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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
|deiodinase, iodothyronine, type I|
|Locus:||1 p32 -p33|
|deiodinase, iodothyronine, type II|
|Locus:||14 q24.2 -24.3|
|deiodinase, iodothyronine, type III|
|deiodinase, iodothyronine, type III opposite strand|
Activation and inactivationEdit
In the tissues, deiodinases can either activate or inactivate thyroid hormones:
- Activation occurs by conversion of the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the active hormone triiodothyronine (T3) through the removal of an iodine atom on the outer ring.
- Inactivation of thyroid hormones occurs by removal of an iodine atom on the inner ring, which converts thyroxine to the inactive reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), or which converts the active triiodothyronine to the inactive diiodothyronine (T2). The major part of thyroxine deiodination occurs within the target cells.
In most vertebrates, there are three types of enzymes that can deiodinate thyroid hormones:
|type I (DI)||is commonly found in the liver, kidney, muscle tissue and thyroid gland||DI can deiodinate both rings|
|type II deiodinase (DII)||mostly in the brain but also in the testis and thyroid||DII can only deiodinate the outer ring of the prohormone thyroxine (or the metabolically inactive reverse triiodothyronine) and is the major activating enzyme|
|type III deiodinase (DIII)||found in the fetal tissue and the placenta||DIII can only deiodinate the inner ring of thyroxine or triiodothyronine and is the major inactivating enzyme|
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