that the gene coding for the blue receptor lies on chromosome 7, which is shared equally by men and women. Therefore it is not sex-linked. This gene does not have any neighbor whose DNA sequence is similar. Blue color blindness is caused by a simple mutation in this gene (2006, Howard Hughes Medical Institute).
Color blindness affects a significant number of people, although exact proportions vary among groups. In Australia, for example, it occurs in about 8 percent of males and only about 0.4 percent of females. Isolated communities with a restricted gene pool sometimes produce high proportions of color blindness, including the less usual types. Examples include rural Finland, Hungary, and some of the Scottish islands. In the United States, about 7 percent of the male population - or 21 million men - and 0.4 percent of the female population either cannot distinguish red from green, or see red and green differently (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 2006). It has been found that more than 95 percent of all variations in human color vision involve the red and green receptors in male eyes. It is very rare for males or females to be "blind" to the blue end of the spectrum.
|Prevalence of color blindness|
|Overall (United States)||-||-||1.30%|||
|Red-green (Overall)||7 to 10%||-||-|||
|Rod monochromacy (no cones)||0.00001%||0.00001%||-|||
|Protanopia (L-cone absent)||1% to 1.3%||0.02%||-|||
|Deuteranopia (M-cone absent)||1% to 1.2%||0.01%||-|||
|Tritanopia (S-cone absent)||0.001%||0.03%||-|||
|Protanomaly (L-cone defect)||1.3%||0.02%||-|||
|Deuteranomaly (M-cone defect)||5.0%||0.35%||-|||
|Tritanomaly (S-cone defect)||0.0001%||0.0001%||-|||
The Ishihara color test, which consists of a series of pictures of colored spots, is the test most often used to diagnose red-green color deficiencies. A figure (usually one or more Arabic digits) is embedded in the picture as a number of spots in a slightly different color, and can be seen with normal color vision, but not with a particular color defect. The full set of tests has a variety of figure/background color combinations, and enable diagnosis of which particular visual defect is present. The anomaloscope, described above, is also used in diagnosing anomalous trichromacy.
However, the Ishihara color test is criticized for containing only numerals and thus not being useful for young children, who have not yet learned to use numerals. It is often stated that it is important to identify these problems as soon as possible and explain them to the children to prevent possible problems and psychological traumas. For this reason Dr. Terrace L. Waggoner developed the first alternative color vision test using only symbols (square, circle, car). Why he developed a color vision test for children can be found here .
Most clinical tests are designed to be fast, simple, and effective at identifying broad categories of color blindness. In academic studies of color blindness, on the other hand, there is more interest in developing flexible tests (, for example) to collect thorough datasets, identify copunctal points, and measure just noticeable differences.
Treatment and managementEdit
There is generally no treatment to cure color deficiencies, however, certain types of tinted filters and contact lenses may help an individual to distinguish different colors better. Additionally, software has been developed to assist those with visual color difficulties.
Design implications of color blindnessEdit
Color codes present particular problems for color blind people as they are often difficult or impossible for color blind people to understand.
Good graphic design avoids using color coding or color contrasts alone to express information, as this not only helps color blind people, but also aids understanding by normally sighted people. The use of Cascading Style Sheets on the world wide web allows pages to be given an alternative color scheme for color-blind readers. This color scheme generator helps a graphic designer see color schemes as seen by eight types of color blindness. For an example of a map that could present a significant problem to a color blind reader, see this graphic from a recent New York Times article. The typical red-green color blind reader will find the green sections of the map nearly indistinguishable from the orange, rendering the graphic unreadable.
Designers should take into account that color-blindness is highly sensitive to differences in materiality. For example, a red-green colorblind person that is incapable of distinguishing colors on a map printed on paper may have no such difficulty when viewing the map on a computer screen or television. In addition, some color blind people find it easier to distinguish problem colors on artificial materials, such as plastic or in acrylic paints, than on natural materials, such as paper or wood.
When the need to process visual information as rapidly as possible arises, for example in a train or aircraft crash, the visual system may operate only in shades of grey, with the extra information load in adding color being dropped. This is an important possibility to consider when designing, for example, emergency brake handles or emergency phones.
Due to this inability to recognize colors such as red and green, some countries (e.g., Singapore prior to the 1990s[How to reference and link to summary or text]) have refused to grant individuals with color blindness driving licenses.
Misconceptions and compensationsEdit
Color blindness is not the swapping of colors in the observer's eyes. Grass is never red, and stop signs are never green. The color impaired do not learn to call red "green" and vice versa. However, dichromats often confuse red and green items. For example, they find it difficult to distinguish a Braeburn from a Granny Smith or the red and green of a traffic light without other clues (for example, shape or location). This is demonstrated nicely in this simulation of the two types of apple as viewed by a trichromat or by a dichromat.
Color blindness almost never means complete monochromatism. In almost all cases, color blind people retain blue-yellow discrimination, and most color blind individuals are anomalous trichromats rather than complete dichromats. In practice this means that they often retain a limited discrimination along the red-green axis of color space although their ability to separate colors in this dimension is severely reduced.
It should also be noted that even though some persons can't see some or maybe even any of the numbers in (e.g. red-green) color blindness test, the person might still be able to tell the difference between the colors in his or her everyday life.
- ↑ Dalton J, 1798 "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours: with observations" Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester 5 28-45
- ↑ Morgan MJ, Adam A, Mollon JD. "Dichromats detect colour-camouflaged objects that are not detected by trichromats." Proc Biol Sci. 1992 Jun 22;248(1323):291-5. PMID 1354367.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 "Color Blindness." University of Illinois Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences. Accessed September 29, 2006.
- ↑ Kokotailo R, Kline D. "Congenital Colour Vision Deficiencies." University of Calgary, Department of Psychology, Vision & Aging Lab. Accessed September 29, 2006.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Guidelines: Color Blindness." Tiresias.org. Accessed September 29, 2006.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. Dictionary of Eye Terminology. Gainsville, Florida: Triad Publishing Company, 1990.
- ↑ Spring, Kenneth R., Matthew J. Parry-Hill; Thomas J. Fellers; Michael W. Davidson. Human Vision and Color Perception. Florida State University. URL accessed on 2007-04-05.
- ↑ Paul S. Hoffman. Accomodating Color Blindness. (PDF) URL accessed on 2007-04-05.
- ↑ Neitz, Maureen E., PhD. Severity of Colorblindness Varies. Medical College of Wisconsin. URL accessed on 2007-04-05.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Byrne A, Hilbert D. "A Glossary of Color Science." Originally published in Readings on Color, Volume 2: The Science of Color. (MIT Press, 1997). Accessed November 7, 2006.
- ↑ *Weiss AH, et al 1989. "Blue cone monochromatism" J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1989; 11: 315-7
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 Kalloniatis, Michael and Luu, Charles. Psychophysics of Vision: The Perception of Color. URL accessed on 2007-04-02.
- ↑ Montgomery, Ted M., O.D.. The Macula. URL accessed on 2007-04-02.
- ↑ Disease-causing Mutations and protein structure. UCL Biochemistry BSM Group. URL accessed on 2007-04-02.
- ↑ Colour blindness. Better Health Channel. URL accessed on 2007-04-02.
- Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, D.S. (1997). Readings on Color, Volume 2: The Science of Color, 2nd ed., Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-52231-4.
- Kaiser, Peter K.; Boynton, R.M. (1996). Human Color Vision, 2nd ed., Washington, DC: Optical Society of America. ISBN 1-55752-461-0.
- Wyszecki, Günther; Stiles, W.S. (2000). Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd edition, New York: Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 0-471-39918-3.
- McIntyre, Donald (2002). Colour Blindness: Causes and Effects, UK: Dalton Publishing. ISBN 0-9541886-0-8.
- Shevell, Steven K. (2003). The Science of Color, 2nd ed., Oxford, UK: Optical Society of America. ISBN 0-444-512-519.
- Adelson, E. H. (1978). Iconic storage: The role of rods: Science Vol 201(4355) Aug 1978, 544-546.
- Albert, M. L., Reches, A., & Silverberg, R. (1975). Hemianopic colour blindness: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 38(6) Jun 1975, 546-549.
- Alken, R. G. (1982). Drug-induced color vision deficiencies: From side effects to clinical pharmacology: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 467-476.
- Alken, R. G., & Schnabel, T. (1982). Color vision deficiencies induced by digoxin in healthy volunteers: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 477-485.
- Allen, D., Hess, R. F., & Nordby, K. (1998). Is the rod visual field temporally homogeneous? : Vision Research Vol 38(24) Dec 1998, 3927-3931.
- Alpern, M., Bastian, B., & Moeller, J. (1982). In search of the elusive long-wave fundamental: Vision Research Vol 22(6) 1982, 627-634.
