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{{BioPsy}}
 
{{BioPsy}}
'''Detoxification''' or '''Detox''', in general is the removal of [[toxic]] substances from the body. It is one of the major functions of the [[liver]], [[lower gastrointestinal tract]] and [[kidneys]], but can also be achieved artificially by techniques such as [[dialysis]] and (in a very limited number of cases) [[chelation therapy]].
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'''Detoxification''', or '''detox''' for short is the removal of [[toxic]] substances from the body. In [[medicine|conventional medicine]], detoxification can also be achieved artificially by techniques such as [[dialysis]] and (in a very limited number of cases) [[chelation therapy]]. There is a firm scientific base in [[evidence-based medicine]] for this type of detoxification. Many [[alternative medicine]] practitioners promote various other types of detoxification such as "diet detoxification," but there is no evidence that detox diets have any health benefits.<ref name="Mayo Clinic Website">[http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/detox-diets/AN01334 Mayo Clinic Website]</ref> Furthermore, [[Sense About Science]], a UK-based charitable trust determined 'detox' used in most commerical products description do not have any evidence to back their claim and is considered a 'waste of money'. <ref> [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4576574.stm Scientists dismiss detox schemes]</ref> <ref> [http://news.sympatico.msn.ctv.ca/abc/home/contentposting.aspx?isfa=1&feedname=CTV-TOPSTORIES_V3&showbyline=True&date=true&newsitemid=CTVNews%2f20090105%2fdetox_study_090105 No proof so-called detox products work: scientists]</ref>
   
Other less mainstream methods for eliminating toxic substances from the body include the modification of the diet and addition of certain herbs and rituals such as [[Colon hydrotherapy]], [[Body cleansing]] juice fasting and [[sweat lodge|sweat lodges]]. All these methods are claimed to assist the body's natural detoxification process.
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Detoxification can also refer to the period of [[withdrawal]] during which a person's body to return to [[homeostasis]] after long-term use of an addictive substance.
   
Specific meanings of ''detoxification'' or ''detox'':
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==Types of detoxification==
* A form of [[drug rehabilitation]], used to treat [[alcoholism]] or other [[drug addiction]]. The process involves abstinence to clear the drug from the body, accompanied by social and environmental support during the associated physiological and psychological changes. A non-drug method for detox from drugs or alcohol is [[acupuncture detoxification]].
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===Alcohol detoxification===
* A class of [[dieting|diets]] whose underlying assumption is that the body accumulates [[toxins]] that must be purged, especially after unhealthy periods such as over-eating during festivals. ''Toxins'', in this case, refer to toxic substances - often of undefined nature - from foods, the environment and the body's own wastes. "Detox diet" is a common phrase, as is "I'm on a detox". See [[detox diet]].
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{{main|Alcohol detoxification}}
* Forms of [[complementary medicine]] that claim to remove such toxins from the body: for instance, by herbal, electrical or electromagnetic treatments. As the definition of [[toxins]] in this and the previous context has little scientific basis, the validity of such techniques is questionable. There is no evidence for such accumulation; the liver and kidneys automatically detoxify and excrete many toxic materials, including [[metabolic]] wastes. Under this theory if toxins are too rapidly released without being safely eliminated (such as burning fat that stores toxins) they can pollute the body causing [[malaise|malaise]].
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Alcohol detoxification is a process used in [[alcohol rehabilitation]] by which a heavy drinker's system is brought back to normal after being used to having [[alcohol]] in the body on a continual basis. Serious alcohol addiction results in a decrease in production of [[GABA]] neuro-inhibitor because alcohol acts to replace it. Precipitous [[withdrawal]] from long-term alcohol addiction without medical management can cause severe health problems and can be fatal. Alcohol detox is not a treatment for [[alcoholism]]. After detoxification, other treatments must be undergone to deal with the underlying addiction that caused the alcohol use.
* A process by which a substance is made less toxic.
 
