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Dental fear or dental anxiety refers to high of fear or anxiety associated with dentistry and dental care. A pathological form of this fear (specific phobia) is variously called dental phobia, odontophobia, dentophobia, dentist phobia. However, it has been suggested that the term "dental phobia" is often a misnomer, as many people with this condition do not feel their fears to be excessive or unreasonable and resemble individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder, caused by previous traumatic dental experiences.[1] It is a somewhat academic question as to when ordinary levels of fear become a phobia.

Epidemiology

It is estimated that as many as 75% of US adults experiences some degree of dental fear, from mild to severe.[2][3] [4] Approximately 5 to 10 percent of U.S. adults are considered to experience dental phobia; that is, they are so fearful of receiving dental treatment that they avoid dental care at all costs.[5] Many dentally fearful people will only seek dental care when they have a dental emergency, such as a toothache or dental abscess. People who are very fearful of dental care often experience a “cycle of avoidance,” in which they avoid dental care due to fear until they experience a dental emergency requiring invasive treatment, which can reinforce their fear of dentistry.[6]

Women tend to report more dental fear than men,[7] and younger people tend to report being more dentally fearful than older individuals.[8] People tend to report being more fearful of more invasive procedures, such as oral surgery, than they are of less invasive treatment, such as professional dental cleanings, or prophylaxis.[9]


Dental fear in children

See Pediatric dentistry

Cause

Many people report that their dental fear began after a traumatic, difficult, and/or painful dental experience.[10] However, painful or traumatic dental experiences alone do not explain why people develop dental phobia. The perceived manner of the dentist is an important variable. Dentists who were considered "impersonal", "uncaring", "uninterested" or "cold" were found to result in high dental fear in students, even in the absence of painful experiences, whereas some students who had had painful experiences failed to develop dental fear if they perceived their dentist as caring and warm.[11]

Dental fear may also develop as people hear about others' traumatic experiences or negative views of dentistry.[12]

Treatments for dental fear often include a combination of behavioral and pharmacological techniques. Specialized dental fear clinics, such as those at the University of Washington in Seattle and Göteborg University in Sweden, use both psychologists and dentists to help people learn to manage and decrease their fear of dental treatment. The goal of these clinics is to provide individuals with the fear management skills necessary for them to receive regular dental care with a minimum of fear or anxiety. Although specialized clinics exist to help individuals manage and overcome their fear of dentistry, many dental providers outside of such clinics use similar behavioral and cognitive strategies to help patients reduce their fear.

Assessment

Treatment

Behavioral treatments include teaching individuals relaxation techniques, such as diaphragmatic breathing and progressive muscle relaxation, as well as cognitive, or thought-based techniques, such as cognitive restructuring and guided imagery.[4] Both relaxation and cognitive strategies have been shown to significantly reduce dental fear.[13] One example of a behavioral technique is systematic desensitization, a method used in psychology to overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders.[14] This is also sometimes called graduated exposure therapy or gradual exposure. For example, for a patient who is fearful of dental injections, the therapist first teaches relaxation skills to the patient, then gradually introduces the feared object (in this case, the needle and/or syringe) to the patient, encouraging the patient to manage his/her fear using the relaxation skills previously taught. The patient progresses through the steps of receiving a dental injection while using the relaxation skills, until the patient is able to successfully receive a dental injection while experiencing little to no fear. This method has been shown to be effective in treating fear of dental injections.[15] Cognitive restructuring , if applied in a non-threatening situation, might be an useful alternative as a first step after years of avoidance of dental care and less threatening than immediate exposure to the feared stimuli.[16]

It is interesting to take into account the views of people who have been provided with behavioural treatments for dental fear. From a psychologist's perspective, techniques such as graded exposure, relaxation techniques or challenging catastrophic thinking are important. However, Gerry Kent, a clinical psychologist from the University of Sheffield UK, notes that from the patient's perspective, interventions can be conceptualized quite differently.[17] He argues that high levels of anxiety or phobia should not be considered as residing simply within the individual or in the individual's perceptions of dental care, but more within the relationship with the dentist. For example, when patients who had successfully completed a cognitive-behavioural programme were asked what had helped them to tolerate treatment, they mentioned factors such as the provision of information, the time taken, being put in control by the dentist, and the dentist understanding and listening to their concerns.[18] Such findings suggest that an interpersonal model of anxiety and anxiety-reduction is useful when trying to understand and treat dental fears.