- Baird, J. W. (1907). Review of Ein Fall von Grunblindheit (Deuteranopie) mit ungewohnlichen Komplikationen: Psychological Bulletin Vol 4(4) Apr 1907, 103-104.
- Baird, J. W. (1908). The problems of color-blindness: Psychological Bulletin Vol 5(9) Sep 1908, 294-300.
- Baker, H. D., & Donovan, W. J. (1982). Early dark adaptation, the receptor potential and lateral effects on the retina: Vision Research Vol 22(6) 1982, 645-651.
- Baraas, R. C., Foster, D. H., Amano, K., & Nascimento, S. M. C. (2006). Anomalous trichromats' judgments of surface color in natural scenes under different daylights: Visual Neuroscience Vol 23(3-4) May-Aug 2006, 629-635.
- Baron, M. (1977). Linkage between an X-chromosome marker (deutan color blindness) and bipolar affective illness: Occurrence in the family of a lithium carbonate-responsive schizo-affective proband: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 34(6) Jun 1977, 721-725.
- Baron, M. (1991). "X-chromosome markers and manic-depressive illness: Rejection of linkage to Xq28 in nine bipolar pedigrees": Comment: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 48(7) Jul 1991, 671-673.
- Baron, M., Rainer, J. D., & Risch, N. (1981). X-linkage in bipolar affective illness: Perspectives on genetic heterogeneity, pedigree analysis and the X-chromosome map: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 3(2) Jun 1981, 141-157.
- Baron, M., & Risch, N. (1982). X-linkage in affective and schizoaffective disorders: Genetic and diagnostic implications: Neuropsychobiology Vol 8(6) Nov-Dec 1982, 304-311.
- Baseler, H. A., Brewer, A. A., Sharpe, L. T., Morland, A. B., Jagle, H., & Wandell, B. A. (2002). Reorganization of human cortical maps caused by inherited photoreceptor abnormalities: Nature Neuroscience Vol 5(4) Apr 2002, 364-370.
- Bastian, B. L. (1977). Individual differences among the photopigments of protan observers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Basu, A. (1964). The frequency of color blindness in some population groups of Maharashtra (India): Annals of Human Genetics 28(2) 1964, 129-132.
- Benjamin, J., Press, J., Maoz, B., & Belmaker, R. H. (1993). Linkage of a normal personality trait to the color-blindness gene: Preliminary evidence: Biological Psychiatry Vol 34(8) Oct 1993, 581-583.
- Benzschawel, T. L. (1980). Postreceptor adaptation in normal and dichromatic observers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Berrettini, W. H., Gershon, E. S., Goldin, L. R., Gejman, P. V., & et al. (1991). "X-chromosome markers and manic-depressive illness: Rejection of linkage to Xq28 in nine bipolar pedigrees": Reply: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 48(7) Jul 1991, 673-675.
- Berrettini, W. H., Goldin, L. R., Gelernter, J., Gejman, P. V., & et al. (1990). X-chromosome markers and manic-depressive illness: Rejection of linkage to Xq28 in nine bipolar pedigrees: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 47(4) Apr 1990, 366-373.
- Best, R. H. (1963). "Colorblindness" distribution in Britain, France, and Japan: A review, with notes on selection relaxation: Eugenics Quarterly 10(3) 1963, 110-118.
- Bieber, M. L., Werner, J. S., Knoblauch, K., Neitz, J., & Neitz, M. (1998). M- and L-cones in early infancy: III. Comparison of genotypic and phenotypic markers of color vision in infants and adults: Vision Research Vol 38(21) Nov 1998, 3293-3297.
- Birch, J. (1984). The contribution of the City University test (1st and 2nd editions) in a clinical test laboratory: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 193-198.
- Birch, J. (1997). Efficiency of the Ishihara test for identifying red-green colour deficiency: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 17(5) Sep 1997, 403-408.
- Birch, J., Chamberlain, P., & Sheriff, F. A. (2001). A redesigned Farnsworth dichotomous B20 test: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S253-S255.
- Birch, J., & Dain, S. J. (1999). Performance of red-green color deficient subjects on the Farnsworth Lantern (FALANT): Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 70(1) Jan 1999, 62-67.
- Birch, J., & Hamon, L. (1984). Comments on the use of the Standard Pseudoisochromatic plates and the New Color Test of Lanthony: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 221-226.
- Birch, J., & McKeever, L. M. (1993). Survey of the accuracy of new pseudoisochromatic plates: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 13(1) Jan 1993, 35-40.
- Blackwell, L., & Kernaleguen, A. (1980). Men's fabric preferences related to age, inherent color vision, and perceptual disembedding ability: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 51(2) Oct 1980, 551-557.
- Bolle, F., & Krastel, H. (1984). A new pocket anomaloscope: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 289-293.
- Bollinger, K., Bialozynski, C., Neitz, J., & Neitz, M. (2001). The importance of deleterious mutations of M pigment genes as a cause of color vision defects: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S100-S105.
- Bonnardel, V. (2006). Color naming and categorization in inherited color vision deficiencies: Visual Neuroscience Vol 23(3-4) May-Aug 2006, 637-643.
- Bowman, K. J., Collins, M. J., & Henry, C. J. (1984). The effect of age on performance on the Panel D-15 and Desaturated D-15: A quantitative evaluation: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 227-231.
- Bradley, N. (1986). "Colour blindness": Further clinical notes on disillusion, countertransference and transference, with some relevant history: International Review of Psycho-Analysis Vol 13(1) 1986, 51-75.
- Breton, M. E., & Cowan, W. B. (1981). Deuteranomalous color matching in the deuteranopic eye: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 71(10) Oct 1981, 1220-1223.
- Brettel, H., Vienot, F., & Mollon, J. D. (1997). Computerized simulation of color appearance for dichromats: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 14(10) Oct 1997, 2647-2655.
- Burnham, R. W. (1954). Review of Individual differences in colour vision: Psychological Bulletin Vol 51(6) Nov 1954, 597-599.
- Carr, B. J. (1983). An experiment to discriminate between telepathy and clairvoyance using Ishihara cards and colour-blind agents: Journal of the Society for Psychical Research Vol 52(793) Feb 1983, 31-44.
- Carroll, J., Neitz, M., & Neitz, J. (2001). Testing hypotheses about visual pigments underlying deutan color vision: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S106-S111.
- Cavanagh, P., & Anstis, S. (1991). The contribution of color to motion in normal and color-deficient observers: Vision Research Vol 31(12) 1991, 2109-2148.
- Cavanagh, P., Henaff, M.-A., Michel, F., Landis, T., Troscianki, T., & Intriligator, J. (1998). Complete sparing of high-contrast color input to motion perception in cortical color blindness: Nature Neuroscience Vol 1(3) Jul 1998, 242-247.
- Cavonius, C. R., & Kammann, J. (1984). A clinical evaluation of the "OSCAR" color vision set: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 275-279.
- Cicerone, C. M., & Nerger, J. L. (1989). The density of cones in the fovea centralis of the human dichromat: Vision Research Vol 29(11) 1989, 1587-1595.
- Cobb, S. R. (1978). Red/green colour defect among the Roman Catholic and non-denominational population: Journal of Biosocial Science Vol 10(2) Apr 1978, 199-202.
- Cobb, S. R. (1980). Evidence for an effect by colour defect on personality: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 51(1) Aug 1980, 159-166.
- Cobb, S. R. (1981). Exchange threshold colorimeter and analytical anomaloscope of Class I and Class II subjects and colour defectives: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 53(2) Oct 1981, 523-544.
- Cohen, J. D., & Greenbaum, H. B. (1982). Asthenopia in normal and red-green color deficient observers: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 79-85.
- Cohn, S. A., Emmerich, D. S., & Carlson, E. A. (1989). Differences in the responses of heterozygous carriers of colorblindness and normal controls to briefly presented stimuli: Vision Research Vol 29(2) 1989, 255-262.
- Cole, B. L., Lian, K.-Y., & Lakkis, C. (2006). Color Vision Assessment: Fail Rates of Two Versions of the Farnsworth Lantern Test: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 77(6) Jun 2006, 624-630.
- Cole, B. L., Lian, K.-Y., & Lakkis, C. (2007). Using clinical tests of colour vision to predict the ability of colour vision deficient patients to name surface colours: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 27(4) Jul 2007, 381-388.
- Cole, G. G., Heywood, C., Kentridge, R., Fairholm, I., & Cowey, A. (2003). Attentional capture by colour and motion in cerebral achromatopsia: Neuropsychologia Vol 41(13) 2003, 1837-1846.
- Coleman, T. B., & Hamilton, W. F. (1933). Color blindness in the rat: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 15(1) Feb 1933, 177-181.