==See also==
 
*[[Alcohol detoxification]]
 
   
[[Category:Alternative medicine]]
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===Drug detoxification===
[[Category:Medical treatments]]
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{{main|Drug detoxification}}
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Drug detoxification is used in [[drug rehabilitation]] to reduce or relieve [[withdrawal]] symptoms while helping the addicted individual adjust to living without drug use; drug detoxification is not meant to treat [[addiction]] but rather an early step in long-term treatment. Detoxification may be achieved drug free or may use medications as an aspect of treatment. Often drug detoxification and treatment will occur in a community program that lasts several months and takes place in a residential rather than medical center.<ref>[http://www.drug-rehabs.com/heroin-treatment.htm A CRC Health Group Website]</ref>
   
:nl:Afkicken
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Drug detoxification varies depending on the location of treatment, but most detox centers provide treatment to avoid the symptoms of physical withdrawal to alcohol & other drugs. Most also incorporate counseling and therapy during detox to help with the consequences of withdrawal.
:ja:デトックス
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:pl:Detoks
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===Metabolic detoxification===
:sr:Детоксикација
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An animal's [[metabolism]] can produce harmful substances which it can then make less toxic through [[Redox|oxidation]], [[conjugation]] and [[excretion]] of molecules from cells or tissues. This is called [[xenobiotic metabolism]]. Enzymes that are important in detoxification metabolism include [[cytochrome P450|cytochrome P450 oxidase]]s,<ref>{{cite journal |author=Danielson P |title=The cytochrome P450 superfamily: biochemistry, evolution and drug metabolism in humans |journal=Curr Drug Metab |volume=3 |issue=6 |pages=561–97 |year=2002 |pmid=12369887 |doi=10.2174/1389200023337054}}</ref> [[Glucuronosyltransferase|UDP-glucuronosyltransferases]],<ref>{{cite journal |author=King C, Rios G, Green M, Tephly T |title=UDP-glucuronosyltransferases |journal=Curr Drug Metab |volume=1 |issue=2 |pages=143–61 |year=2000 |pmid=11465080 |doi=10.2174/1389200003339171}}</ref> and [[glutathione S-transferase|glutathione ''S''-transferase]]s.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Sheehan D, Meade G, Foley V, Dowd C |title=Structure, function and evolution of glutathione transferases: implications for classification of non-mammalian members of an ancient enzyme superfamily |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=11695986 |journal=Biochem J |volume=360 |issue=Pt 1 |pages=1–16 |year=2001 |pmid=11695986 |doi=10.1042/0264-6021:3600001}}</ref> These processes are particularly well-studied as part of [[drug metabolism]], as they influence the [[pharmacokinetics]] of a drug in the body.
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===Alternative medicine===
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{{main|Body cleansing}}
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Certain approaches in [[alternative medicine]] claim to remove toxins from the body through herbal, electrical or electromagnetic treatments (such as the [[Aqua Detox]] treatment). These [[toxin]]s are undefined and have little scientific basis,<ref name="Mayo Clinic Website"/> making the validity of such techniques questionable. There is no evidence for toxic accumulation in these cases,<ref name="Mayo Clinic Website"/> as the liver and kidneys automatically detoxify and excrete many toxic materials including [[Metabolism|metabolic]] wastes. Under this theory if toxins are too rapidly released without being safely eliminated (such as burning fat that stores toxins) they can damage the body and cause [[malaise]]. Therapies include [[contrast shower]]s, [[detoxification foot pads]], the [[Master Cleanse]] diet, [[oil pulling]], [[Gerson therapy]], [[snake-stones]], [[body cleansing]], [[Purification Rundown|Scientology's Purification Rundown]], [[water fasting]], and metabolic therapy.<ref>[http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ETO/content/ETO_5_3X_Metabolic_Therapy.asp Metabolic Therapy]</ref>
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====Diet detoxification====
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{{main|Detox diet}}
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Certain [[dieting|diets]] have an underlying assumption that the body accumulates [[toxin]]s that must be removed, especially after periods of over-eating or the consumption of non-[[nutrition|nutritious]] and [[Food processing|processed]] foods. As with alternative medicine, the 'toxins' removed are undefined and are ascribed to foods, the environment and the body's own wastes, and there is no scientific basis for the theory.
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== See also ==
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* [[Alcohol withdrawal]]
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* [[Colon cleansing]]
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* [[Drug abstinence]]
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* [[Drug therapy]]
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* [[Drug withdrawal]]
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* [[Sobriety]]
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
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[[Category:Detoxification]]
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[[Category:Medical treatments]]
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[[Category:Drug rehabilitation]]
   
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[[ja:デトックス]]
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[[pl:Detoks]]
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[[pt:Desintoxicação]]
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[[ru:Наркомания]]
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{{enWP|Detoxification}}
 
