Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Cysteine

Talk0
34,139pages on
this wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)


This article needs rewriting to enhance its relevance to psychologists..
Please help to improve this page yourself if you can..


Skeletal structure of L-cysteine
3D model of the amino acid cysteine Space-filling model of the amino acid cysteine

Cysteine

Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanyl-propanoic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 52-90-4
PubChem         5862
Chemical data
Formula C3H7NO2S 
Mol. weight 121.16 g/mol
SMILES N[C@@H](S)C(O)=O
Complete data

Cysteine (abbreviated as Cys or C)[1] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH. It is not an essential amino acid, which means that humans can synthesize it. Its codons are UGU and UGC. With a thiol side chain, cysteine is classified as a hydrophilic amino acid. Because of the high reactivity of this thiol, cysteine is an important structural and functional component of many proteins and enzymes. Cysteine is named after cystine, its oxidized dimer.

SourcesEdit

Dietary sourcesEdit

Although classified as a non-essential amino acid, in rare cases, cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and individuals with certain metabolic disease or who suffer from malabsorption syndromes. Cysteine can usually be synthesized by the human body under normal physiological conditions if a sufficient quantity of methionine is available. Cysteine is potentially toxic and is catabolized in the gastrointestinal tract and blood plasma. In contrast, cysteine is absorbed during digestion as cystine, which is more stable in the gastrointestinal tract. Cystine travels safely through the GI tract and blood plasma, and is promptly reduced to the two cysteine molecules upon cell entry.

Cysteine is found in most high-protein foods, including:

  • Animal sources: eggs, milk, whey protein, ricotta, cottage cheese, yogurt, pork, sausage meat, chicken, turkey, duck, luncheon meat
  • Vegetarian sources: red peppers, garlic, onions, broccoli, brussel sprouts, oats, granola, wheat germ.

BiosynthesisEdit

In animals, biosynthesis begins with the amino acid serine. The sulfur is derived from methionine, which is converted to homocysteine through the intermediate S-adenosylmethionine. Cystathionine beta-synthase then combines homocysteine and serine to form the asymmetrical thioether cystathionine. The enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase converts the cystathionine into cysteine and alpha-ketobutyrate.

Biological functionsEdit

The cysteine thiol group is nucleophilic and easily oxidized. The reactivity is enhanced when the thiol ionized, and cysteine residues in proteins have pKa values close to neutrality, so are often in their reactive thiolate form in the cell.[2] Because of its high reactivity, the thiol group of cysteine has numerous biological functions.

Precursor to the antioxidant glutathioneEdit

Due to the ability of thiols to undergo redox reactions, cysteine has antioxidant properties. Cysteine's antioxidant properties are typically expressed in the tripeptide glutathione, which occurs in humans as well as other organisms. The systemic availability of oral glutathione (GSH) is negligible; so it must be biosynthesized from its constituent amino acids, cysteine, glycine, and glutamic acid. Glutamic acid and glycine are readily available in most North American diets, but the availability of cysteine can be the limiting substrate.

Oxidation to cystine linkagesEdit

Oxidation of cysteine produces the disulfide cystine. More aggressive oxidants convert cysteine to the corresponding sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid. Cysteine residues play a valuable role by crosslinking proteins, which increases the protein stability in the harsh extracellular environment, and also functions to confer proteolytic resistance (since protein export is a costly process, minimizing its necessity is advantageous). Inside the cell, disulfide bridges between cysteine residues within a polypeptide support the protein's secondary structure. Insulin is an example of a protein with cystine crosslinking, wherein two separate peptide chains are connected by a pair of disulfide bonds.

Protein Disulfide Isomerases catalyze the proper formation of disulfide bonds; the cell transfers dehydroascorbic acid to the endoplasmic reticulum, which oxidises the environment. In this environment, cysteines are, in general, oxidized to cystine and no longer functions as a nucleophile.

Precursor to iron-sulfur clustersEdit

Cysteine is an important source of sulfide in human metabolism. The sulfide in iron-sulfur clusters and in nitrogenase is extracted from cysteine, which is converted to alanine in the process.[3]

Metal ion bindingEdit

Beyond the iron-sulfur proteins, many other metal cofactors in enzymes are bound to the thiolate substituent of cysteinyl residues. Examples include zinc in zinc fingers and alcohol dehydrogenase, copper in the blue copper proteins, iron in cytochrome P450, and nickel in the [NiFe]-hydrogenases.[4] The thiol group also has a high affinity for heavy metals, so that proteins containing cysteine will bind metals such as mercury, lead, and cadmium tightly.[5]

Post-translational modificationsEdit

Aside from its oxidation to cystine, cysteine participates in numerous Posttranslational modifications. The nucleophilic thiol group allows cysteine to conjugate to other groups, e.g., in prenylation. Ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin to its pendant, proteins, and caspases, which engage in proteolysis in the apoptotic cycle. Inteins often function with the help of a catalytic cysteine. These roles are typically limited to the intracellular milieu, where the environment is reducing, and cysteine is not oxidized to cystine.

ApplicationsEdit

Cysteine, mainly the L-enantiomer, is a precursor in the food, pharmaceutical, and personal care industries. One of the largest applications is the production of flavors. For example, the reaction of cysteine with sugars in a Maillard reaction yields meat flavors.[How to reference and link to summary or text] L-cysteine is also used as a processing aid for baking. Small quantities (in the tens of ppm range) help to soften the dough and thus reduce processing time. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/foodic.html

In the field of personal care, cysteine is used for permanent wave applications predominantly in Asia. Again the cysteine is used for breaking up the disulfide bonds in the hair's keratin.

Cysteine is a very popular target for site-directed labeling experiments to investigate biomolecular structure and dynamics. Maleimides will selectively attach to cysteine using a covalent Michael addition. Site-directed spin labeling for EPR or paramagnetic relaxation enhanced NMR also uses cysteine extensively.

In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, cysteine is one of the 599 additives to cigarettes. Like most cigarette additives, however, its use or purpose is unknown.[6] Its inclusion in cigarettes could offer two benefits: Acting as an expectorant, since smoking increases mucus production in the lungs; and increasing the beneficial antioxidant glutathione (which is diminished in smokers).

SheepEdit

File:Cystine-skeletal.png

Cysteine is required by sheep in order to produce wool, however it is an essential amino acid which must be taken in as food from grass. As a consequence, during drought conditions, sheep stop producing wool; however, transgenic sheep which can make their own cysteine have been developed.