- Copeland, H. A. (1935). Occupational differences in color blindness: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 19(4) Aug 1935, 490-492.
- Corsino, B. V. (1985). Color blindness and Rorschach color responsivity: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 49(5) Oct 1985, 533-534.
- Cosgrove, L. A. (1980). Photopic mechanisms of adaptation in normal, deuteranomalous, and deuteranope observers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Cowey, A., & Heywood, C. A. (1995). There's more to colour than meets the eye: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 71(1-2) Nov 1995, 89-100.
- Cowey, A., & Heywood, C. A. (1997). Cerebral achromatopsia: Colour blindness despite wavelength processing: Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 1(4) Jul 1997, 133-139.
- Cowey, A., Heywood, C. A., & Irving-Bell, L. (2001). The regional cortical basis of achromatopsia: A study on macaque monkeys and an achromatopsic patient: European Journal of Neuroscience Vol 14(9) Nov 2001, 1555-1566.
- Crognale, M. A., Fry, M., Highsmith, J., Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G., Neitz, M., Neitz, J., et al. (2004). Characterization of a novel form of X-linked incomplete achromatopsia: Visual Neuroscience Vol 21(3) May-Jun 2004, 197-203.
- Crognale, M. A., Switkes, E., Rabin, J., Schneck, M. E., & et al. (1993). Application of the spatiochromatic visual evoked potential to detection of congenital and acquired color-vision deficiencies: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 10(8) Aug 1993, 1818-1825.
- Crognale, M. A., Teller, D. Y., Yamaguchi, T., Motulsky, A. G., & Deeb, S. S. (1999). Analysis of red/green color discrimination in subjects with a single X-linked photopigment gene: Vision Research Vol 39(4) Feb 1999, 707-719.
- Cronin-Golomb, A., Sugiura, R., Corkin, S., & Growdon, J. H. (1993). Incomplete achromatopsia in Alzheimer's disease: Neurobiology of Aging Vol 14(5) Sep-Oct 1993, 471-477.
- Cumberland, P., Rahi, J. S., & Peckham, C. S. (2004). Impact of congenital colour vision deficiency on education and unintentional injuries: Findings from the 1958 British birth cohort: BMJ: British Medical Journal Vol 329(7474) Nov 2004, 1074-1075.
- Cunningham, P. V., & Blum, G. S. (1982). Further evidence that hypnotically induced color blindness does not mimic congenital defects: Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol 91(2) Apr 1982, 139-143.
- Dain, S. J., & Adams, A. J. (1990). Comparison of the standard and Adams desaturated D-15 tests with congenital colour vision deficiencies: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 10(1) Jan 1990, 40-45.
- Dain, S. J., & Duffield, B. S. (1984). Spatial summation in dichromats: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 299-302.
- Dain, S. J., Gray, S., & Tran, L. (1998). Colorimetric analysis and performance assessment of the Hahn New Pseudoisochromatic Colour Vision Test: Color Research and Application Vol 23(2) Apr 1998, 69-77.
- Dain, S. J., & King-Smith, P. E. (1981). Visual threshold in dichromats and normals--the importance of post-receptoral processes: Vision Research Vol 21(4) 1981, 573-580.
- Dalton, J. (1948). Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours: with observations, 1798. East Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
- Dannenmaier, W. D. (1972). The effect of color perception on success in high school biology: Journal of Experimental Education Vol 41(2) Win 1972, 15-17.
- de Mattiello, M. L., Biondini, A., & Franco, H. (1984). Correlates between chromatic electrophysiological recordings and chromatic psychophysical functions in normal and abnormal observers: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 55-61.
- de Vries-de Mol, E. C., & Walraven, P. L. (1982). Analysis of the chromatic Stiles-Crawford effect of colour vision deficient observers: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 303-310.
- Deeb, S. S. (2004). Molecular genetics of color-vision deficiencies: Visual Neuroscience Vol 21(3) May-Jun 2004, 191-196.
- Deeb, S. S., & Motulsky, A. G. (1996). Molecular genetics of human color vision: Behavior Genetics Vol 26(3) May 1996, 195-207.
- Della Sala, S., Galante, E., Spinnler, H., & Stangalino, C. (1996). A screening test for neuropsychological color disorders: Normative data and reliability for a group of left brain-damaged patients: Archivio di Psicologia, Neurologia e Psichiatria Vol 57(4) Jul-Aug 1996, 327-342.
- DeMarco, P., Pokorny, J., & Smith, V. C. (1992). Full-spectrum cone sensitivity functions for X-chromosome-linked anomalous trichromats: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 9(9) Sep 1992, 1465-1476.
- Devos, M., Spileers, W., & Arden, G. (1996). Colour contrast thresholds in congenital colour defectives: Vision Research Vol 36(7) Apr 1996, 1055-1065.
- Devoss, J. C., & Ganson, R. (1915). Color blindness of cats: Journal of Animal Behavior Vol 5(2) Mar-Apr 1915, 115-139.
- Dimmick, F. L. (1945). Color vision: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 29(5) Oct 1945, 409.
- Dimmick, F. L. (1946). A color aptitude test, 1940 experimental edition: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 30(1) Feb 1946, 10-22.
- Dronamraju, K. R., & Meera Khan, P. (1963). Frequency of colour blindness among the tribal and non-tribal peoples of Andhra Pradesh: Annals of Human Genetics 27(1) 1963, 17-21.
- Dunlap, K. (1945). Defective color vision and its remedy: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 38(2) Apr 1945, 69-85.
- Dunlap, K. (1946). Reply to Elder's note on Dunlap's remedy for color vision: Psychological Bulletin Vol 43(4) Jul 1946, 375.
- Farrand, L. (1897). Proceedings of the fifth annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston, December, 1896: Psychological Review Vol 4(2) Mar 1897, 107-141.
- Feldman, E. (1991). "X-chromosome markers and manic-depressive illness: Rejection of linkage to Xq28 in nine bipolar pedigrees": Comment: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 48(7) Jul 1991, 673.
- Feldman, M., Todman, L., & Bender, M. B. (1974). "Flight of colours" in lesions of the visual system: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 37(11) Nov 1974, 1265-1272.
- Ferree, C. E., & Rand, G. (1917). Some areas of color blindness of an unusual type in the peripheral retina: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 2(4) Aug 1917, 295-303.
- Ferree, C. E., & Rand, G. (1918). A note on vision - General phenomena: Psychological Bulletin Vol 15(12) Dec 1918, 451-452.
- Fisher, C. J., & Simmonds, M. B. (1980). A note on the incidence of colourblindness in Cook Island males: New Zealand Psychologist Vol 9(1) May 1980, 34.
- Fite, W. (1904). The logic of the color-element theory: Psychological Bulletin Vol 1(13) Dec 1904, 455-464.
- Fletcher, R. (1982). Childrens' tests: Further applications: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 189-190.
- Fletcher, R. (1984). A revised Three-Light test: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 287.
- Forte, J. D., Blessing, E. M., Buzas, P., & Martin, P. R. (2006). Contribution of chromatic aberrations to color signals in the primate visual system: Journal of Vision Vol 6(2) 2006, 97-105.
- Franklin, C. L. (1895). Review of How Javal's Keratometer may be easily changed into a good Chromatometer for the Examination of Patients as to Color-Blindness: Psychological Review Vol 2(6) Nov 1895, 629.
- Franklin, C. L. (1897). Review of Action de la lumiere sur la retine, Zur theorie der farbenblindheit, Absorbtion und zersetzung des sehpurpurs bei den wirbeltiren, and Vergleichende untersuchungen uber raum,- licht- und farbensinn in centrum und peripherie der: Psychological Review Vol 4(1) Jan 1897, 93-96.
- Franklin, C. L. (1898). The new cases of total color blindness: Psychological Review Vol 5(5) Sep 1898, 503-505.
- Franklin, C. L. (1898). Review of Untersuchungen an total Farbenblinden: Psychological Review Vol 5(5) Sep 1898, 532-535.
- Franklin, C. L. (1900). Review of Ueber relativen absoluten Mangel des Farbensinnes: Psychological Review Vol 7(5) Sep 1900, 518-521.
- Frome, F. S., Piantanida, T. P., & Kelly, D. H. (1982). Psychophysical evidence for more than two kinds of cone in dichromatic color blindness: Science Vol 215(4531) Jan 1982, 417-419.
- Gainotti, G., Caltagirone, C., & Carecchi, S. (1974). A case of pure alexia with color anomia: Archivio di Psicologia, Neurologia e Psichiatria Vol 35(2) Apr-Jun 1974, 144-163.
- Gallo, P. G., Oliva, S., Lantieri, P. B., & Viviani, F. (2002). Colour blindness in Italian art high school students: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 95(3, Pt 1) Dec 2002, 830-834.