{{enWP|Detoxification}}

Latest revision as of 23:02, January 18, 2009

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Detoxification, or detox for short is the removal of toxic substances from the body. In conventional medicine, detoxification can also be achieved artificially by techniques such as dialysis and (in a very limited number of cases) chelation therapy. There is a firm scientific base in evidence-based medicine for this type of detoxification. Many alternative medicine practitioners promote various other types of detoxification such as "diet detoxification," but there is no evidence that detox diets have any health benefits.[1] Furthermore, Sense About Science, a UK-based charitable trust determined 'detox' used in most commerical products description do not have any evidence to back their claim and is considered a 'waste of money'. [2] [3]

Detoxification can also refer to the period of withdrawal during which a person's body to return to homeostasis after long-term use of an addictive substance.

Types of detoxificationEdit

Alcohol detoxificationEdit

Main article: Alcohol detoxification

Alcohol detoxification is a process used in alcohol rehabilitation by which a heavy drinker's system is brought back to normal after being used to having alcohol in the body on a continual basis. Serious alcohol addiction results in a decrease in production of GABA neuro-inhibitor because alcohol acts to replace it. Precipitous withdrawal from long-term alcohol addiction without medical management can cause severe health problems and can be fatal. Alcohol detox is not a treatment for alcoholism. After detoxification, other treatments must be undergone to deal with the underlying addiction that caused the alcohol use.

Drug detoxificationEdit

Main article: Drug detoxification

Drug detoxification is used in drug rehabilitation to reduce or relieve withdrawal symptoms while helping the addicted individual adjust to living without drug use; drug detoxification is not meant to treat addiction but rather an early step in long-term treatment. Detoxification may be achieved drug free or may use medications as an aspect of treatment. Often drug detoxification and treatment will occur in a community program that lasts several months and takes place in a residential rather than medical center.[4]

Drug detoxification varies depending on the location of treatment, but most detox centers provide treatment to avoid the symptoms of physical withdrawal to alcohol & other drugs. Most also incorporate counseling and therapy during detox to help with the consequences of withdrawal.

Metabolic detoxificationEdit

An animal's metabolism can produce harmful substances which it can then make less toxic through oxidation, conjugation and excretion of molecules from cells or tissues. This is called xenobiotic metabolism. Enzymes that are important in detoxification metabolism include cytochrome P450 oxidases,[5] UDP-glucuronosyltransferases,[6] and glutathione S-transferases.[7] These processes are particularly well-studied as part of drug metabolism, as they influence the pharmacokinetics of a drug in the body.

Alternative medicineEdit

Main article: Body cleansing

Certain approaches in alternative medicine claim to remove toxins from the body through herbal, electrical or electromagnetic treatments (such as the Aqua Detox treatment). These toxins are undefined and have little scientific basis,[1] making the validity of such techniques questionable. There is no evidence for toxic accumulation in these cases,[1] as the liver and kidneys automatically detoxify and excrete many toxic materials including metabolic wastes. Under this theory if toxins are too rapidly released without being safely eliminated (such as burning fat that stores toxins) they can damage the body and cause malaise. Therapies include contrast showers, detoxification foot pads, the Master Cleanse diet, oil pulling, Gerson therapy, snake-stones, body cleansing, Scientology's Purification Rundown, water fasting, and metabolic therapy.[8]

Diet detoxificationEdit

Main article: Detox diet

Certain diets have an underlying assumption that the body accumulates toxins that must be removed, especially after periods of over-eating or the consumption of non-nutritious and processed foods. As with alternative medicine, the 'toxins' removed are undefined and are ascribed to foods, the environment and the body's own wastes, and there is no scientific basis for the theory.

See also Edit


ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Mayo Clinic Website
  2. Scientists dismiss detox schemes
  3. No proof so-called detox products work: scientists
  4. A CRC Health Group Website
  5. Danielson P (2002). The cytochrome P450 superfamily: biochemistry, evolution and drug metabolism in humans. Curr Drug Metab 3 (6): 561–97.
  6. King C, Rios G, Green M, Tephly T (2000). UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Curr Drug Metab 1 (2): 143–61.
  7. Sheehan D, Meade G, Foley V, Dowd C (2001). Structure, function and evolution of glutathione transferases: implications for classification of non-mammalian members of an ancient enzyme superfamily. Biochem J 360 (Pt 1): 1–16.
  8. Metabolic Therapy
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