Hangover remedyEdit

Cysteine has been linked to aiding in the remedy of certain hangover symptoms. It directly counteracts the poisonous effects of acetaldehyde, which is the major by-product of alcohol metabolism and is responsible for most of the harmful effects of drinking. Cysteine supports the next step in metabolism, which produces the relatively harmless acetic acid. In a rat study, test animals received a LD50 dose of acetaldehyde (the amount which normally kills half of all animals). Those which received cysteine had an 80% survival rate; when thiamine was added, all animals survived.[7] The actual effectiveness of consuming cysteine as part of a hangover remedy is unclear.[8]

N-acetylcysteine (NAC)Edit

N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a derivative of cysteine wherein an acetyl group is attached to the nitrogen atom. This compound is sometimes considered as a dietary supplement, although it is not an ideal source since it is catabolized in the gut. NAC is often used as a cough medicine because it breaks up the disulfide bonds in the mucus and thus liquefies it, making it easier to cough up. NAC is also used as a dietary supplement as already indicated above, as well as a specific antidote in cases of acetominophen overdose.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Nomenclature and Symbolism for Amino Acids and Peptides. Recommendations on Organic & Biochemical Nomenclature, Symbols & Terminology etc. URL accessed on 2007-05-17.
  2. Bulaj G, Kortemme T, Goldenberg D (1998). Ionization-reactivity relationships for cysteine thiols in polypeptides.. Biochemistry 37 (25): 8965-72. PMID 9636038.
  3. Roland Lill, Ulrich Mühlenhoff “Iron-Sulfur Protein Biogenesis in Eukaryotes: Components and Mechanisms” Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, 2006, Volume 22, pp. 457-486. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.22.010305.104538.
  4. S. J. Lippard, J. M. Berg “Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry” University Science Books: Mill Valley, CA; 1994. ISBN 0-935702-73-3.
  5. Baker D, Czarnecki-Maulden G (1987). Pharmacologic role of cysteine in ameliorating or exacerbating mineral toxicities.. J Nutr 117 (6): 1003-10. PMID 3298579.
  6. http://quitsmoking.about.com/cs/nicotineinhaler/a/cigingredients.htm
  7. Effects of cysteine on acetaldehyde lethality http://www.springerlink.com/content/w307w62037125v33/
  8. http://www.lef.org/protocols/prtcl-004.shtml
  • Ablonczy, Z., Kono, M., Knapp, D. R., & Crouch, R. K. (2006). Palmitylation of cone opsins: Vision Research Vol 46(27) Dec 2006, 4493-4501.
  • Abou-Saleh, M. T., Karim, L., & Krymsky, M. (1998). The biology of depression in Arab culture: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Vol 52(2) 1998, 177-182.
  • Amend, D. L. (1994). Cognitive decline in depressed elderly with olfactory identification impairment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Andreassen, O. A., Dedeoglu, A., Kilvenyi, P., Beal, M. F., & Bush, A. I. (2000). N-acetyl-L-cysteine improves survival and preserves motor performance in an animal model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 11(11) Aug 2000, 2491-2493.
  • Annerbo, S., Wahlund, L.-O., & Lokk, J. (2006). The Significance of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Homocysteine in the Development of Alzheimer's Disease in Mild Cognitive Impairment: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias Vol 21(3) May-Jun 2006, 182-188.
  • Anni, H., Pristatsky, P., & Israel, Y. (2003). Binding of Acetaldehyde to a Glutathione Metabolite: Mass Spectrometric Characterization of an Acetaldehyde-Cysteinylglycine Conjugate: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 27(10) Oct 2003, 1613-1621.
  • Aschner, M., & West, A. K. (2005). The role of MT in neurological disorders: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 8(2) 2005, 139-145.
  • Asechi, M., Tomonaga, S., Tachibana, T., Han, L., Hayamizu, K., Denbow, D. M., et al. (2006). Intracerebroventricular injection of L-serine analogs and derivatives induces sedative and hypnotic effects under an acute stressful condition in neonatal chicks: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 170(1) Jun 2006, 71-77.
  • Baker, D. A., McFarland, K., Lake, R. W., Shen, H., Toda, S., & Kalivas, P. W. (2003). N-Acetyl Cysteine-Induced Blockade of Cocaine-Induced Reinstatement. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Baum, L., Chen, X., Cheung, W. S., Cheung, C. K. A., Cheung, L. W., Chiu, K. F. P., et al. (2007). Polymorphisms and vascular cognitive impairment after ischemic stroke: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology Vol 20(2) Jun 2007, 93-99.
  • Bayerlein, K., Hillemacher, T., Reulbach, U., Mugele, B., Sperling, W., Kornhuber, J., et al. (2005). Alcoholism-Associated Hyperhomocysteinemia and Previous Withdrawal Seizures: Biological Psychiatry Vol 57(12) Jun 2005, 1590-1593.
  • Bell, I. R., Amend, D., Kaszniak, A. W., Schwartz, G. E., & et al. (1995). Trait shyness in the elderly: Evidence for an association with Parkinson's disease in family members and biochemical correlates: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology Vol 8(1) Jan 1995, 16-22.
  • Berk, M. (2007). Oxidative biology: New intervention opportunities in psychiatry: Acta Neuropsychiatrica Vol 19(4) Aug 2007, 259-260.
  • Beulens, J. W. J., Sierksma, A., Schaafsma, G., Kok, F. J., Struys, E. A., Jakobs, C., et al. (2005). Kinetics of Homocysteine Metabolism After Moderate Alcohol Consumption: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 29(5) May 2005, 739-745.
  • Bhat, R. V., Leonov, S., Luthman, J., Scott, C. W., & Lee, C.-M. (2002). Interactions between GSK3beta and caspase signalling pathways during NGF deprivation induced cell death: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 4(4) 2002, 291-301.
  • Billett, E. A., Richter, M. A., Sam, F., Swinson, R. P., Dai, X. Y., King, N., et al. (1998). Investigation of dopamine system genes in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Psychiatric Genetics Vol 8(3) Fal 1998, 163-169.
  • Bleich, S., Carl, M., Bayerlein, K., Reulbach, U., Biermann, T., Hillemacher, T., et al. (2005). Evidence of Increased Homocysteine Levels in Alcoholism: The Franconian Alcoholism Research Studies (FARS): Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 29(3) Mar 2005, 334-336.
  • Bleich, S., Degner, D., Wiltfang, J., Maler, J. M., Niedmann, P., Cohrs, S., et al. (2000). Elevated homocysteine levels in alcohol withdrawal: Alcohol and Alcoholism Vol 35(4) Jul-Aug 2000, 351-354.
  • Bleich, S., Frieling, H., & Hillemacher, T. (2007). Elevated prenatal homocysteine levels and the risk of schizophrenia: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 64(8) Aug 2007, 980-981.
  • Bleich, S., & Kornhuber, J. (2004). Homocysteine in chronic alcoholism Pathobiochemical and pathophysiological aspects: Sucht: Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaft und Praxis Vol 50(6) Dec 2004, 376-384.