- Gallo, P. G., Panza, M., Lantieri, P. B., Risso, D., Conforti, G., Lagonia, P., et al. (2003). Some Psychological Aspects of Colour Blindness at School: A Field Study in Calabria and Basilicata (Southern Italy): Color Research and Application Vol 28(3) Jun 2003, 216-220.
- Gallo, P. G., Panza, M., Viviani, F., & Lantieri, P. B. (1998). Congenital dyschromatopsia and school achievement: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 86(2) Apr 1998, 563-569.
- Gardiner, P. (1977). Vision: Color blindness. A color vision test for young children and the handicapped: Journal of Learning Disabilities Vol 10(3) Mar 1977, 149-150.
- Gegenfurtner, K. R., Mayser, H., & Sharpe, L. T. (1999). Seeing movement in the dark: Nature Vol 398(6727) Apr 1999, 475-476.
- Gegenfurtner, K. R., Wichmann, F. A., & Sharpe, L. T. (1998). The contribution of color to visual memory in X-chromosome-linked dichromats: Vision Research Vol 38(7) Apr 1998, 1041-1045.
- Geri, G. A., & Neri, D. F. (1988). Validation of a solid-state anomaloscope used to assess red-green color vision defects: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers Vol 20(1) Feb 1988, 27-31.
- Gerling, J., Meigen, T., & Bach, M. (1997). Shift of equiluminance in congenital color vision deficiencies: Pattern-ERG, VEP and psychophysical findings: Vision Research Vol 37(6) Mar 1997, 821-826.
- Gershon, E. S. (1991). Marker genotyping errors in old data on X-linkage in bipolar illness: Biological Psychiatry Vol 29(7) Apr 1991, 721-729.
- Gershon, E. S., & Bunney, W. E. (1977). The question of X-linkage in bipolar manic-depressive illness: Journal of Psychiatric Research Vol 13(2) 1977, 99-117.
- Gershon, E. S., & et al. (1980). A collaborative study of genetic linkage of bipolar manic-depressive illness and red/green colorblindness: A project of the biological psychiatry collaborative program of the World Health Organization: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 61(4) Apr 1980, 319-338.
- Gershon, E. S., & Matthysse, S. (1977). X-linkage: Ascertainment through doubly ill probands: Journal of Psychiatric Research Vol 13(3) 1977, 161-168.
- Gershon, E. S., Targum, S. D., Matthysse, S. W., & Bunney, W. E. (1979). Color blindness not closely linked to bipolar illness: Report of a new pedigree series: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 36(13) Dec 1979, 1423-1430.
- Gnadt, G. R., & Amos, J. F. (1992). Dichromacy and its effect on a young male: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 63(7) Jul 1992, 475-480.
- Goodenough, D. R., & et al. (1977). A study of X chromosome linkage with field dependence and spatial visualization: Behavior Genetics Vol 7(5) Sep 1977, 373-387.
- Gregg, F. M., Jamison, E., Wilkie, R., & Radinsky, T. (1929). Are dogs, cats, and raccoons color blind? : Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 9(6) Dec 1929, 379-395.
- Grimsley, G. (1943). A study of individual differences in binocular color fusion: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 32(1) Jan 1943, 82-87.
- Gundogan, N. U., Durmazlar, N., Gumus, K., Ozdemir, P. G., & Altintas, A. G. (2005). Projected Color Slides As A Method For Mass Screening Test For Color Vision Deficiency (A Preliminary Study): International Journal of Neuroscience Vol 115(8) Aug 2005, 1105-1117.
- Gunther, K. L., Neitz, J., & Neitz, M. (2006). A novel mutation in the short-wavelength-sensitive cone pigment gene associated with a tritan color vision defect: Visual Neuroscience Vol 23(3-4) May-Aug 2006, 403-409.
- Hansen-Tybjerg, C. (1929). Differences in the talents and abilities of young people: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 13(5) Oct 1929, 451-468.
- Harburg, E., Gleibermann, L., & Ozgoren, F. (1982). Color blindness and alcohol use: Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 43(7) Jul 1982, 829-833.
- Harvey, M. A., & Sipprelle, C. N. (1978). Color blindness, perceptual interference, and hypnosis: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis Vol 20(3) Jan 1978, 189-193.
- Haupt, I. (1926). The Nela test for color blindness applied to school children: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 6(4) Aug 1926, 291-302.
- Hayashi, T., Kubo, A., Takeuchi, T., Gekka, T., Goto-Omoto, S., & Kitahara, K. (2006). Novel form of a single X-linked visual pigment gene in a unique dichromatic color-vision defect: Visual Neuroscience Vol 23(3-4) May-Aug 2006, 411-417.
- Hayashi, T., Yamaguchi, T., Kitahara, K., Sharpe, L. T., Jagle, H., Yamade, S., et al. (2001). The importance of gene order in expression of the red and green visual pigment genes and in color vision: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S79-S83.
- Hayes, S. P. (1911). Vision - Color defects: Psychological Bulletin Vol 8(3) Mar 1911, 86-89.
- Hayes, S. P. (1912). Vision-color defects: Psychological Bulletin Vol 9(3) Mar 1912, 112-116.
- Hayes, S. P. (1913). Vision - Color defects: Psychological Bulletin Vol 10(3) Mar 1913, 101-107.
- Hayes, S. P. (1914). Vision - color defects: Psychological Bulletin Vol 11(3) Mar 1914, 93-96.
- Hayes, S. P. (1919). Vision - color defects: Psychological Bulletin Vol 16(4) Apr 1919, 138-142.
- Hayslip, B., McBride, P. A., Lowman, R. L., & Aronson, H. J. (1992). Color vision deficits and Rorschach performance in aged persons: International Journal of Aging & Human Development Vol 34(2) 1992, 165-173.
- He, J. C., & Shevell, S. K. (1995). Variation in color matching and discrimination among deuteranomalous trichromats: Theoretical implications of small differences in photopigments: Vision Research Vol 35(18) Sep 1995, 2579-2588.
- Heath, G. G. (1974). The handicap of color blindness: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 45(1) Jan 1974, 62-69.
- Helfand, J. A. (2000). Hidden disabilities: Effects of color vision deficiency upon personality variables. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Hendricks, I. M., & Ruddock, K. H. (1982). Post-receptoral colour vision mechanisms in congenital red-green anomalous trichromacy: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 311-314.
- Heywood, C. A., Cowey, A., & Newcombe, F. (1994). On the role of parvocellular (P) and magnocellular (M) pathways in cerebral achromatopsia: Brain: A Journal of Neurology Vol 117(2) Apr 1994, 245-254.
- Heywood, C. A., Kentridge, R. W., & Cowey, A. (1998). Cortical color blindness is not "blindsight for color." Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal Vol 7(3) Sep 1998, 410-423.
- Heywood, C. A., Kentridge, R. W., & Cowey, A. (2001). Colour and the cortex: wavelength processing in cortical achromatopsia. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Heywood, C. A., Nicholas, J. J., & Cowey, A. (1996). Behavioural and electrophysiological chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity in an achromatopsic patient: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 60(6) Jun 1996, 638-643.
- Hill, A. R., & Aspinall, P. A. (1982). Pass/fail criteria in colour vision tests and their effect on decision confidence: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 157-162.
- Hill, A. R., Aspinall, P. A., & Verriest, G. (1984). Principles of colour vision test battery selection: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 181-187.
- Holliday, I. E., Hendricks, I. M., & Ruddock, K. H. (1982). A new effect associated with a central color vision deficiency: Spreading inhibition: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 41-45.
- Hovis, J. K., Cawker, C. L., & Cranton, D. (1996). Comparison of the Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates--Parts 1 and 2--as screening tests for congenital red-green color vision deficiencies: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 67(6) Jun 1996, 320-326.
- Hovis, J. K., & Oliphant, D. (1998). Validity of the Holmes-Wright lantern as a color vision test for the rail industry: Vision Research Vol 38(21) Nov 1998, 3487-3491.
- Hovis, J. K., & Ramaswamy, S. (2006). The effect of test distance on the CN lantern results: Visual Neuroscience Vol 23(3-4) May-Aug 2006, 675-679.
- Hsia, Y., & Graham, C. H. (1997). Color blindness. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
- Hsiao, H. H. (1935). A study of color-blindness among Chinese school children: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 19(6) Dec 1935, 641-646.
- Hsu, L.-C., Yeh, S.-L., & Kramer, P. (2004). Linking motion-induced blindness to perceptual filling-in: Vision Research Vol 44(24) Nov 2004, 2857-2866.
- Hurley, S. R. (1994). Color vision deficits and literacy acquisition: Reading Psychology Vol 15(3) Jul-Sep 1994, 155-163.
