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:''This article is about Darwinism as a philosophical concept; see [[Darwinist]] for a proponent of Darwinism; see [[evolution]] for the page on biological evolution; [[modern evolutionary synthesis]] for neo-Darwinism; and also [[evolution (disambiguation)]]''.
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[[Image:Charles Darwin by Julia Margaret Cameron 2.jpg|thumb|Charles Darwin in 1868]]
[[Image:Charles Darwin.jpg|frame|right|[[Charles Darwin]]]]
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'''''Darwinism''''' is a term used for various movements or concepts related to ideas of [[transmutation of species]] or [[evolution]], including ideas with no connection to the work of [[Charles Darwin]].<ref name=antidarwinian>{{cite web |url=http://www.toarchive.org/faqs/anti-darwin.html |title=How to be Anti-Darwinian |author=John Wilkins |date= 1998 |publisher=[[TalkOrigins Archive]] |accessdate=2008-06-19}}</ref><ref name=EOflunks>{{cite web |url=http://www.expelledexposed.com/index.php/contest/on-what-evolution-explains |title=Expelled Exposed: Why Expelled Flunks » …on what evolution explains |publisher=[[National Center for Science Education]] |accessdate=2008-12-22}}</ref><ref name=GalacticDarwinism>{{cite web |url=http://www.astrobio.net/news/index.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2169&theme=Printer |title=Galactic Darwinism :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evolution distribution Origin of life universe - life beyond :: Astrobiology is study of earth science evolution distribution Origin of life in universe terrestrial |author=based on an European Southern Observatory release |authorlink=European Southern Observatory |date=December 09, 2006 |accessdate=2008-12-22}}</ref> The meaning of ''Darwinism'' has changed over time, and depends on who is using the term.<ref name=whatis>{{cite web |url=http://www.toarchive.org/faqs/darwinism.html |title=What is Darwinism? |author=Joel Hanes |date= |publisher=[[TalkOrigins Archive]] |accessdate=2008-06-19}}</ref>
'''Darwinism''' is a term for the underlying theory in the ideas of [[Charles Darwin]], particularly concerning [[evolution]] and [[natural selection]]. Discussions of ''Darwinism'' usually focus on ''evolution by natural selection''.
 
   
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The term was coined by [[Thomas Henry Huxley]] in April 1860,<ref name=westminster>{{cite web |url=http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=A32&pageseq=29 |title=ART. VIII.- Darwin on the origin of Species |author=Huxley, T.H. |authorlink=Thomas Henry Huxley |date=April 1860 |publisher=[[Westminster Review]] |pages=541–70 |quote=What if the orbit of Darwinism should be a little too circular? |accessdate=2008-06-19}}</ref> and was used to describe evolutionary concepts, including earlier concepts such as [[Malthusian]]ism and [[Herbert Spencer|Spencerism]]. In the late 19th century it came to mean the concept that [[natural selection]] was the sole mechanism of evolution, in contrast to [[Lamarckism]], then around 1900 it was eclipsed by [[Mendelism]] until the [[modern evolutionary synthesis]] unified Darwin's and [[Gregor Mendel]]'s ideas. As [[modern evolutionary theory]] has developed, the term has been associated at times with specific ideas.<ref name=whatis/>
==Darwinism and other -isms==
 
In the [[United States]], the term "Darwinism" is sometimes used by [[creationism|creationists]] as a somewhat derogatory term for "evolutionary biology". Casting evolution as an "ism" &mdash; a doctrine or belief &mdash; is used to strengthen calls for "[[equal time]]" for other beliefs such as creationism. However, in other countries &mdash; such as the [[United Kingdom]] &mdash; "Darwinism" carries no such derogatory connotations and is freely used by evolutionary scientists. A notable example of a scientist who uses the term in a positive sense is [[Richard Dawkins]].
 