  • Boldyrev, A. A., & Johnson, P. (2007). Homocysteine and its derivatives as possible modulators of neuronal and non-neuronal cell glutamate receptors in Alzheimer's disease: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 11(2) 2007, 219-228.
  • Bollinger, K., Bialozynski, C., Neitz, J., & Neitz, M. (2001). The importance of deleterious mutations of M pigment genes as a cause of color vision defects: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S100-S105.
  • Borghese, C. M., Henderson, L. A., Bleck, V., Trudell, J. R., & Harris, R. A. (2003). Sites of Excitatory and Inhibitory Actions of Alcohols on Neuronal alpha 2beta 4 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 307(1) Oct 2003, 42-52.
  • Bottiglieri, T. (2005). Homocysteine and folate metabolism in depression: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 29(7) Sep 2005, 1103-1112.
  • Bottiglieri, T., Laundy, M., Crellin, R., Toone, B. K., Carney, M. W. P., & Reynolds, E. H. (2000). Homocysteine, folate, methylation, and monoamine metabolism in depression: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 69(2) Aug 2000, 228-232.
  • Boxer, A. L., Kramer, J. H., Johnston, K., Goldman, J., Finley, R., & Miller, B. L. (2005). Executive dysfunction in hyperhomocystinemia responds to homocysteine-lowering treatment: Neurology Vol 64(8) Apr 2005, 1431-1434.
  • Bray, T. M., & Levy, M. A. (2005). Dietary Zinc in Brain Development, Behavior, and Neuropathology. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.
  • Brown, A. S., & Susser, E. S. (2005). Homocysteine and schizophrenia: From prenatal to adult life: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 29(7) Sep 2005, 1175-1180.
  • Budge, M. M., de Jager, C., Hogervorst, E., & Smith, A. D. (2002). Total plasma homocysteine, age, systolic blood pressure, and cognitive performance in older people: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 50(12) Dec 2002, 2014-2018.
  • Burdo, J., Schubert, D., & Maher, P. (2008). Glutathione production is regulated via distinct pathways in stressed and non-stressed cortical neurons: Brain Research Vol 1189 Jan 2008, 12-22.
  • Cadiou, H., Studer, M., Jones, N. G., St. J. Smith, E., Ballard, A., McMahon, S. B., et al. (2007). Modulation of acid-sensing ion channel activity by nitric oxide: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 27(48) Nov 2007, 13251-13260.
  • Cao, Y., Li, M., Mager, S., & Lester, H. A. (1998). Amino acid residues that control pH modulation of transport-associated current in mammalian serontin transporters: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 18(19) Oct 1998, 7739-7749.
  • Carai, M. A. M., Vacca, G., Serra, S., Colombo, G., Froestl, W., & Gessa, G. L. (2004). Suppression of GABA-sub(B) receptor function in vivo by disulfide reducing agent, DL-dithiothreitol (DTT): Psychopharmacology Vol 174(2) Jul 2004, 283-290.
  • Carbonell, W. S., Murase, S.-I., Horwitz, A. F., & Mandell, J. W. (2005). Migration of Perilesional Microglia after Focal Brain Injury and Modulation by CC Chemokine Receptor 5: An In Situ Time-Lapse Confocal Imaging Study: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 25(30) Jul 2005, 7040-7047.
  • Caro, A. A., & Cederbaum, A. I. (2004). Oxidative stress, toxicology, and pharmacology of CYP2E1: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Vol 44 2004, 27-42.
  • Chandra, G., Gangopadhyay, P. K., Kumar, K. S. S., & Mohanakumar, K. P. (2006). Acute intranigral homocysteine administration produces stereotypic behavioral changes and striatal dopamine depletion in Sprague-Dawley rats: Brain Research Vol 1075(1) Feb 2006, 81-92.
  • Chen, C.-S., Tsai, J.-C., Tsang, H.-Y., Kuo, Y.-T., Lin, H.-F., Chiang, I. C., et al. (2005). Homocysteine Levels, MTHFR C677T Genotype, and MRI Hyperintensities in Late-Onset Major Depressive Disorder: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 13(10) Oct 2005, 869-875.
  • Chen, J., Nagayama, T., Jin, K., Stetler, R. A., Zhu, R. L., Graham, S. H., et al. (1998). Induction of caspase-3-like protease may mediate delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 18(13) Jul 1998, 4914-4928.
  • Chen, Z., Schwahn, B. C., Wu, Q., He, X., & Rozen, R. (2005). Postnatal cerebellar defects in mice deficient in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience Vol 23(5) Aug 2005, 465-474.
  • Cho, S., Liu, D., Gonzales, C., Zaleska, M. M., & Wood, A. (2003). Temporal assessment of caspase activation in experimental models of focal and global ischemia: Brain Research Vol 982(2) Aug 2003, 146-155.
  • Clark, A. K., Yip, P. K., Grist, J., Gentry, C., Staniland, A. A., Marchand, F., et al. (2007). Inhibition of spinal microglial cathepsin S for the reversal of neuropathic pain: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 104(25) Jun 2007, 10655-10660.
  • Clark, M. S., Guthrie, J. R., & Dennerstein, L. (2005). Hyperhomocysteinemia Is Associated with Lower Performance on Memory Tasks in Post-Menopausal Women: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Vol 20(2-3) Aug 2005, 57-62.
  • Coderre, T. J., Xanthos, D. N., Francis, L., & Bennett, G. J. (2004). Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP): A novel animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-Type I (CRPS-I; reflex sympathetic dystrophy) produced by prolonged hindpaw ischemia and reperfusion in the rat: Pain Vol 112(1-2) Nov 2004, 94-105.
  • Comas, D., Petit, F., & Preat, T. (2004). Drosophila long-term memory formation involves regulation of cathepsin activity: Nature Vol 430(6998) Jul 2004, 460-463.
  • Connors, S. L., & Crowell, D. E. (1999). Secretin and autism: The role of cysteine: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 38(7) Jul 1999, 795-796.
  • Cordeiro, M. L. (2000). Lithium ion regulation of genes encoding neurosecretory proteins. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Cordeiro, M. L., Gundersen, C. B., & Umbach, J. A. (2004). Convergent effects of lithium and valproate on the expression of proteins associated with large dense core vesicles in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 29(1) Jan 2004, 39-44.
  • Cornil, C. A., Balthazart, J., Motte, P., Massotte, L., & Seutin, V. (2002). Dopamine Activates Noradrenergic Receptors in the Preoptic Area: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 22(21) Nov 2002, 9320-9330.
  • Crawford, F. C., Freeman, M. J., Schinka, J. A., Abdullah, L. I., Gold, M., Hartman, R., et al. (2000). A polymorphism in the cystatin C gene is a novel risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease: Neurology Vol 55(6) Sep 2000, 763-768.
  • Daniel, P. C., & Derby, C. D. (1991). Mixture suppression in behavior: The antennular flick response in the spiny lobster towards binary odorant mixtures: Physiology & Behavior Vol 49(3) Mar 1991, 591-601.
  • Dash, P. K., Blum, S., & Moore, A. N. (2000). Caspase activity plays an essential role in long-term memory: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 11(12) Aug 2000, 2811-2816.