- Hurvich, L. M. (1953). New means of studying color blindness and normal foveal color vision. University of California publications in psychology: Psychological Bulletin Vol 50(3) May 1953, 229-230.
- Jackson, C. E., Symon, W. E., & Mann, J. D. (1964). X chromosome mapping of genes for red-green colorblindness and Xg: American Journal of Human Genetics 16(4) 1964, 403-409.
- Jacobs, G. H., Bowmaker, J. K., & Mollon, J. D. (1981). Behavioural and microspectrophotometric measurements of colour vision in monkeys: Nature Vol 292(5823) Aug 1981, 541-543.
- Jacobs, G. H., Bowmaker, J. K., & Mollon, J. D. (1982). Colour vision variations in monkeys: Behavioural and microspectrophotometric measurements on the same individuals: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 269-280.
- Jacobs, G. H., & Williams, G. A. (2001). The prevalence of defective color vision on Old World monkeys and apes: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S123-S127.
- Jaeger, W., & Krastel, H. (1984). Dichromatic and anomalous trichromatic colour vision examined with small and large field matches by means of the projection anomaloscope: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 147-154.
- Jagle, H., Kohl, S., Apfelstedt-Sylla, E., Wissinger, B., & Sharpe, L. T. (2001). Manifestations of rod monochromacy: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S96-S99.
- Jameson, D., & Hurvich, L. M. (1978). Dichromatic color language: "Reds" and "greens" don't look alike but their colors do: Sensory Processes Vol 2(2) Jun 1978, 146-155.
- Jameson, D., Hurvich, L. M., & Varner, D. (1982). Discrimination mechanisms in color deficient systems: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 295-301.
- Johnson, D. D. (1992). The Ishihara Test: On the prevention of job discrimination: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 63(5) May 1992, 352-360.
- Johnson, M. (1980). Color defectiveness: A personal account: Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry Vol 9(1) 1980, 21-23.
- Jover, J. L., & Moreira, H. (2005). Relative luminance and figure-background segmentation problems: Using AMLA to avoid nondiscernible stimulus pairs in common and color blind observers: Psicologica International Journal of Methodology and Experimental Psychology Vol 26(1) 2005, 189-207.
- Jurgensen, C. E. (1947). Industrial use of the Ishihara Tests for Color Blindness: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 31(1) Feb 1947, 1-8.
- Kaufman, L. (1979). A Colorful History: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 24 (11), Nov, 1979.
- Kaufman-Scarborough, C. (2001). Accessible advertising for visually-disabled persons: The case of color-deficit consumers: Journal of Consumer Marketing Vol 18(4) 2001, No Pagination Specified.
- Kawabata, Y. (1990). Temporal integration properties for bichromatically mixed lights in color-anomalous vision: Color Research and Application Vol 15(3) Jun 1990, 156-166.
- Kawabata, Y. (1994). Spatial integration in human vision with bichromatically-mixed adaptation field: Vision Research Vol 34(3) Feb 1994, 303-310.
- Kentridge, R. W., Heywood, C. A., & Cowey, A. (2004). Chromatic edges, surfaces and constancies in cerebral achromatopsia: Neuropsychologia Vol 42(6) 2004, 821-830.
- Kentridge, R. W., Heywood, C. A., & Weiskrantz, L. (2007). Color contrast processing in human striate cortex: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 104(38) Sep 2007, 15129-15131.
- Kilavik, B. E., & Kremers, J. (2001). Rod and L-cone interactions in a deuteranope at different temporal frequencies: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S76-S78.
- Kim, V., & Solomons, N. W. (1983). Performance of genetically-colorblind individuals on a rapid dark adaptation test based on the Purkinje shift: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 56(1) Feb 1983, 251-258.
- Kinnear, P. R. (1986). Spectral sensitivity for observers with protanomalous, extreme protanomalous and protanopic colour vision: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 6(2) 1986, 197-200.
- Kinney, J. A., Paulson, H. M., & Beare, A. N. (1979). The ability of color defectives to judge signal lights at sea: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 69(1) Jan 1979, 106-113.
- Kitahara, K. (1984). An analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 233-238.
- Kitahara, K. (1985). Color perception in acquired blue-yellow color vision deficiency: Japanese Psychological Review Vol 28(1) 1985, 130-146.
- Kliegl, R., Volbrecht, V. J., & Werner, J. S. (1984). Influences of variation on lenticular and macular pigmentation on dichromatic neutral points: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 155-163.
- Klingaman, R. L. (1979). Light adaptation in a normal and a rod monochromat: Psychophysical and VEP increment threshold comparisons: Vision Research Vol 19(7) 1979, 825-829.
- Knoblauch, K., Sirovich, L., & Wooten, B. R. (1985). Linearity of hue cancellation in sex-linked dichromacy: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 2(2) Feb 1985, 136-146.
- Knoblauch, K., & Wooten, B. R. (1982). Intensity invariance of the achromatic point in sex-linked dichromacy: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 287-294.
- Knoblauch, K. B. (1982). Analysis of opponent interactions in sex-linked dichromacy: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Knowlton, M., & Woo, I. (1989). Functional color vision deficits and performance of children on an educational task: Education of the Visually Handicapped Vol 20(4) Win 1989, 156-162.
- Komatsu, H. (1987). Studies on the temporal frequency characteristics of vision by photic driving method: III. Temporal frequency characteristics of color vision: Tohoku Psychologica Folia Vol 46(1-4) 1987, 1-12.
- Kommonen, B., Kylma, T., Karhunen, U., Dawson, W. W., & Penn, J. S. (1997). Impaired retinal function in young labrador retriever dogs heterozygous for late onset rod-cone degeneration: Vision Research Vol 37(3) Feb 1997, 365-370.
- Kovacs, G., Kucsera, I., Abraham, G., & Wenzel, K. (2001). Enhancing color representation for anomalous trichromats on CRT monitors: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S273-S276.
- Krauss, A., & Neumeyer, C. (2003). Wavelength dependence of the optomotor response in zebrafish (Danio rerio ): Vision Research Vol 43(11) May 2003, 1273-1282.
- Kruger, C. J., & Baier, M. (1982). Electro-ophthalmological findings and spectral sensitivity functions in acquired colour vision deficiencies: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 379-388.
- Lanthony, P. (2001). Daltonism in painting: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S12-S16.
- Lillo, J., Collado, J., Vitini, I., Ponte, E., & Sanchez, M. P. (1998). The use of a conventional TV monitor to detect protan subjects: Psicothema Vol 10(2) Jul 1998, 447-457.
- Lillo, J., Sanchez, P., Collado, J., Ponte, E., & Garcia, C. (1998). TIDA: A children's test to assess dysfunctions in the perception of colour: Psychology in Spain Vol 2(1) 1998, 48-56.
- Lillo, J., Vitini, I., Caballero, A., & Moreira, H. (2001). Towards a model to predict macular dichromats' naming errors: Effects of CIE saturation and dichromatism type: The Spanish Journal of Psychology Vol 4(1) May 2001, 26-36.
- Lillo, J., Vitini, I., Ponte, E., & Collado, J. (1999). Color blindness, pseudoachromatism and verbal categories: Cognitiva Vol 11(1) 1999, 3-22.
- Litton, F. W. (1979). Color vision deficiency in LD children: Academic Therapy Vol 14(4) Mar 1979, 437-443.
- Lloyd, M. J., Lowther, P. S., & Heron, G. (1984). Assessment of children's colour vision using the Pickford-Nicolson anomaloscope: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 4(1) 1984, 39-47.
- Loomis, J. M. (1980). Transient tritanopia: Failure of time-intensity reciprocity in adaptation to longwave light: Vision Research Vol 20(10) 1980, 837-846.
- Lorenz, A. B., & McClure, W. E. (1935). The influence of color blindness on intelligence and achievement of college men: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 19(3) Jun 1935, 320-330.
- Lutze, M., Pokorny, J., & Smith, V. C. (2006). Achromatic parvocellular contrast gain in normal and color defective observers: Implications for the evolution of color vision: Visual Neuroscience Vol 23(3-4) May-Aug 2006, 611-616.
- Malmo, R. B., & Grether, W. F. (1947). Further evidence of red blindness (protanopia) in Cebus monkeys: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 40(3) Jun 1947, 143-147.
- Mantyjarvi, M., Tenhunen, J., & Partanen, J. (2001). Screening color vision in preschool-aged children: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S250-S252.
- Marre, M., & Marre, E. (1982). The blue-mechanism in diseased eyes with eccentric fixation: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 133-138.
- Marre, M., & Marre, E. (1984). Rayleigh equation in acquired color vision defects: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 165-170.