   
''Darwinism'' may also refer to a specific strand within evolutionary biology, dealing with the mechanism of natural selection, which Darwin studied, as opposed to evolutionary processes that were unknown in Darwin's day, such as [[genetic drift]] and [[gene flow]]. It may also refer specifically to the role of Charles Darwin as opposed to others in the [[history of evolutionary thought]] &mdash; particularly contrasting Darwin's results with those of earlier theories such as [[Lamarckism]] or later ones such as the [[modern synthesis]].
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While the term has remained in use amongst scientific authors, it is increasingly regarded as an inappropriate description of modern evolutionary theory <ref name=howto>{{cite web |url=http://www.toarchive.org/faqs/anti-darwin.html |title=How to be Anti-Darwinian |author=John Wilkins |date=1998 |publisher=[[TalkOrigins Archive]] |accessdate=2008-06-27}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Ruse|first=Michael|title=Darwin and Design: Does Evolution Have a Purpose?|publisher=Harvard University Press|location=Cambridge, MA|date=2003|pages=293|isbn=0674016319|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=SHWaeRiRD-cC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22michael+ruse%22+darwinism&as_brr=3&ei=SsmASKL-KKPujAGoxr29Aw&client=firefox-a&sig=ACfU3U3SsNf1LQuIA6Ytad6taCFWR1IA8A#PPA293,M1|accessdate=2008-07-18}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://judson.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/07/15/lets-get-rid-of-darwinism/ |title=Let’s Get Rid of Darwinism |author= Olivia Judson |date=July 15, 2008, 6:48 pm |publisher=New York Times}}</ref> For example, Darwin was unfamiliar with the work of [[Gregor Mendel]]<ref>{{cite journal | last = Sclater | first = Andrew | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = The extent of Charles Darwin’s knowledge of Mendel | journal = Journal of Biosciences | volume = 31 | issue = 2 | pages = 191-193 | publisher = Springer India / Indian Academy of Sciences | location = Bangalore, India | date = June 2006 | url = http://www.springerlink.com/content/w112307246x77t37/ | doi = 10.1007/BF02703910 | id = | accessdate = 2009/01/03 }} </ref>, having as a result only a vague and inaccurate understanding of [[heredity]], and knew nothing of [[genetic drift]].<ref name=GeneticDrift>{{cite web |url=http://www.toarchive.org/faqs/genetic-drift.html |title=Random Genetic Drift |author=Laurence Moran |date=1993 |publisher=[[TalkOrigins Archive]] |accessdate=2008-06-27}}</ref> In modern usage, particularly in the [[United States]], ''Darwinism'' is often used by [[creationism|creationists]] as a [[pejorative]] term.<ref name=morrissullivan>{{cite web | url = http://www.impactpress.com/articles/spring05/sullivanspring05.html | title = From the Beagle to the School Board: God Goes Back to School | last = Sullivan | first = M | publisher = [[Impact Press]] | year = 2005 | accessdate = 2008-09-18 }}</ref>
   