  • de Haan, L., & Guzelcan, Y. (2004). Relevance of homocysteine metabolism for the treatment of schizophrenia: Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie Vol 46(2) 2004, 93-99.
  • de Haan, L., van Amelsvoort, T., & Linszen, D. H. (2004). Elevated Homocysteine Levels in Schizophrenia: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 161(6) Jun 2004, 1131-1132.
  • de Silva, H. A., Gunatilake, S. B., Johnston, C., Warden, D., & Smith, A. D. (2005). Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy, Apolipoprotein Genotype, and Plasma Homocysteine in Sri Lankan Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Experimental Aging Research Vol 31(3) Jul-Sep 2005, 345-354.
  • de Souza, F. G., Rodrigues, M. D. B., Tufik, S., Nobrega, J. N., & D'Almeida, V. (2006). Acute stressor-selective effects on homocysteine metabolism and oxidative stress parameters in female rats: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 85(2) Oct 2006, 400-407.
  • Deeb, T. Z. (2007). The influence of the cytoplasmic MA-stretch on ion conduction in cationic cysteine-loop receptors. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Derby, C. D., Girardot, M.-N., & Daniel, P. C. (1991). Responses of olfactory receptor cells of spiny lobsters to binary mixtures: I. Intensity mixture interactions: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 66(1) Jul 1991, 112-130.
  • Derby, C. D., Girardot, M.-N., & Daniel, P. C. (1991). Responses of olfactory receptor cells of spiny lobsters to binary mixtures: II. Pattern mixture interactions: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 66(1) Jul 1991, 131-139.
  • Derby, C. D., Hutson, M., Livermore, B. A., & Lynn, W. H. (1996). Generalization among related complex odorant mixtures and their components: Analysis of olfactory perception in the spiny lobster: Physiology & Behavior Vol 60(1) Jul 1996, 87-95.
  • Dhitavat, S., Rivera, E. R., Rogers, E., & Shea, T. B. (2001). Differential efficacy of lipophilic and cytosolic antioxidants on generation of reactive oxygen species by amyloid-beta: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 3(6) 2001, 525-529.
  • Diana, G., Valentini, G., Travaglione, S., Falzano, L., Pieri, M., Zona, C., et al. (2007). Enhancement of learning and memory after activation of cerebral Rho GTPases: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 104(2) Jan 2007, 636-641.
  • Dittmann, S., Seemuller, F., Schwarz, M. J., Kleindienst, N., Stampfer, R., Zach, J., et al. (2007). Association of cognitive deficits with elevated homocysteine levels in euthymic bipolar patients and its impact on psychosocial functioning: Preliminary results: Bipolar Disorders Vol 9(1-2) Feb-Mar 2007, 63-70.
  • Dorsett, E. S. W. (2005). Homocysteine and memory in adult children of persons with Alzheimer's disease. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Dorszewska, J., Florczak, J., Rozycka, A., Kempisty, B., Jaroszewska-Kolecka, J., Chojnacka, K., et al. (2007). Oxidative DNA damage and level of thiols as related to polymorphisms of MTHFR, MTR, MTHFD1 in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis Vol 67(2) 2007, 113-129.
  • Dukes, A. A. (2007). The role of dopamine oxidation in dopamine-induced toxicity, initiation of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and potentiation of rotenone-induced toxicity in differentiated pc12 cells. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Edwards, M. J. J., Hargreaves, I. P., Heales, S. J. R., Jones, S. J., Ramachandran, V., Bhatia, K. P., et al. (2002). N-acetylcysteine and Unverricht-Lundborg disease: Variable response and possible side effects: Neurology Vol 59(9) Nov 2002, 1447-1449.
  • Engelberg, H. (2004). Pathogenic factors in vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease: Multiple actions of heparin that probably are beneficial: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Vol 18(3-4) Nov 2004, 278-298.
  • Escarabajal, D., Miquel, M., & Aragon, C. M. G. (2001). L-cysteine, a thiol amino acid, increases the stimulating acute effect of ethanol on locomotion: Alcohol Vol 25(2) Oct 2001, 83-88.
  • Eschweiler, G. W., Rosin, R., Thier, P., & Giedke, H. (1997). Postoperative psychosis in homocystinuria: European Psychiatry Vol 12(2) 1997, 98-101.
  • Evans, J., Reeves, B., Platt, H., Leibenau, A., Goldman, D., Jefferson, K., et al. (2000). Impulsiveness, serotonin genes and repetition of deliberate self-harm (DSH): Psychological Medicine Vol 30(6) Nov 2000, 1327-1334.
  • Ferko, A. P. (1991). Cysteine sulfinic acid can enhance the central depressant effect of ethanol in mice: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 39(3) Jul 1991, 653-657.
  • Fraguas, R., Jr., Papakostas, G. I., Mischoulon, D., Bottiglieri, T., Alpert, J., & Fava, M. (2006). Anger Attacks in Major Depressive Disorder and Serum Levels of Homocysteine: Biological Psychiatry Vol 60(3) Aug 2006, 270-274.
  • Frenkel, D., Solomon, B., & Benhar, I. (2000). Modulation of Alzheimer's beta -amyloid neurotoxicity by site-directed single-chain antibody: Journal of Neuroimmunology Vol 106(1-2) Jul 2000, 23-31.
  • Frieling, H., Romer, K. D., Beyer, S., Hillemacher, T., Wilhelm, J., Jacoby, G. E., et al. (2008). Depressive symptoms may explain elevated plasma levels of homocysteine in females with eating disorders: Journal of Psychiatric Research Vol 42(1) Jan 2008, 83-86.
  • Fu, A.-L., Dong, Z.-H., & Sun, M.-J. (2006). Protective effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on amyloid beta -peptide-induced learning and memory deficits in mice: Brain Research Vol 1109(1) Sep 2006, 201-206.
  • Fukami, G., Hashimoto, K., Koike, K., Okamura, N., Shimizu, E., & Iyo, M. (2004). Effect of antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine on behavioral changes and neurotoxicity in rats after administration of methamphetamine: Brain Research Vol 1016(1) Jul 2004, 90-95.
  • Fuso, A., Cavallaro, R. A., Zampelli, A., D'Anselmi, F., Piscopo, P., Confaloni, A., et al. (2007). gamma -Secretase is dfferentially modulated by alterations of homocysteine cycle in neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cells: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 11(3) 2007, 275-290.
  • Garcia, A., & Zanibbi, K. (2004). Homocysteine and cognitive function in elderly people: Canadian Medical Association Journal Vol 171(8) Oct 2004, 897-904.
  • Gazit, V., Ben-Abraham, R., Pick, C. G., Ben-Shlomo, I., & Katz, Y. (2003). Long-term neurobehavioral and histological damage in brain of mice induced by L-cysteine: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 75(4) Jul 2003, 795-799.
  • Gilka, L. (1978). The biochemistry of the schizophrenias: Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry Vol 7(1) 1978, 6-16.
  • Goff, D. C. (2005). "The Significance of Homocysteine Levels in Schizophrenia": Reply: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 162(7) Jul 2005, 1388-1389.