- Marre, M., & Marre, E. (1984). The three color vision mechanisms in different field sizes in acquired color vision defects: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 325-327.
- Marshall, D. (1993). The development and use of trichromatic mixture thresholds for the study of color vision defects: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Mathger, L. M., Barbosa, A., Miner, S., & Hanlon, R. T. (2006). Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay: Vision Research Vol 46(11) May 2006, 1746-1753.
- Mayer, J. J., & Zaccaria, M. A. (1955). The evaluation of a color-naming test for color blindness: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 39(3) Jun 1955, 160-163.
- McMahon, M. J., & MacLeod, D. I. A. (1998). Dichromatic color vision at high light levels: Red/green discrimination using the blue-sensitive mechanism: Vision Research Vol 38(7) Apr 1998, 973-983.
- Mendlewicz, J., Fleiss, J. L., & Fieve, R. R. (1972). Evidence for X-linkage in the transmission of manic-depressive illness: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association Vol 222(13) Dec 1972, 1624-1627.
- Mendlewicz, J., Linkowski, P., Guroff, J. J., & Van Praag, H. M. (1979). Color blindness linkage to bipolar manic-depressive illness: New evidence: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 36(13) Dec 1979, 1442-1447.
- Mendlewicz, J., Sandkuil, L. A., de Bruyn, A., & Van Broeckhoven, C. (1991). X-linkage in bipolar illness: Biological Psychiatry Vol 29(7) Apr 1991, 730-731.
- Meyer, J. J., & et al. (1984). Psychophysical flicker threshold in congenital colour vision deficiencies: Clinical and ergophthalmological aspects: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 259-274.
- Miyahara, E., Pokorny, J., & Smith, V. C. (1996). Increment threshold and purity discrimination spectral sensitivities of x-chromosome-linked color-defective observers: Vision Research Vol 36(11) Jun 1996, 1597-1613.
- Miyamoto, T., & et al. (1984). Saturation discrimination in acquired colour deficiencies on the tritanopic confusion line: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 335-341.
- Miyao, M., Ishihara, S., Sakakibara, H., Kondo, T.-a., & et al. (1991). Effects of color CRT display on pupil size in color-blind subjects: Journal of Human Ergology Vol 20(2) Dec 1991, 241-247.
- Mollon, J. D. (1982). A taxonomy of tritanopias: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 87-101.
- Mollon, J. D. (1986). Understanding colour vision: Nature Vol 321(6065) May 1986, 12-13.
- Mollon, J. D., Bowmaker, J. K., Dartnall, H. J., & Bird, A. C. (1984). Microspectrophotometric and psychophysical results for the same deuteranopic observer: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 303-310.
- Montag, E. D. (1992). Dichromatic color perception: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Montag, E. D. (1994). Surface color naming in dichromats: Vision Research Vol 34(16) Aug 1994, 2137-2151.
- Montag, E. D., & Boynton, R. M. (1987). Rod influence in dichromatic surface color perception: Vision Research Vol 27(12) 1987, 2153-2162.
- Moskvin, V. A. (1997). Hemispheric asymmetry and problems of colour perception: Voprosy Psychologii No 6 1997, 77-82.
- Nagy, A. L. (1980). Large-field substitution Rayleigh matches of dichromats: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 70(7) Jul 1980, 778-784.
- Nagy, A. L. (1982). Homogeneity of large-field color matches in congenital red-green color deficients: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 72(5) May 1982, 571-577.
- Nagy, A. L., & Purl, K. F. (1987). Color discrimination and neural coding in color deficients: Vision Research Vol 27(3) 1987, 483-489.
- Nagy, A. L., Purl, K. F., & Houston, J. S. (1985). Cone mechanisms underlying the color discrimination of deutan color deficients: Vision Research Vol 25(5) 1985, 661-669.
- Nathans, J. (1997). The genes for color vision. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
- Nathans, J., Piantanida, T. P., Eddy, R. L., Shows, T. B., & et al. (1986). Molecular genetics of inherited variation in human color vision: Science Vol 232(4747) Apr 1986, 203-210.
- Neitz, J., & Jacobs, G. H. (1984). Electroretinogram measurements of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic monkeys: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 1(12) Dec 1984, 1175-1180.
- Neitz, M., & Neitz, J. (2001). A new mass screening test for color-vision deficiencies in children: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S239-S249.
- No authorship, i. (1895). Review of Congenital Night-Blindness and Pigmentary Degeneration: Psychological Review Vol 2(6) Nov 1895, 627-628.
- No authorship, i. (1904). Review of Ueber die Wahrnehmung des Flimmerns durch normale und durch total farbenblinde Personen: Psychological Bulletin Vol 1(12) Nov 1904, 444.
- No authorship, i. (1907). Review of Erworbene Tritanopie: Psychological Bulletin Vol 4(4) Apr 1907, 102-103.
- No authorship, i. (1907). Review of Fortgesetzte Untersuchungen zur Symptomatologie und Diagnostik der angeborenen Storungen des Farbensinns: Psychological Bulletin Vol 4(4) Apr 1907, 100-101.
- No authorship, i. (1947). Review of Farnsworth Dichotomous Test for Color Blindness: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 11(6) Nov 1947, 339-340.
- Nordby, K., Stabell, B., & Stabell, U. (1984). Dark-adaptation of the human rod system: Vision Research Vol 24(8) 1984, 841-849.
- O'Brien, K. A., Cole, B. L., Maddocks, J. D., & Forbes, A. B. (2002). Color and defective color vision as factors in the conspicuity of signs and signals: Human Factors Vol 44(4) Win 2002, 665-675.
- Oehler, R., & Spillmann, L. (1981). Illusory colour changes in Hermann grids varying only in hue: Vision Research Vol 21(4) 1981, 527-541.
- Offenbach, S. I. (1980). Children's perception of Munsell colors: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 104(1) Jan 1980, 43-51.
- Oleari, C., Baratta, G., Lamedica, A., & Macaluso, C. (1996). Confusion points and constant-luminance planes for trichromats, protanopes and deuteranopes: Vision Research Vol 36(21) Nov 1996, 3501-3505.
- O'Neil, E. (1906). Observations on the Senses of the Todas: Psychological Bulletin Vol 3(7) Jul 1906, 233-236.
- Palazzi, S. (2005). Autism and Blindness: Research and Reflections: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 187(3) Sep 2005, 296.
- Paramei, G. V. (1982). Quantitative characteristics of color vision alterations: Boletin de Psicologia (Cuba) Vol 5(3) Sep-Dec 1982, 67-91.
- Paramei, G. V. (1996). Color space of normally sighted and color-deficient observers reconstructed from color naming: Psychological Science Vol 7(5) Sep 1996, 311-317.
- Paramei, G. V., Bimler, D. L., & Cavonius, C. R. (1998). Effect of luminance on color perception of protanopes: Vision Research Vol 38(21) Nov 1998, 3397-3401.
- Paramei, G. V., Bimler, D. L., & Cavonius, C. R. (2001). Color-vision variants represented in an individual-difference vector chart: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S230-S234.
- Paramei, G. V., Izmailov, C. A., & Sokolov, E. N. (1991). Multidimensional scaling of large chromatic differences by normal and color-deficient subjects: Psychological Science Vol 2(4) Jul 1991, 244-248.
- Pardo, P. J., Perez, A. L., & Suero, M. I. (2004). Validity of TFT-LCD displays for colour vision deficiency research and diagnosis: Displays Vol 25(4) Nov 2004, 159-163.
- Perales, J., & Hita, E. (1984). Influence of some factors on not-typical responses to three tests of color vision in children: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 211-219.
- Perales, J., Hita, E., Jimenez del Barco, L., & Romero, J. (1984). Validation of Ishihara's test: Study of the efficiency of its color plates: I: Atti della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi Vol 39(5-6) Sep-Dec 1984, 455-468.
- Perales, J., Hita, E., & Romero, J. (1985). Relationship between individual factors and the mistakes on pseudoisochromatic tests for color vision deficiencies: Atti della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi Vol 40(1-2) Jan-Apr 1985, 163-176.
- Perales, J., Hita, E., Romero, J., & Jimenez del Barco, L. (1984). Validation of Ishihara's test: A test-retest study: II: Atti della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi Vol 39(5-6) Sep-Dec 1984, 469-474.
- Perez-Carpinell, J., Camps, V. J., de Fez, M. D., & Castro, J. (2001). Color memory matching in normal and red-green anomalous trichromat subjects: Color Research and Application Vol 26(2) Apr 2001, 158-170.
- Perron, C., & Hallett, P. E. (1995). Saccades to large coloured targets stepping in open fields: Vision Research Vol 35(2) Jan 1995, 263-274.