Behavioural strategies used by dentists include positive reinforcement (e.g. praising the patient), the use of non-threatening language, and tell-show-do techniques.[19] The tell-show-do technique was originally developed for use in pediatric dentistry, but can also be used with nervous adult patients. The technique involves verbal explanations of procedures in easy-to-understand language (tell), followed by demonstrations of the sights, sounds, smells, and tactile aspects of the procedure in a non-threatening way (show), followed by the actual procedure (do).[20]

Certain aspects of the physical environment also play an important role in alleviating dental fear. For example, getting rid of the smells traditionally associated with dentistry, the dental team wearing non-clinical clothes, or playing music in the background can all help patients by removing and replacing stimuli which can trigger feelings of fear (see classical conditioning). Some anxious patients respond well to more obvious distraction techniques such as listening to music, watching movies, or even using virtual-reality headsets during treatment. [21]

Pharmacological techniques to manage dental fear range from mild sedation to general anesthesia, and are often used by dentists in conjunction with behavioral techniques.[22] One common anxiety-reducing medication used in dentistry is nitrous oxide (also known as “laughing gas”), which is inhaled through a mask worn on the nose and causes feelings of relaxation and dissociation. Dentists may prescribe an oral sedative, such as a benzodiazepine like temazepam (Restoril), alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), or triazolam (Halcion). Triazolam (Halcion) is not available in the UK.[23] While these sedatives may help people feel calmer and sometimes drowsy during dental treatment, patients are still conscious and able to communicate with the dental staff. Intravenous sedation uses benzodiazepines administered directly intravenously into a patient’s arm or hand. IV sedation is often referred to as “conscious sedation” as opposed to general anesthesia (GA). In IV sedation, patients breathe on their own while their breathing and heart rate are monitored. In GA, patients are more deeply sedated.

Recent research has focused on the role of online communities in helping people to confront their anxiety or phobia and successfully receive dental care. The findings suggest that certain individuals do appear to benefit from their involvement in dental anxiety online support groups. [24][25]

See also


References

  1. Bracha, Vega and Vega (2006). Posttraumatic Dental-Care Anxiety: Is "dental phobia" a misnomer? Hawaii Dental Journal, Sept/Oct 2006, pp. 17-19 [1]
  2. "Factor analysis of the dental fear survey with cross-validation." Kleinknecht, Thorndike, McGlynn, and Harkavy, 1984. [2]
  3. "Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches to the reduction of dental anxiety." Getka and Glass, 1992. [3]
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Treating Fearful Dental Patients: A Patient Management Handbook." Milgrom, Weinstein and Getz, 1995. [4]
  5. "The prevalence of dental fear and avoidance: a recent survey study." Gatchel, Ingersoll, Bowman, Robertson, and Walker, 1983. [5]
  6. "The vicious cycle of dental fear: exploring the interplay between oral health, service utilization and dental fear." Armfield, Stewart and Spencer, 2007. [6]
  7. "Dental fear in Australia: who's afraid of the dentist?" Armfield, Spencer and Stewart, 2006. [7]
  8. "Dental fear and anxiety levels of patients attending a dental clinic." Erten, Akarslan, and Bodrumlu, 2006. [8]
  9. "Dental anxiety among patients prior to different dental treatments." Stabholz and Perez, 1999. [9]
  10. "Negative dental experiences and their relationship to dental anxiety." Locker, Shapiro and Liddell, 1996. [10]
  11. "Antecedents of dental fear." Bernstein, D., Kleinknecht, R. and Alexander, L. (1979). Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 39, 113-124.
  12. "Cultural factors and children's oral health care: a qualitative study of carers of young children." Hilton, Stephen, Barker, and Weintraub, 2007.[11]
  13. "Relaxation versus cognitive therapies for dental fear--a psychophysiological approach." Lundgren, Carlsson, and Berggren, 2006. [12]
  14. Wolpe, J. (1958). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford: Stanford University Press. [13]
  15. "Combining alprazolam with systematic desensitization therapy for dental injection phobia." Coldwell, Wilhelm, Milgrom, Prall, Getz, Spadafora, Chiu, Leroux, and Ramsay, 2007. [14]
  16. "De Jongh, A., Muris, P., Ter Horst, G., Van Zuuren, F. J., Schoenmakers, N. & Makkes, P. (1995). One-session cognitive treatment of dental phobia: Preparing dental phobics for treatment by restructuring negative cognitions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 947-954).
  17. Kent, G. (1997). Dental Phobias. In G.C.L. Davey (ed.), Phobias - A Handbook of Theory, Research and Treatment, pp 107-127. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
  18. Smith, T., Getz, T., Milgrom, P. and Weinstein, P. (1987). Evaluation of treatment at a dental fears research clinic. Special Care in Dentistry, 7, 130-134.
  19. "Behavioral Techniques for Overcoming Dental Fears". [15]
  20. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD). Guideline on behavior guidance for the pediatric dental patient. Chicago (IL): American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD); 2006.
  21. Jerome, Lloyd (2004). "The Art and Science of Distraction". [16]
  22. "Enhancing sedation treatment for the long- term: pre-treatment behavioural exposure." Milgrom and Heaton, 2007. [17]
  23. "European court upholds UK ban on Halcion". British Medical Journal (1999);318:418 (13 February).[18]
  24. Buchanan, H. and Coulson, NS (2007). Accessing dental anxiety online support groups: an exploratory qualitative study of motives and experiences. Patient Educ Couns. 2007 Jun; 66(3):263-9 [19]
  25. Coulson, N.S. and Buchanan, H. (2008). Self-reported efficacy of an online dental anxiety support group: a pilot study. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, Volume 36 Issue 1, pp. 43-44 [20]