  • Goff, D. C., Bottiglieri, T., Arning, E., Shih, V., Freudenreich, O., Evins, A. E., et al. (2004). Folate, homocysteine, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 161(9) Sep 2004, 1705-1708.
  • Goldberg, N. R. (2008). Bacterial homologues of the eukaryotic sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Grant, J. E., Kim, S. W., & Odlaug, B. L. (2007). N-acetyl cysteine, a glutamate-modulating agent, in the treatment of pathological gambling: A pilot study: Biological Psychiatry Vol 62(6) Sep 2007, 652-657.
  • Grech, D. M., Lunn, W. H. W., & Balster, R. L. (1995). Discriminative stimulus effects of excitatory amino acid agonists in rats: Neuropharmacology Vol 34(1) Jan 1995, 55-62.
  • Gussekloo, J., Heijmans, B. T., Slagboom, P. E., Lagaay, A. M., Knook, D. L., & Westendorp, R. G. J. (1999). Thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and the risk of cognitive impairment in those over 85: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 67(4) Oct 1999, 535-538.
  • Hacimuftuoglu, A., Handy, C. R., Goettl, V. M., Lin, C. G., Dane, S., & Stephens, R. L., Jr. (2006). Antioxidants attenuate multiple phases of formalin-induced nociceptive response in mice: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 173(2) Sep 2006, 211-216.
  • Hashimoto, K., Tsukada, H., Nishiyama, S., Fukumoto, D., Kakiuchi, T., Shimizu, E., et al. (2004). Effects of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine on the Reduction of Brain Dopamine Transporters in Monkey Treated with Methamphetamine. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Hashimoto, K., Tsukada, H., Nishiyama, S., Fukumoto, D., Kakiuchi, T., Shimizu, E., et al. (2004). Protective effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the reduction of dopamine transporters in the striatum of monkeys treated with methamphetamine: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 29(11) Nov 2004, 2018-2023.
  • Hayashi, M. A. F., Portaro, F. C. V., Bastos, M. F., Guerreiro, J. R., Oliveira, V., Gorrao, S. S., et al. (2005). Inhibition of NUDEL (nuclear distribution element-like)-oligopeptidase activity by disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 102(10) Mar 2005, 3828-3833.
  • Henderson, D. C., Copeland, P. M., Nguyen, D. D., Borba, C. P., Cather, C., Eden Evins, A., et al. (2006). Homocysteine levels and glucose metabolism in non-obese, non-diabetic chronic schizophrenia: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 113(2) Feb 2006, 121-125.
  • Henninger, N., Wang, Q., Okun, J. G., Schwab, S., & Krause, M. (2007). Nitrous oxide promotes hyperhomocysteinemia in levodopa treated rats: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders Vol 13(8) Dec 2007, 524-527.
  • Herrmann, W., Lorenzl, S., & Obeid, R. (2007). Review of the role of hypohomocysteinemia and B-vitamin deficiency in neurological and psychological disorders: Current evidence and preliminary recommendations: Fortschritte der Neurologie, Psychiatrie Vol 75(9) Sep 2007, 515-527.
  • Hestnes, A., Borud, O., Lunde, H., & Gjessing, L. (1989). Cystathioninuria in Down's syndrome: Journal of Mental Deficiency Research Vol 33(3) Jun 1989, 261-265.
  • Hettinger, T. P., Myers, W. E., & Frank, M. E. (1990). Role of olfaction in perception of non-traditional "taste" stimuli: Chemical Senses Vol 15(6) Dec 1990, 755-760.
  • Hillemacher, T., Reulbach, U., Bayerlein, K., Wilhelm, J., Bonsch, D., Sperling, W., et al. (2004). Plasma homocysteine concentrations do not influence craving in alcohol withdrawal: Alcohol Vol 34(2-3) Oct-Nov 2004, 211-215.
  • Hosoi, T., Suzuki, S., Okuma, Y., Kawakami, A., Ogawa, N., Ozawa, K., et al. (2005). LPS induces stefin A3 expression in mouse primary cultured glial cells: Molecular Brain Research Vol 140(1-2) Oct 2005, 138-141.
  • Iwasaki, K., & Sato, M. (1982). Taste preferences for amino acids in the house musk shrew, Suncus mirinus: Physiology & Behavior Vol 28(5) May 1982, 829-833.
  • Jaaro, H., & Fainzilber, M. (2006). Building Complex Brains--Missing Pieces in an Evolutionary Puzzle: Brain, Behavior and Evolution Vol 68(3) Aug 2006, 191-195.
  • Jayalakshmi, K., Singh, S. B., Kalpana, B., Sairam, M., Muthuraju, S., & Ilavazhagan, G. (2007). N-acetyl cysteine supplementation prevents impairment of spatial working memory functions in rats following exposure to hypobaric hypoxia: Physiology & Behavior Vol 92(4) Nov 2007, 643-650.
  • Jensen, K. R. (1982). Chemoreception as a factor in food location of Elysia cauze Marcus (Opisthobranchia, Ascoglossa): Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology Vol 8(3) 1982, 205-218.
  • Kalman, J., Marki-Zay, J., Juhasz, A., Santha, A., Dux, L., & Janka, Z. (2000). Serum and cerebrospinal fluid cystatin C levels in vascular and Alzheimer's dementia: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Vol 101(4) Apr 2000, 279-282.
  • Karhunen, L. J., Vanninen, E. J., Kuikka, J. T., Lappalainen, R. I., Tiihonen, J., & Uusitupa, M. I. J. (2000). Regional cerebral blood flow during exposure to food in obese binge eating women: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging Vol 99(1) Jul 2000, 29-42.
  • Kasumyan, A. O., & Sidorov, S. S. (1992). Taste sensitivity of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta to types of taste stimuli and amino acids: Sensory Systems Vol 6(3) Jul-Sep 1992, 222-225.
  • Keskin, S., & Yalcin, E. (1994). Case report of homocystinuria: Clinical, electroencephalographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings: Journal of Child Neurology Vol 9(2) Apr 1994, 210-212.
  • King, J. R., & Murphy, M. E. (1984). Fault bars in the feathers of White-crowned Sparrows: Dietary deficiency or stress of captivity and handling? : Auk Vol 101(1) Jan 1984, 168-169.
  • Kofman, O., Shavit, Y., Ashkenazi, S., & Gabay, S. (2007). Habituation, discrimination and anxiety in transgenic mice overexpressing acetylcholinesterase splice variants: Brain Research Vol 1185 Dec 2007, 170-178.
  • Kotorii, S., Takahashi, K., Kamimura, K., Nishio, T., Arima, K., Yamada, H., et al. (2001). Mutations of the Notch3 gene in non-caucasian patients with suspected CADASIL syndrome: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Vol 12(3) May-Jun 2001, 185-193.
  • Kuhn, K. U., Joe, A. Y., Meyer, K., Reichmann, K., Maier, W., Rao, M. L., et al. (2004). Neuroimaging and 5-HT-sub(2C) Receptor Polymorphism: A HMPAO-SPECT Study in Healthy Male Probands Using mCPP-Challenge of the 5-HT-sub(2C) Receptor: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 37(6) Nov 2004, 286-293.
  • Kumada, T., Hasegawa, A., Iwasaki, Y., Baba, H., & Ikenaka, K. (2004). Isolation of Cystatin C via Functional Cloning of Astrocyte Differentiation Factors: Developmental Neuroscience Vol 26(1) Jan-Feb 2004, 68-76.
  • Kurul, S., Unalp, A., & Yis, U. (2007). Homocysteine levels in epileptic children receiving antiepileptic drugs: Journal of Child Neurology Vol 22(12) Dec 2007, 1389-1392.