- Piantanida, T. P. (1973). The anomalous cone photopigments of protanomalous and deuteranomalous trichromats: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
- Pickford, R. W. (1972). Colour vision defective art students: Wall, W D (Ed); Varma, V P (Ed) (1972) Advances in educational psychology Oxford, England: Barnes & Noble.
- Pinckers, A. (1984). Clinical color vision examination: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 171-179.
- Plaut, V. C. (2003). Sociocultural models of diversity: The dilemma of difference in america. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Pokorny, J., & Smith, V. C. (1981). A variant of red-green color defect: Vision Research Vol 21(3) 1981, 311-317.
- Pokorny, J., & Smith, V. C. (1984). Metameric matches relevant for assessment of color vision: I. Theoretical considerations: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 83-94.
- Pokorny, J., Smith, V. C., & Went, L. N. (1981). Color matching in autosomal dominant tritan defect: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 71(11) Nov 1981, 1327-1334.
- Polizzotto, L. (1982). Dichoptic color perception with color normal and color deficient individuals: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Post, R. H. (1963). Colorblindness and relaxed selection: Eugenics Quarterly 10(2) 1963, 84-85.
- Post, R. H. (1965). Selection against "colorblindness" among "primitive" populations: Eugenics Quarterly 12(1) 1965, 28-29.
- Post, R. H. (1982). Population differences in red and green color vision deficiency: A review, and a query on selection relaxation: Social Biology Vol 29(3-4) Fal-Win 1982, 299-315.
- Reading, C. M. (1979). X-linked dominant manic-depressive illness: Linkage with Xg blood group, red-green color blindness, and vitamin B-sub-1-sub-2 deficiency: Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry Vol 8(2) 1979, 68-77.
- Reed, J. D. (1949). A note on reaction time as a test of color discrimination: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 39(1) Feb 1949, 118-121.
- Regan, D., & Spekreijse, H. (1974). Evoked potential indications of colour blindness: Vision Research Vol 14(1) Jan 1974, 89-95.
- Renwick, J. H., & Schulze, J. (1964). An analysis of some data on the linkage between Xg and colorblindness in man: American Journal of Human Genetics 16(4) 1964, 410-418.
- Richardson, F. (1911). Review of Ein Fall von Gelbblau-Blindheit: Psychological Bulletin Vol 8(6) Jun 1911, 214-215.
- Rizzo, M., Smith, V., Pokorny, J., & Damasio, A. R. (1993). Color perception profiles in central achromatopsia: Neurology Vol 43(5) May 1993, 995-1001.
- Rocco, F. J., Cronin-Golomb, A., & Lai, F. (1997). Alzheimer-like visual deficits in Down syndrome: Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders Vol 11(2) Jun 1997, 88-98.
- Rogers, D. C., & Hollins, M. (1982). Is the binocular rivalry mechanism tritanopic? : Vision Research Vol 22(5) 1982, 515-520.
- Romeskie, M. (1978). Chromatic opponent-response functions of anomalous trichromats: Vision Research Vol 18(11) 1978, 1521-1532.
- Ronchi, L. R., Paoletti-Perini, R., Ferenczi, S., & Makai, J. (1984). Brightness-luminance discrepancy in the frame of colour vision deficiencies: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 133-140.
- Rosenblum, K., Anderson, M. L., & Purple, R. L. (1981). Normal and color defective perception of Fechner-Benham colors: Implications for color vision theory: Vision Research Vol 21(10) 1981, 1483-1490.
- Rosenstock, H. B., & Swick, D. A. (1974). Color discrimination for the color blind: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 45 Oct 1974, 1194-1197.
- Roth, A. (1984). Metameric matches relevant for assessment of color vision: II. Practical aspects: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 95-109.
- Roth, A., & Hermes, D. (1984). Clinical colorimetric examinations in the purple: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 141-146.
- Rovamo, J., Hyvarinen, L., & Hari, R. (1982). Human vision without luminance-contrast system: Selective recovery of the red-green colour-contrast system from acquired blindness: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 457-466.
- Royce, J. E. (1963). Case of the Color-Blind Boy: American Psychologist Vol 18(9) Sep 1963, 622.
- Ruttiger, L., Mayser, H., Serey, L., & Sharpe, L. T. (2001). The color constancy of the red-green color blind: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S209-S213.
- Ryan, C. S., Hunt, J. S., Weible, J. A., Peterson, C. R., & Casas, J. F. (2007). Multicultural and colorblind ideology, stereotypes, and ethnocentrism among Black and White Americans: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations Vol 10(4) Oct 2007, 617-637.
- Safran, A. B., Felgenhauer, W. R., & Roth, A. (1984). Transient cerebral achromatopsia: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 419-423.
- Saito, A., Mikami, A., Hasegawa, T., Koida, K., Terao, K., Koike, S., et al. (2003). Behavioral evidence of color vision deficiency in a protanomalia chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): Primates Vol 44(2) Apr 2003, 171-176.
- Saito, A., Mikami, A., Hosokawa, T., & Hasegawa, T. (2006). Advantage of dichromats over trichromats in discrimination of color-camouflaged stimuli in humans: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 102(1) Feb 2006, 3-12.
- Sakitt, B. (1976). Psychophysical correlates of photoreceptor activity: Vision Research Vol 16(2) 1976, 129-140.
- Sanocki, E. (1995). Individual differences in the Rayleigh match ranges of X-linked color-deficient observers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Sanocki, E., Lindsey, D. T., Winderickx, J., Teller, D. Y., & et al. (1993). Serine/alanine amino acid polymorphism of the L and M cone pigments: Effects on Rayleigh matches among deuteranopes, protanopes, and color normal observers: Vision Research Vol 33(15) Oct 1993, 2139-2152.
- Sanocki, E., Teller, D. Y., & Deeb, S. S. (1997). Rayleigh match ranges of red/green color-deficient observers: Psychological and molecular studies: Vision Research Vol 37(14) Jul 1997, 1897-1907.
- Scheibner, H., & Cleveland, S. (1998). Dichromacy characterized by chrominance planes: Vision Research Vol 38(21) Nov 1998, 3403-3407.
- Scheufens, P., & Scheibner, H. (1984). Mesopic deuteranopic vision with a large observation field: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 311-318.
- Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Spectral sensitivity of dichromats: Role of postreceptoral processes: Vision Research Vol 34(22) Nov 1994, 2983-2990.
- Schwartz, S. H. (1996). Spectral sensitivity of dichromats: Role of postreptoral processes: Vision Research Vol 36(13) Jul 1996, 2013.
- Sellers, K. L., Chioran, G. M., Dain, S. J., Benes, S. C., & et al. (1986). Red-green mixture thresholds in congenital and acquired color defects: Vision Research 26(7) 1986, 1083-1097.
- Serra, A., & et al. (1984). Acquired defects of colour discrimination statistically evaluated through a battery of tests: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 189-192.
- Serra, A., Mascia, C., Dessy, C., & Casti, R. (1982). Diagnosis of acquired colour vision defects with the help of decision theory: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 151-156.
- Serra, A., Ronchi, L. R., & Siotto-Pintor, M. (1984). On the comparison of monocular and binocular 100-Hue responses: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 239-246.
- Sewell, J. H. (1983). Color counts, toop: Academic Therapy Vol 18(3) Jan 1983, 329-337.
- Sharpe, L. T., & Jagle, H. (2001). I used to be color blind: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S269-S272.
- Sharpe, L. T., Stockman, A., Jagle, H., Knau, H., & Nathans, J. (1999). L, M and L-M hybrid cone photopigments in man: Deriving gamma -sub(max ) from flicker photometric spectral sensitivities: Vision Research Vol 39(21) Oct 1999, 3513-3525.
- Shepard, R. N., & Cooper, L. A. (1992). Representation of colors in the blind, color-blind, and normally sighted: Psychological Science Vol 3(2) Mar 1992, 97-104.
- Shepherd, A. J. (2006). Color Vision but not Visual Attention is Altered in Migraine: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 46(4) Apr 2006, 611-621.
- Shevell, S. K., & He, J. C. (1997). The visual photopigments of simple deuteranomalous trichromats inferred from color matching: Vision Research Vol 37(9) May 1997, 1115-1127.
- Smith, D. P. (1973). Color naming and hue discrimination in congenital tritanopia and tritanomaly: Vision Research Vol 13(2) Feb 1973, 209-218.
- Smith, V. C., & Pokorny, J. (1977). Large-field trichromacy in protanopes and deuteranopes: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 67(2) Feb 1977, 213-220.
- Snyder, C. R. (1973). The psychological implications of being color blind: The Journal of Special Education Vol 7(1) Spr 1973, 51-54.
- Spekreijse, H., Wietsma, J. J., & Neumeyer, C. (1991). Induced color blindness in goldfish: A behavioral and electrophysiological study: Vision Research Vol 31(3) 1991, 551-562.