==Classical Darwinism==
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==19th century Darwinism==
In the 19th-century context in which Darwin's ''[[Origin of Species]]'' was first received, "Darwinism" came to stand for an entire range of evolutionary (and often revolutionary) philosophies about both biology and society. One of the more prominent approaches was that summed in the phrase "[[survival of the fittest]]" by the philosopher [[Herbert Spencer]], which was later taken to be emblematic of Darwinism even though Spencer's own understanding of evolution was more Lamarckian than Darwinian, and predated the [[publication of Darwin's theory]]. What we now call "[[Social Darwinism]]" was, in its day, synonymous with "Darwinism" &mdash; the application of Darwinian principles of "struggle" to society, usually in support of anti-[[philanthropy|philanthropic]] political agendas. Another interpretation, one notably favored by Darwin's cousin [[Francis Galton]], was that Darwinism implied that because natural selection was apparently no longer working on "civilized" people it was possible for "inferior" strains of people (who would normally be filtered out of the gene pool) to overwhelm the "superior" strains, and corrective measures would have to be undertaken &mdash; the foundation of [[eugenics]].
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[[Image:Darwin ape.jpg|thumb|As "Darwinism" became widely accepted in the 1870s, caricatures of [[Charles Darwin]] with an [[ape]] or [[monkey]] body symbolised [[evolution]].<ref>{{harvnb|Browne|2002|p=376-379}}</ref>]]
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While the term ''Darwinism'' had been used previously to refer to the work of [[Erasmus Darwin]] in the late 18th century, the term as understood today was introduced when [[Charles Darwin]]'s 1859 book ''[[On the Origin of Species]]'' was reviewed by [[Thomas Henry Huxley]] in the April 1860 issue of the ''[[Westminster Review]]''.<ref name="urlThe Huxley File § 4 Darwins Bulldog">{{cite web |url=http://aleph0.clarku.edu/huxley/guide4.html |title=The Huxley File § 4 Darwin's Bulldog |format= |work= |accessdate=2008-06-29}}</ref> Having hailed the book as, "a veritable [[Joseph Whitworth#Whitworth rifle|Whitworth gun]] in the armoury of [[liberalism]]" promoting [[naturalism (philosophy)|scientific naturalism]] over [[theology]], and praising the usefulness of Darwin's ideas while expressing professional reservations about Darwin's [[gradualism]] and doubting if it could be proved that [[natural selection]] could form new species,<ref>{{harvnb|Browne|2002|p=105-106}}</ref> Huxley compared Darwin's achievement to that of [[Nicolaus Copernicus|Copernicus]] in explaining planetary motion:
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{{quotation|What if the orbit of Darwinism should be a little too circular? What if species should offer residual phænomena, here and there, not explicable by natural selection? Twenty years hence naturalists may be in a position to say whether this is, or is not, the case; but in either event they will owe the author of "The Origin of Species" an immense debt of gratitude...... And viewed as a whole, we do not believe that, since the publication of Von Baer's "Researches on Development," thirty years ago, any work has appeared calculated to exert so large an influence, not only on the future of Biology, but in extending the domination of Science over regions of thought into which she has, as yet, hardly penetrated.<ref name=westminster/> }}
   
In Darwin's day there was no rigid definition of the term "Darwinism", and it was used by opponents and proponents of Darwin's biological theory alike to mean whatever they wanted it to in a larger context. The ideas had international influence, and [[Ernst Haeckel]] developed what was known as ''Darwinismus'' in [[Germany]]; though it should be noted that, like Spencer, Haeckel's "Darwinism" had only a rough resemblance to the theory of Charles Darwin, and was not centered around natural selection at all.
+
"Darwinism" soon came to stand for an entire range of evolutionary (and often revolutionary) philosophies about both biology and society. One of the more prominent approaches was that summed in the phrase "[[survival of the fittest]]" by the philosopher [[Herbert Spencer]], which was later taken to be emblematic of Darwinism even though Spencer's own understanding of evolution was more similar to that of [[Jean-Baptiste Lamarck]] than to that of Darwin, and predated the [[publication of Darwin's theory]]. What is now called "[[Social Darwinism]]" was, in its day, synonymous with "Darwinism" &mdash; the application of Darwinian principles of "struggle" to society, usually in support of anti-[[philanthropy|philanthropic]] political agendas. Another interpretation, one notably favoured by Darwin's half-cousin [[Francis Galton]], was that Darwinism implied that because natural selection was apparently no longer working on "civilized" people it was possible for "inferior" strains of people (who would normally be filtered out of the gene pool) to overwhelm the "superior" strains, and voluntary corrective measures would be desirable &mdash; the foundation of [[eugenics]].
   