Further reading

Key texts

Books

  • Botto, R. W. (2006). Chairside Techniques for Reducing Dental Fear. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Chapman, H. R., & Kirby-Turner, N. C. (2005). The Treatment of Dental Fear in Children and Adolescents - A Cognitive-Behavioural Approach to the Development of Coping Skills and their Clinical Application. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Fabian, G., Muller, O., Kovacs, S., Nguyen, M. T., Fabian, T. K., Csermely, P., et al. (2007). Attitude toward death: Does it influence dental fear? Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Papers

  • Aartman, I. H. A., van Everdingen, T., Hoogstraten, J., & Schuurs, A. H. B. (1996). Appraisal of behavioral measurement techniques for assessing dental anxiety and fear in children: A review: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment Vol 18(2) Jun 1996, 153-171.
  • Abrahamsson, K. H., Berggren, U., Hallberg, L. R. M., & Carlsson, S. G. (2002). Ambivalence in coping with dental fear and avoidance: A qualitative study: Journal of Health Psychology Vol 7(6) Nov 2002, 653-664.
  • Ahmad, T. E. F., & Rajab, L. D. (2002). Dental fears among the students of the University of Jordan: Arab Journal of Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Nov 2002, 92-102.
  • Arntz, A., Van Eck, M., & Heijmans, M. (1990). Predictions of dental pain: The fear of any expected evil is worse than the evil itself: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 28(1) 1990, 29-41.
  • Berge, M. T., Veerkamp, J. S. J., & Hoogstraten, J. (2002). The etiology of childhood dental fear: The role of dental and conditioning experiences: Journal of Anxiety Disorders Vol 16(3) 2002, 321-329.
  • Berggren, U. (1992). General and specific fears in referred and self-referred adult patients with extreme dental anxiety: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 30(4) Jul 1992, 395-401.
  • Berggren, U. (1993). Psychosocial effects associated with dental fear in adult dental patients with avoidance behaviours: Psychology & Health Vol 8(2-3) Apr 1993, 185-196.
  • Berggren, U., & Carlsson, S. G. (1984). A psychophysiological therapy for dental fear: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 22(5) 1984, 487-492.
  • Bernstein, D. A., & Kleinknecht, R. A. (1982). Multiple approaches to the reduction of dental fear: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 13(4) Dec 1982, 287-292.
  • Brandon, R. K., & Kleinknecht, R. A. (1982). Fear assessment in a dental analogue setting: Journal of Behavioral Assessment Vol 4(4) Dec 1982, 317-325.
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  • Coldwell, S. E., Getz, T., Milgrom, P., Prall, C. W., Spadafora, A., & Ramsay, D. S. (1998). CARL: A LabView 3 computer program for conducting exposure therapy for the treatment of dental injection fear: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 36(4) Apr 1998, 429-441.
  • Davey, G. C. (1989). Dental phobias and anxieties: Evidence for conditioning processes in the acquisition and modulation of a learned fear: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 27(1) 1989, 51-58.
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Additional material

Books

  • Freeman, R. (1994). A psychotherapeutic approach to the understanding and treatment of a psychosomatic disorder: The case of burning mouth syndrome. London, England: Karnac Books.
  • McGlynn, F. D., & Vopat, T. (1994). Simple phobia. New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Papers




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