  • Kuwako, K.-I., Nishimura, I., Uetsuki, T., Saido, T. C., & Yoshikawa, K. (2002). Activation of calpain in cultured neurons overexpressing Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein: Molecular Brain Research Vol 107(2) Nov 2002, 166-175.
  • Larowe, S. D., Mardikian, P., Malcolm, R., Myrick, H., Kalivas, P., McFarland, K., et al. (2006). Safety and Tolerability of N-Acetylcysteine in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals: The American Journal on Addictions Vol 15(1) Jan-Feb 2006, 105-110.
  • LaRowe, S. D., Myrick, H., Hedden, S., Mardikian, P., Saladin, M., McRae, A., et al. (2007). Is cocaine desire reduced by N-acetylcysteine? : American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 164(7) Jul 2007, 1115-1117.
  • Lee, J.-C., Cho, G.-S., Kwon, J. H., Shin, M. H., Lim, J. H., & Kim, W.-K. (2006). Macrophageal/microglial cell activation and cerebral injury induced by excretory-secretory products secreted by Paragonimus westermani: Neuroscience Research Vol 54(2) Feb 2006, 133-139.
  • Lee, Y. S., Han, D. H., Jeon, C. M., Lyoo, I. K., Na, C., Chae, S. L., et al. (2006). Serum homocysteine, folate level and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677,1298 gene polymorphism in Korean schizophrenic patients: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 17(7) May 2006, 743-746.
  • Lemon, C. H., & Smith, D. V. (2005). Neural Representation of Bitter Taste in the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 94(6) Dec 2005, 3719-3729.
  • Lerner, V., Miodownik, C., Kaptsan, A., Vishne, T., Sela, B.-A., & Levine, J. (2005). High Serum Homocysteine Levels in Young Male Schizophrenic and Schizoaffective Patients With Tardive Parkinsonism and/or Tardive Dyskinesia: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 66(12) Dec 2005, 1558-1563.
  • Levine, J., Belmaker, R. H., & Bottiglieri, T. (2005). Introduction: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 29(7) Sep 2005, 1101-1102.
  • Levine, J., Gur, E., Loewenthal, R., Vishne, T., Dwolatzky, T., van Beynum, I. M., et al. (2007). Plasma homocysteine levels in female patients with eating disorders: International Journal of Eating Disorders Vol 40(3) Apr 2007, 277-284.
  • Levine, J., Sela, B.-A., Osher, Y., & Belmaker, R. H. (2005). High homocysteine serum levels in young male schizophrenia and bipolar patients and in an animal model: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 29(7) Sep 2005, 1181-1191.
  • Levine, J., Stahl, Z., Sela, B. A., Gavendo, S., Ruderman, V., & Belmaker, R. H. (2002). Elevated homocysteine levels in young male patients with schizophrenia: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 159(10) Oct 2002, 1790-1792.
  • Levine, J., Stahl, Z., Sela, B.-A., Ruderman, V., Shumaico, O., Babushkin, I., et al. (2006). Homocysteine-Reducing Strategies Improve Symptoms in Chronic Schizophrenic Patients with Hyperhomocysteinemia: Biological Psychiatry Vol 60(3) Aug 2006, 265-269.
  • Li, H., Yamagata, T., Mori, M., Yasuhara, A., & Momoi, M. Y. (2005). Mutation analysis of methyl-CpG binding protein family genes in autistic patients: Brain & Development Vol 27(5) Aug 2005, 321-325.
  • Li, X., Rose, G., Dongre, N., Pan, H.-L., Tobin, J. R., & Eisenach, J. C. (2000). S-nitroso-l-cysteine releases norepinephrine in rat spinal synaptosomes: Brain Research Vol 872(1-2) Jul 2000, 301-307.
  • Licastro, F., Marocchi, A., Penco, S., Porcellini, E., Lio, D., Dogliotti, G., et al. (2006). Does Down's syndrome support the homocysteine theory of atherogenesis? Experience in elderly subjects with trisomy 21: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics Vol 43(3) Nov-Dec 2006, 381-387.
  • Little, E. E. (1981). Conditioned cardiac response to the olfactory stimuli of amino acids in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: Physiology & Behavior Vol 27(4) Oct 1981, 691-697.
  • Loguercio, C., Del Vecchio Blanco, F., De Girolamo, V., Disalvo, D., Nardi, G., Parente, A., et al. (1999). Ethanol consumption, amino acid and glutathione blood levels in patients with and without chronic liver disease: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 23(11) Nov 1999, 1780-1784.
  • Lokk, J. (2003). News and views on folate and elderly persons: Journals of Gerontology: Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences Vol 58A(4) Apr 2003, 354-361.
  • Louis, E. D., Schupf, N., Tang, M. X., Harder, K., & Luchsinger, J. A. (2007). Mild Parkinsonian signs and plasma homocysteine concentration in community-dwelling elderly individuals: Archives of Neurology Vol 64(11) Nov 2007, 1646-1651.
  • Love, S. (2003). Apoptosis and brain ischaemia: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 27(2) Apr 2003, 267-282.
  • Lozowski, S. Z. (1971). Effect of ascorbic acid, glutathione, and some aminoacids on adrenaline- and noradrenaline-induced motor reactions of the rabbit small intestine: Acta Physiologica Polonica Vol 22(2) 1971, 175-184.
  • Lu, L., Hope, B. T., & Shaham, Y. (2004). The cystine-glutamate transporter in the accumbens: A novel role in cocaine relapse: Trends in Neurosciences Vol 27(2) Feb 2004, 74-76.
  • Luchsinger, J. A., Tang, M. X., Shea, S., Miller, J., Green, R., & Mayeux, R. (2004). Plasma homocysteine levels and risk of Alzheimer disease: Neurology Vol 62(11) Jun 2004, 1972-1976.
  • Lynn, W. H., Meyer, E. A., Peppiatt, C. E., & Derby, C. D. (1994). Perception of odor mixtures by the spiny lobster Panulirus argus: Chemical Senses Vol 19(4) Aug 1994, 331-347.
  • Macpherson, L. J. (2007). Feeling the burn: Towards a determination of the molecular mechanisms of activation of TRPA1. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Maguin, K., Lataye, R., Campo, P., Cossec, B., Burgart, M., & Waniusiow, D. (2006). Ototoxicity of the three xylene isomers in the rat: Neurotoxicology and Teratology Vol 28(6) Nov-Dec 2006, 648-656.
  • Mardikian, P. N., LaRowe, S. D., Hedden, S., Kalivas, P. W., & Malcolm, R. J. (2007). An open-label trial of N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of cocaine dependence: A pilot study: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 31(2) Mar 2007, 389-394.
  • Margolis, S. E. (1997). Chemosensory environment testing by the ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl) by perception of amino acids: Comparison of efficiency rankings: Sensory Systems Vol 11(1) Jan-Mar 1997, 40-52.
  • Matsuoka, N., Maeda, N., Yamaguchi, I., & Satoh, M. (1994). Possible involvement of brain somatostatin in the memory formation of rats and the cognitive enhancing action of FR121196 in passive avoidance task: Brain Research Vol 642(1-2) Apr 1994, 11-19.
  • Matte, C., Monteiro, S. C., Calcagnotto, T., Bavaresco, C. S., Netto, C. A., & Wyse, A. T. S. (2004). In vivo and in vitro effects of homocysteine on Na-super(+),K-super(+)-ATPase activity in parietal, prefrontal and cingulate cortex of young rats: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience Vol 22(4) Jun 2004, 185-190.