- Srinivasan, M. V. (1985). Shouldn't directional movement detection necessarily be "colour-blind"? : Vision Research Vol 25(7) 1985, 997-1000.
- Stabell, U., & Stabell, B. (1984). Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina: Vision Research Vol 24(12) 1984, 1969-1975.
- Stockman, A., Sharpe, L. T., & Fach, C. (1999). The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength sensitive cones derived from thresholds and color matches: Vision Research Vol 39(17) Aug 1999, 2901-2927.
- Sun, P., Han, B., Sun, X., Zeng, X., & He, J. (1999). Quantitative measurement of the deficiency in human color vision: Acta Psychologica Sinica Vol 31(4) 1999, 390-396.
- Sussman, P. (1979). The relationship of color vision deficiencies to performance on Witkin's Embedded-Figures Test and selected academic grades: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Swarbrick, H. A., Nguyen, P., Nguyen, T., & Pham, P. (2001). The ChromaGen contact lens system: Colour vision test results and subjective responses: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 21(3) May 2001, 182-196.
- Tanabe, S., Hukami, K., & Ichikawa, H. (1984). New pseudoisochromatic plates for acquired color vision defects: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 199-204.
- Tanabe, S., Ichikawa, K., Hukami, K., & Nakashima, S. (2001). A family with protanomaly and deuteranomaly: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S93-S95.
- Tansley, B. W., & Boynton, R. M. (1976). A line, not a space, represents visual distinctness of borders formed by different colors: Science Vol 191(4230) Mar 1976, 954-957.
- Taylor, C. (1944). Studies in color blindness: I. Negative after-images: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 34(4) Aug 1944, 317-324.
- Taylor, S. (1983). The effect of reduced viewing time on colour vision in normal subjects and those with abnormal ocular conditions: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 3(3) 1983, 357-360.
- Taylor, S. P. (1984). The effect of restricted viewing time on the performance of colour defectives using the City University Colour Vision Test: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 4(1) 1984, 49-52.
- Thornton, W. A. (1982). Perceived brightness by normals and defectives: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 315-320.
- Tuck, J. P., & Long, G. M. (1990). The role of small-field tritanopia in two measures of colour vision: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 10(2) Apr 1990, 195-199.
- Uji, Y., & Yokoyama, M. (1984). Spectral response pattern of ERG recorded with scanning method in congenital colour defectives: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 73-82.
- Valeton, J. M., & Van Norren, D. (1979). Transient tritanopia at the level of the ERG b-wave: Vision Research Vol 19(6) 1979, 689-693.
- Van Norren, D., & Went, L. N. (1981). New test for the detection of tritan defects evaluated in two surveys: Vision Research Vol 21(8) 1981, 1303-1306.
- Varner, D. C. (1982). Temporal characteristics of color vision systems: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Vaughan, C. L. (1907). Versuche mit Eisenbahn-Signallichtern an Personen mit normalen und abnormen Farbensinn: Psychological Bulletin Vol 4(11) Nov 1907, 361-363.
- Verhulst, S., & Maes, F. W. (1998). Scotopic vision in colour-blinds: Vision Research Vol 38(21) Nov 1998, 3387-3390.
- Verriest, G., & et al. (1982). Colour vision tests in children: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 175-178.
- Verriest, G., & Uvijls, A. (1984). Value of the Rodenstock Farbentestscheibe 3040.173 for the diagnosis of congenital colour vision defects: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 281-285.
- Verriest, G., Van Laethem, J., & Uvijls, A. (1982). A new assessment of the normal ranges of the 100 hue total scores: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 199-208.
- Vienot, F., Brettel, H., Ott, L., M'Barek, A. B., & et al. (1995). What do colour-blind people see? : Nature Vol 376(6536) Jul 1995, 127-128.
- Vingrys, A. J., Atchison, D. A., & Bowman, K. J. (1992). The use of colour difference vectors in diagnosing congenital colour vision deficiencies with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(1) Jan 1992, 38-45.
- Vola, J., & et al. (1982). Advantages of the two colour threshold method in diabetics and its comparison with an arrangement test: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 405-411.
- Vola, J. L., Gastaud, P., & Leid, J. (1984). Presentation of a design to measure the McCollough effect: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 295-297.
- Voss, J. J., Verkaik, W., & Boogaard, J. (1972). The significance of the TMC and HRR color-vision-tests as to red-green defectiveness: American Journal of Optometry & Archives of American Academy of Optometry Vol 49(10) Oct 1972, 847-859.
- Waddington, M. (1965). Color blindness in young children: Educational Research 7(3) 1965, 233-240.
- Weckroth, J., Miettinen, P., & Weckroth, E. (1975). The light permeability of the retina: Experiments with blind, color-blind, and seeing subjects: American Foundation for the Blind, Research Bulletin No 29 Jun 1975, 123-143.
- Welsh, K. W., Vaughan, J. A., & Rasmussen, P. G. (1979). Aeromedical implications of the x-chrom lens for improving color vision deficiencies: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 50 Mar 1979, 249-255.
- Went, L. N., & Pronk, N. (1984). Achromatopsia and combination defects of protan, deutan and tritan genes: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 319-324.
- Wesner, M. F., Pokorny, J., Shevell, S. K., & Smith, V. C. (1991). Foveal cone detection statistics in color-normals and dichromats: Vision Research Vol 31(6) 1991, 1021-1037.
- White, C. W., Lockhead, G. R., & Evans, N. J. (1977). Multidimensional scaling of subjective colors by color-blind observers: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 21(6) Jun 1977, 522-526.
- Wilkinson, W. K. (1992). The cognitive and social-emotional correlates of color deficiency in children: A literature review and analysis: Adolescence Vol 27(107) Fal 1992, 603-611.
- Winokur, G., & Crowe, R. (1991). Bipolar pedigrees: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 48(7) Jul 1991, 671.
- Wolf, E., & Scheibner, H. (1982). On the relationship between protanomaly and protanopia: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 321-326.
- Wolf, E., & Weber, U. (1984). Night blindness with a tritan colour vision defect: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 39 1984, 413-417.
- Woods, C. B. (1991). Color-discrimination and color-opponent strength in normal, protan, and deutan observers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Wooten, B. R. (1982). Partial cerebral achromatopsia with selective hue loss: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 139-144.
- Wright, A. A., Sperling, H. G., & Mills, S. L. (1987). Researches on a unilaterally blue-blinded rhesus monkey: Vision Research Vol 27(9) 1987, 1551-1564.
- Wright, J. B., & McKenzie, I. (1996). Stress-induced loss of colour vision: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 1(2) Apr 1996, 283-286.
- Wright, W. D. (1982). Dichromatic colour confusions and the spectral sensitivity of the retinal receptors: Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series Vol 33 1982, 281-286.
- Yamade, S., Hayashi, S., Ueyama, H., Tanabe, S., Hukami, K., Ichikawa, K., et al. (2001). Red-green pigment gene analysis as a clinical diagnostic tool: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S89-S92.
- Yazmajian, R. V. (1982). Color in the dreams of the color-blind: Psychoanalytic Quarterly Vol 51(3) 1982, 390-404.
- Young, R. S. (1982). Early-stage abnormality of foveal pi mechanisms in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 72(8) Aug 1982, 1021-1025.
- Young, R. S. (1982). Field sensitivity of the short-wavelength-sensitive mechanism in the protanope's parafoveal retina: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 72(8) Aug 1982, 1026-1028.
- Young, R. S., & Fishman, G. A. (1980). Loss of color vision and Stiles' II-sub-1 mechanism in a patient with cerebral infarction: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 70(11) Nov 1980, 1301-1305.
- Color Blindness Examples
- Colorblind Barrier-Free
- Color Blindness Online Tests :
- Congenital Colour Vision Deficiencies, very good description from the University of Calgary
- Color Vision Testing Made Easy, samples of this alternative test
- The color spectrum as perceived by different people (includes example test)
- Attempts to simulate color blind vision (static examples):
- Blindness Simulation
- How do things look to colorblind people?, Causes of Color -- WebExhibits
- How the world looks to a color blind person, with example images
- Visual comparisons of various types of color vision impairments
- Design tools that simulate color blind vision (live previews):
- Attempts to improve images for color blind observers
- Visolve, free software that transforms colors, enhances saturation and redraws colors with hatches for color blind people. It comes with a standalone program to capture/transform images on screen and a toolbar in Windows taskbar to transform the whole screen.
- Daltonize , adjusts images to reveal information normally hidden to dichromats.
|Color vision [Edit]|
|Color vision | Color blindness|
|Monochromat | Dichromat | Trichromat | Tetrachromat | Pentachromat|
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|