==Darwinism as selectionism==
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In Darwin's day there was no rigid definition of the term "Darwinism", and it was used by opponents and proponents of Darwin's biological theory alike to mean whatever they wanted it to in a larger context. The ideas had international influence, and [[Ernst Haeckel]] developed what was known as ''Darwinismus'' in [[Germany]], although, like Spencer Haeckel's "Darwinism" had only a rough resemblance to the theory of Charles Darwin, and was not centered on natural selection at all.
To distinguish themselves from the very loose meaning of "Darwinism" prevalent in the 19th century, those who advocated evolution by natural selection after the death of Darwin became known as [[Modern evolutionary synthesis|neo-Darwinists]]. [[August Weismann]] was the most prominent member of this school, and further articulated that neo-Darwinism referred to evolution specifically by forms of "selection" (natural selection, including sexual selection), and that it was articulated around the idea that the hereditary material of an organism was not modified by the further development of the organism. Neo-Darwinism poised itself against neo-Lamarckism, also popular at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, which argued that bodily modifications acquired during the lifetime of the organism could be hereditarily passed on to the next generation. Weismann's neo-Darwinism, on the other hand, argued that all of an organism's hereditary material was kept in its [[germ plasm]], which existed separately from the rest of the organism's development.
 
   
Neo-Darwinism was not terribly popular in the scientific community, as most biologists felt that the complete segregation of development and heredity actions seems unlikely or unwarranted. After the development of the [[modern evolutionary synthesis]] in the 1930s, however, the selection theory became increasingly popular amongst biologists, and codified the more modern definition of Darwinism which we have today.
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While the reaction against Darwin's ideas is nowadays often thought to have been widespread immediately, in 1886 [[Alfred Russel Wallace]] went on a lecture tour across the United States, starting in New York and going via Boston, Washington, Kansas, Iowa and Nebraska to California, lecturing on what he called Darwinism without any problems.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://speakingoffaith.publicradio.org/programs/darwin/transcript.shtml|title=Evolution and Wonder - Understanding Charles Darwin - Speaking of Faith from American Public Media|accessdate=2007-07-27}}</ref>
   
==Darwinian processes==
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==Other uses==
In a modern definition of the term, a Darwinian process requires the following schema:
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The term ''Darwinism'' is often used in the [[United States]] by promoters of [[creationism]], notably by leading members of the [[intelligent design movement]] <ref = Jonnson_essay_on_darwinism>{{cite web | last = Johnson | first = Phillip E.| title = What is Darwinism? | url=http://www.arn.org/docs/johnson/wid.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-04 }}</ref> to describe [[evolution]]. In this usage, the term has connotations of [[atheism]]. For example, in [[Charles Hodge]]'s book ''What Is Darwinism?'', Hodge answers the question posed in the book's title by concluding: "It is Atheism."<ref = Ropp_essay_on_darwinism>{{cite web | last = Matthew | first = Ropp | title = Charles Hodge and His Objection to Darwinism | url=http://www.theropps.com/papers/Winter1997/CharlesHodge.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-04 }}</ref><ref = Hodge_book_online>{{cite web | last = Hodge | first = Charles | title = What is Darwinism? | url=http://www.gutenberg.org/files/19192/19192-8.txt | accessdate = 2007-01-04 }}</ref><ref =Hodge_book>{{cite book | last = Hodge | first = Charles | year = 1874 | title = What is Darwinism? | publisher = Scribner, Armstrong, and Company | id = {{OCLC|11489956}} }}</ref> Creationists use the term ''Darwinism'', often pejoratively, to imply that the theory has been held as true only by Darwin and a core group of his followers, whom they cast as [[dogma]]tic and inflexible in their [[belief]].<ref name=morrissullivan/> Casting evolution as a doctrine or belief bolsters religiously motivated political arguments to mandate [[Teach the Controversy|equal time]] for the teaching of creationism in public schools.
   