  • Matte, C., Scherer, E. B. S., Stefanello, F. M., Barschak, A. G., Vargas, C. R., Netto, C. A., et al. (2007). Concurrent folate treatment prevents Na-super(+),K-super(+)-ATPase activity inhibition and memory impairments caused by chronic hyperhomocysteinemia during rat development: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience Vol 25(8) Dec 2007, 545-552.
  • Mattson, M. P., & Shea, T. B. (2003). Folate and homocysteine metabolism in neural plasticity and neurodegenerative disorders: Trends in Neurosciences Vol 26(3) Mar 2003, 137-146.
  • McCaddon, A., & Davies, G. (2005). Research Letters: Co-administration of N-acetylcysteine, vitamin B-sub-1-sub-2 and folate in cognitively impaired hyperhomocysteinaemic patients: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 20(10) Oct 2005, 998-1000.
  • McCaddon, A., Hudson, P., Hill, D., Barber, J., Lloyd, A., Davies, G., et al. (2003). Alzheimer's disease and total plasma aminothiols: Biological Psychiatry Vol 53(3) Feb 2003, 254-260.
  • McEligot, A. J., Rock, C. L., Gilpin, E. A., & Pierce, J. P. (2006). Responsiveness of homocysteine concentrations to food and supplemental folate intakes in smokers and never-smokers enrolled in a diet intervention trial: Nicotine & Tobacco Research Vol 8(1) Feb 2006, 57-66.
  • McQuillin, A., Bass, N. J., Kalsi, G., Lawrence, J., Puri, V., Choudhury, K., et al. (2006). Fine mapping of a susceptibility locus for bipolar and genetically related unipolar affective disorders, to a region containing the C21ORF29 and TRPM2 genes on chromosome 21q22.3: Molecular Psychiatry Vol 11(2) Feb 2006, 134-142.
  • Mehrotra, S., Vanmolkot, K. R. J., Frants, R. R., van den Maagdenberg, A. M. J. M., Ferrari, M. D., & VanDenBrink, A. M. (2007). The phe-124-Cys and A-161T variants of the human 5-HT-sub(1b) receptor gene are not major determinants of the clinical response to sumatriptan: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 47(5) May 2007, 711-716.
  • Michikawa, M., Gong, J.-S., Fan, Q.-W., Sawamura, N., & Yanagisawa, K. (2001). A novel action of Alzheimer's amyloid Beta -protein (ABeta ): Oligomeric ABeta promotes lipid release: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 21(18) Sep 2001, 7226-7235.
  • Mielke, M. M. (2005). Blood-related risk factors of vascular diseases and their relation to dementia and biomarkers of dementia. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Miodownik, C., Lerner, V., Vishne, T., Sela, B.-A., & Levine, J. (2007). High-dose Vitamin B-sub-6 Decreases Homocysteine Serum Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders: A Preliminary Study: Clinical Neuropharmacology Vol 30(1) Jan-Feb 2007, 13-17.
  • Monji, A., Yanagimoto, K., Maekawa, T., Sumida, Y., Yamazaki, K., & Kojima, K. (2005). Plasma Folate and Homocysteine Levels May Be Related to Interictal "Schizophrenia-Like" Psychosis in Patients With Epilepsy: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 25(1) Feb 2005, 3-5.
  • Moran, M. M., McFarland, K., Melendez, R. I., Kalivas, P. W., & Seamans, J. K. (2005). Cystine/Glutamate Exchange Regulates Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Presynaptic Inhibition of Excitatory Transmission and Vulnerability to Cocaine Seeking: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 25(27) Jul 2005, 6389-6393.
  • Moran, M. M., Melendez, R., Baker, D., Kalivas, P. W., & Seamans, J. K. (2003). Cystine/Glutamate Antiporter Regulation of Vesicular Glutamate Release. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Moreira, P. I., Harris, P. L. R., Zhu, X., Santos, M. S., Oliveira, C. R., Smith, M. A., et al. (2007). Lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine decrease mitochondrial-related oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease patient fibroblasts: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 12(2) 2007, 195-206.
  • Morin, P.-P., Dodson, J. J., & Dore, F. Y. (1990). Facilitative effect of preexposure on heart-rate conditioning to an olfactory cue in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 104(4) Dec 1990, 340-344.
  • Naik, A. K., Tandan, S. K., Dudhgaonkar, S. P., Jadhav, S. H., Kataria, M., Prakash, V. R., et al. (2006). Role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of peripheral neuropathy and modulation by N-acetyl-L-cysteine in rats: European Journal of Pain Vol 10(7) Oct 2006, 573-579.
  • Narasimhachari, N., & et al. (1970). Comparative behavioral and biochemical effects of tranylcypromine and cysteine on normal controls and schizophrenic patients: Life Sciences Vol 9(18, Pt 2) Sep 1970, 1021-1032.
  • Narasimhachari, N., & et al. (1971). Urinary studies of schizophrenics and controls: Biological Psychiatry Vol 3(1) 1971, 9-20.
  • Narasimhachari, N., Plaut, J., & Himwich, H. E. (1972). 3:4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine, a normal or abnormal metabolite? : Journal of Psychiatric Research Vol 9(4) Dec 1972, 325-328.
  • Nelson, M. T., Joksovic, P. M., Perez-Reyes, E., & Todorovic, S. M. (2005). The endogenous redox agent L-cysteine induces T-type Ca-super(2+) channel-dependent sensitization of a novel subpopulation of rat peripheral nociceptors: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 25(38) Sep 2005, 8766-8775.
  • Niikura, T., Hashimoto, Y., Tajima, H., Ishizaka, M., Yamagishi, Y., Kawasumi, M., et al. (2003). A tripartite motif protein TRIM11 binds and destabilizes Humanin, a neuroprotective peptide against Alzheimer's disease-relevant insults: European Journal of Neuroscience Vol 17(6) Mar 2003, 1150-1158.
  • Nilsson, K., Gustafson, L., & Hultberg, B. (2007). Elevated plasma homocysteine concentration in elderly patients with mental illness is mainly related to the presence of vascular disease and not the diagnosis: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Vol 24(3) Aug 2007, 162-168.
  • Nilsson, K., Gustafson, L., & Hultberg, B. (2007). Plasma homocysteine is elevated in elderly patients with memory complaints and vascular disease: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Vol 23(5) Apr 2007, 321-326.
  • Ninomiya, Y., Kajiura, H., Naito, Y., Mochizuki, K., & et al. (1994). Glossopharyngeal denervation alters responses to nutrients and toxic substances: Physiology & Behavior Vol 56(6) Dec 1994, 1179-1184.
  • No authorship, i. (2007). Editor's note: Discovery of new drug treatments: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 164(7) Jul 2007, 1004.
  • Nurk, E., Refsum, H., Tell, G. S., Engedal, K., Vollset, S. E., Ueland, P. M., et al. (2005). Plasma Total Homocysteine and Memory in the Elderly: The Hordaland Homocysteine Study: Annals of Neurology Vol 58(6) Dec 2005, 847-857.
  • O'Donnell, C., & Stephens, T. (2005). The Significance of Homocysteine Levels in Schizophrenia: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 162(7) Jul 2005, 1387-1388.