# '''[[Self-replication]]'''/[[Inheritance]]: Some number of entities must be capable of producing copies of themselves, and those copies must also be capable of reproduction. The new copies must inherit the traits of old ones. Sometimes the different variations are recombined in [[sexual reproduction]].
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However, ''Darwinism'' is also used neutrally within the scientific community to distinguish modern evolutionary theories from those first proposed by Darwin, as well as by historians to differentiate it from other evolutionary theories from around the same period. For example, ''Darwinism'' may be used to refer to Darwin's proposed mechanism of [[natural selection]], in comparison to more recent mechanisms such as [[genetic drift]] and [[gene flow]]. It may also refer specifically to the role of Charles Darwin as opposed to others in the [[history of evolutionary thought]] &mdash; particularly contrasting Darwin's results with those of earlier theories such as [[Lamarckism]] or later ones such as the [[modern synthesis]].
# '''[[Genetic variation|Variation]]''': There must be a range of different traits in the population of entities, and there must be a mechanism for introducing new variations into the population.
 
# '''[[Selection]]''': Inherited traits must somehow affect the ability of the entities to reproduce themselves, either by survival, or natural selection, or by ability to produce offspring by finding partners, or sexual selection.
 
   
If the entity or organism survives to reproduce, the process restarts. Sometimes, in stricter formulations, it is required that variation and selection act on different entities, variation on the [[replicator]] ([[genotype]]) and selection on the [[interactor]] ([[phenotype]]).
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In the United Kingdom the term retains its positive sense as a reference to natural selection, and for example [[Richard Dawkins]] wrote in his collection of essays ''[[A Devil's Chaplain]]'', published in 2003, that as a scientist he is a Darwinist.<ref>Sheahen, Laura. [http://www.beliefnet.com/story/136/story_13688_1.html Religion: For Dummies]. BeliefNet.com, interview about 2003 book.</ref>
   
Darwinism asserts that any system given these conditions, by whatever means, evolution is likely to occur. That is, over time, the entities will accumulate complex traits that favor their reproduction. This is called Universal Darwinism, a term coined by Richard Dawkins in his 1976 book Selfish Gene.
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==See also==
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* [[Natural selection]]
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* [[Modern evolutionary synthesis]]
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* [[Neo-Darwinism]]
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* [[Neural Darwinism]]
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* [[Social Darwinism]]
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* [[Pangenesis]] - Charles Darwin's hypothetical mechanism for heredity
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* [[Theory of evolution]]
   
Most obviously, this can refer to biological evolution. However, it has other potential spheres, the best known of which is the [[meme]], a concept of inheritance and modification of ideas introduced by Richard Dawkins in his [[1976]] book ''[[The Selfish Gene]]'' and further refined by researchers such as [[Richard Brodie]] and [[Susan Blackmore]]. It has been disputed if this was a Darwinian process, since it is unproven that memes undergo random mutations.
 
   
Perhaps surprisingly Darwinian theories have been proposed as explanations of the origin of the universe we live in. [[Lee Smolin]]'s theory [[Cosmological natural selection]] explains the selection of a universe with the correct fundamental physical parameters to support complex matter such as stars and ourselves. [[Wojciech Zurek]]'s theory of [[Quantum darwinism]] explains the selection of the our classical macroscopic world from underlying quantum processes.
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==Footnotes==
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{{reflist}}
   
Another example to illustrate are computer systems ([[Personal computer|PCs]]). Taking the software as the replicator and the whole system as the interactor, it could be seen as a Darwinian system, however, the code does not change randomly, but is directionally changed or rewritten from scratch; also systems do not reproduce.
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==References==
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*{{Citation
[[Daniel Dennett]] (1995) in ''[[Darwin's Dangerous Idea]]'' argues for Universal Darwinism.
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| last = Browne
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| first = E. Janet
==See also==
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| author-link = Janet Browne
*[[Neural Darwinism]]
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| year = 2002
*[[Social Darwinism]]
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| title = Charles Darwin: vol. 2 The Power of Place
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| publication-place = London
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| publisher = Jonathan Cape
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| isbn = 0-7126-6837-3
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}}
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
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{{Wiktionary}}
 
*[http://www.universaldarwinism.com Universal Darwinism]
 
*[http://www.universaldarwinism.com Universal Darwinism]
*[http://charles-darwin.classic-literature.co.uk/ Charles Darwin Books]
 
 
*[http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/darwinism/ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry]
 
*[http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/darwinism/ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry]
*[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/darwinism.html What is Darwinism]
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*[http://www.toarchive.org/faqs/darwinism.html What is Darwinism]
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*[http://www.evolution-of-man.info/history.htm The Darwinian Revolution]
   
 
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Revision as of 21:43, January 10, 2009

File:Charles Darwin by Julia Margaret Cameron 2.jpg

Darwinism is a term used for various movements or concepts related to ideas of transmutation of species or evolution, including ideas with no connection to the work of Charles Darwin.[1][2][3] The meaning of Darwinism has changed over time, and depends on who is using the term.[4]

The term was coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in April 1860,[5] and was used to describe evolutionary concepts, including earlier concepts such as Malthusianism and Spencerism. In the late 19th century it came to mean the concept that natural selection was the sole mechanism of evolution, in contrast to Lamarckism, then around 1900 it was eclipsed by Mendelism until the modern evolutionary synthesis unified Darwin's and Gregor Mendel's ideas. As modern evolutionary theory has developed, the term has been associated at times with specific ideas.[4]

While the term has remained in use amongst scientific authors, it is increasingly regarded as an inappropriate description of modern evolutionary theory [6][7][8] For example, Darwin was unfamiliar with the work of Gregor Mendel[9], having as a result only a vague and inaccurate understanding of heredity, and knew nothing of genetic drift.[10] In modern usage, particularly in the United States, Darwinism is often used by creationists as a pejorative term.[11]

19th century Darwinism

Darwin ape

As "Darwinism" became widely accepted in the 1870s, caricatures of Charles Darwin with an ape or monkey body symbolised evolution.[12]

While the term Darwinism had been used previously to refer to the work of Erasmus Darwin in the late 18th century, the term as understood today was introduced when Charles Darwin's 1859 book On the Origin of Species was reviewed by Thomas Henry Huxley in the April 1860 issue of the Westminster Review.[13] Having hailed the book as, "a veritable Whitworth gun in the armoury of liberalism" promoting scientific naturalism over theology, and praising the usefulness of Darwin's ideas while expressing professional reservations about Darwin's gradualism and doubting if it could be proved that natural selection could form new species,[14] Huxley compared Darwin's achievement to that of Copernicus in explaining planetary motion:

What if the orbit of Darwinism should be a little too circular? What if species should offer residual phænomena, here and there, not explicable by natural selection? Twenty years hence naturalists may be in a position to say whether this is, or is not, the case; but in either event they will owe the author of "The Origin of Species" an immense debt of gratitude...... And viewed as a whole, we do not believe that, since the publication of Von Baer's "Researches on Development," thirty years ago, any work has appeared calculated to exert so large an influence, not only on the future of Biology, but in extending the domination of Science over regions of thought into which she has, as yet, hardly penetrated.[5]


"Darwinism" soon came to stand for an entire range of evolutionary (and often revolutionary) philosophies about both biology and society. One of the more prominent approaches was that summed in the phrase "survival of the fittest" by the philosopher Herbert Spencer, which was later taken to be emblematic of Darwinism even though Spencer's own understanding of evolution was more similar to that of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck than to that of Darwin, and predated the publication of Darwin's theory. What is now called "Social Darwinism" was, in its day, synonymous with "Darwinism" — the application of Darwinian principles of "struggle" to society, usually in support of anti-philanthropic political agendas. Another interpretation, one notably favoured by Darwin's half-cousin Francis Galton, was that Darwinism implied that because natural selection was apparently no longer working on "civilized" people it was possible for "inferior" strains of people (who would normally be filtered out of the gene pool) to overwhelm the "superior" strains, and voluntary corrective measures would be desirable — the foundation of eugenics.

In Darwin's day there was no rigid definition of the term "Darwinism", and it was used by opponents and proponents of Darwin's biological theory alike to mean whatever they wanted it to in a larger context. The ideas had international influence, and Ernst Haeckel developed what was known as Darwinismus in Germany, although, like Spencer Haeckel's "Darwinism" had only a rough resemblance to the theory of Charles Darwin, and was not centered on natural selection at all.

While the reaction against Darwin's ideas is nowadays often thought to have been widespread immediately, in 1886 Alfred Russel Wallace went on a lecture tour across the United States, starting in New York and going via Boston, Washington, Kansas, Iowa and Nebraska to California, lecturing on what he called Darwinism without any problems.[15]

Other uses

The term Darwinism is often used in the United States by promoters of creationism, notably by leading members of the intelligent design movement Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag. Tag has more than one name associated with reference. to describe evolution. In this usage, the term has connotations of atheism. For example, in Charles Hodge's book What Is Darwinism?, Hodge answers the question posed in the book's title by concluding: "It is Atheism."Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag. Tag has more than one name associated with reference.Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag. Tag has more than one name associated with reference.[16] Creationists use the term Darwinism, often pejoratively, to imply that the theory has been held as true only by Darwin and a core group of his followers, whom they cast as dogmatic and inflexible in their belief.[11] Casting evolution as a doctrine or belief bolsters religiously motivated political arguments to mandate equal time for the teaching of creationism in public schools.

However, Darwinism is also used neutrally within the scientific community to distinguish modern evolutionary theories from those first proposed by Darwin, as well as by historians to differentiate it from other evolutionary theories from around the same period. For example, Darwinism may be used to refer to Darwin's proposed mechanism of natural selection, in comparison to more recent mechanisms such as genetic drift and gene flow. It may also refer specifically to the role of Charles Darwin as opposed to others in the history of evolutionary thought — particularly contrasting Darwin's results with those of earlier theories such as Lamarckism or later ones such as the modern synthesis.

In the United Kingdom the term retains its positive sense as a reference to natural selection, and for example Richard Dawkins wrote in his collection of essays A Devil's Chaplain, published in 2003, that as a scientist he is a Darwinist.[17]

See also


Footnotes

  1. John Wilkins. How to be Anti-Darwinian. TalkOrigins Archive. URL accessed on 2008-06-19.
  2. Expelled Exposed: Why Expelled Flunks » …on what evolution explains. National Center for Science Education. URL accessed on 2008-12-22.
  3. based on an European Southern Observatory release. Galactic Darwinism :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evolution distribution Origin of life universe - life beyond :: Astrobiology is study of earth science evolution distribution Origin of life in universe terrestrial. URL accessed on 2008-12-22.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Joel Hanes. What is Darwinism?. TalkOrigins Archive. URL accessed on 2008-06-19.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Huxley, T.H.. ART. VIII.- Darwin on the origin of Species. Westminster Review. URL accessed on 2008-06-19.
  6. John Wilkins. How to be Anti-Darwinian. TalkOrigins Archive. URL accessed on 2008-06-27.
  7. Ruse, Michael (2003). Darwin and Design: Does Evolution Have a Purpose?, 293, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. URL accessed 2008-07-18.
  8. Olivia Judson. Let’s Get Rid of Darwinism. New York Times.
  9. Sclater, Andrew (June 2006). The extent of Charles Darwin’s knowledge of Mendel. Journal of Biosciences 31 (2): 191-193.
  10. Laurence Moran. Random Genetic Drift. TalkOrigins Archive. URL accessed on 2008-06-27.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Sullivan, M (2005). From the Beagle to the School Board: God Goes Back to School. Impact Press. URL accessed on 2008-09-18.
  12. Browne 2002, p. 376-379
  13. The Huxley File § 4 Darwin's Bulldog. URL accessed on 2008-06-29.
  14. Browne 2002, p. 105-106
  15. Evolution and Wonder - Understanding Charles Darwin - Speaking of Faith from American Public Media. URL accessed on 2007-07-27.
  16. Hodge, Charles (1874). What is Darwinism?, Scribner, Armstrong, and Company. OCLC 11489956.
  17. Sheahen, Laura. Religion: For Dummies. BeliefNet.com, interview about 2003 book.

References

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