  • Okada, M., Northup, J. K., Ozaki, N., Russell, J. T., Linnoila, M., & Goldman, D. (2004). Modification of human 5-HT-sub(2C) receptor function by Cys23Ser, an abundant, naturally occurring amino-acid substitution: Molecular Psychiatry Vol 9(1) Jan 2004, 55-64.
  • Osborne, M. G., & Coderre, T. J. (2003). Nociceptive effects of intrathecal administration of sulphur-containing amino acids: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 144(1-2) Sep 2003, 105-110.
  • Osher, Y., Bersudsky, Y., Silver, H., Sela, B.-A., & Belmaker, R. H. (2008). Neuropsychological correlates of homocysteine levels in euthymic bipolar patients: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 105(1-3) Jan 2008, 229-233.
  • Ozkan, S., Colak, O., Kutlu, C., Ertan, M., & Alatas, O. (2004). Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Pergolide-Treated Parkinson Disease Patients: Clinical Neuropharmacology Vol 27(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 163-165.
  • Papageorgiou, C., Pitsavos, C., Panagiotakos, D. B., Kontoangelos, K., Chrysohoou, C., Papadimitriou, G. N., et al. (2006). Association between Hostility and Plasma Total Homocysteine Concentrations in a General Population Sample: Neuropsychobiology Vol 53(1) Feb 2006, 26-32.
  • Papageorgiou, C., Pitsavos, C., Panagiotakos, D. B., Kontoangelos, K., Chrysohoou, C., Papadimitriou, G. N., et al. (2006). Retraction Statement: Neuropsychobiology Vol 53(1) Feb 2006, 32.
  • Park, D., & Eisthen, H. L. (2003). Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) modulates odorant responses in the peripheral olfactory system of axolotls: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 90(2) Aug 2003, 731-738.
  • Perez, R. S. G. M., Zuurmond, W. W. A., Bezemer, P. D., Kuik, D. J., van Loenen, A. C., de Lange, J. J., et al. (2003). The treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I with free radical scavengers: A randomized controlled study: Pain Vol 102(3) Apr 2003, 297-307.
  • Picker, J. D., & Coyle, J. T. (2005). Do Maternal Folate and Homocysteine Levels Play a Role in Neurodevelopmental Processes That Increase Risk for Schizophrenia? : Harvard Review of Psychiatry Vol 13(4) Jul-Aug 2005, 197-205.
  • Ponka, P. (2004). Hereditary causes of disturbed iron homeostasis in the central nervous system. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Prins, N. D., den Heijer, T., Hofman, A., Koudstaal, P. J., Jolles, J., Clarke, R., et al. (2002). Homocysteine and cognitive function in the elderly: The Rotterdam Scan Study: Neurology Vol 59(9) Nov 2002, 1375-1380.
  • Quadrilatero, J., & Hoffman-Goetz, L. (2005). Mouse thymocyte apoptosis and cell loss in response to exercise and antioxidant administration: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Vol 19(5) Sep 2005, 436-444.
  • Quested, D. J., Whale, R., Sharpley, A. L., McGavin, C. L., Crossland, N., Harrison, P. J., et al. (1999). Allelic variation in the 5-HT-sub(2C ) receptor (HTR2C) and functional responses to the 5-HT-sub(2C ) receptor agonist, m-chlorophenylpiperazine: Psychopharmacology Vol 144(3) Jun 1999, 307-307.
  • Rao, M. L., Gross, G., Strebel, B., Braunig, P., & et al. (1990). Serum amino acids, central monoamines, and hormones in drug-naive, drug-free, and neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients and healthy subjects: Psychiatry Research Vol 34(3) Dec 1990, 243-257.
  • Ravaglia, G., Forti, P., Maioli, F., Servadei, L., Martelli, M., Brunetti, N., et al. (2005). Folate, But Not Homocysteine, Predicts the Risk of Fracture in Elderly Persons: Journals of Gerontology: Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences Vol 60A(11) Nov 2005, 1458-1462.
  • Redmond, T. M., Poliakov, E., Yu, S., Tsai, J.-Y., Lu, Z., & Gentleman, S. (2005). Mutation of key residues of RPE65 abolishes its enzymatic role as isomerohydrolase in the visual cycle: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 102(38) Sep 2005, 13658-13663.
  • Regland, B. (2005). Schizophrenia and single-carbon metabolism: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 29(7) Sep 2005, 1124-1132.
  • Reif, A., Pfuhlmann, B., & Lesch, K.-P. (2005). Homocysteinemia as well as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism are associated with affective psychoses: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 29(7) Sep 2005, 1162-1168.
  • Religa, D., Styczynska, M., Peplonska, B., Gabryelewicz, T., Pfeffer, A., Chodakowska, M., et al. (2003). Homocysteine, Apolipoproteine E and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Vol 16(2) Jun 2003, 64-70.
  • Ricketts, M. H., Amsterdam, J. D., Park, D. S., Yang, R.-S., & et al. (1996). A novel arylsulfatase A protein variant and genotype in two patients with major depression: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 40(3) Oct 1996, 137-147.
  • Rogers, J. D., Sanchez-Saffon, A., Frol, A. B., & Diaz-Arrastia, R. (2003). Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Patients Treated With Levodopa: Association With Vascular Disease: Archives of Neurology Vol 60(1) Jan 2003, 59-64.
  • Sachdev, P. (2004). Homocysteine and neuropsychiatric disorders: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria Vol 26(1) Mar 2004, 50-56.
  • Sachdev, P. S. (2005). Homocysteine and brain atrophy: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 29(7) Sep 2005, 1152-1161.
  • Sachdev, P. S., Parslow, R. A., Lux, O., Salonikas, C., Wen, W., Naidoo, D., et al. (2005). Relationship of homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 with depression in a middle-aged community sample: Psychological Medicine Vol 35(4) Apr 2005, 529-538.
  • Sadan, O., Bahat-Stromza, M., Gilgun-Sherki, Y., Atlas, D., Melamed, E., & Offen, D. (2005). A Novel Brain-Targeted Antioxidant (AD4) Attenuates Haloperidol-Induced Abnormal Movement in Rats: Implications for Tardive Dyskinesia: Clinical Neuropharmacology Vol 28(6) Nov-Dec 2005, 285-288.
  • Santucci, A. C., & Spincola, L.-J. (1994). MK-801 attenuates residual hyperactivity induced by neonatal L-cysteine administration to rats: Developmental Brain Dysfunction Vol 7(4-5) Jul-Oct 1994, 230-236.
  • Sasaki, K., Li, A.-J., Oomura, Y., Muto, T., & et al. (1994). Effects of fibroblast growth factors and related peptides on food intake by rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 56(2) Aug 1994, 211-218.
  • Sastre, M., Calero, M., Pawlik, M., Mathews, P. M., Kumar, A., Danilov, V., et al. (2004). Binding of cystatin C to Alzheimer's amyloid beta inhibits in vitro amyloid fibril formation: Neurobiology of Aging Vol 25(8) Sep 2004, 1033-1043.
  • Sathishkumar, K., Xi, X., Martin, R., & Uppu, R. M. (2007). Cholesterol secoaldehyde, an ozonation product of cholesterol, induces amyloid aggregation and apoptosis in murine GT1-7 hypothalamic neurons: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 11(3) 2007, 261-274.
  • Scarvie, K. M., Ballantyne, A. O., & Trauner, D. A. (1996). Visuomotor performance in children with infantile nephropathic cystinosis: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 82(1) Feb 1996, 67-75.
  • Schaefer, H. M., Schmidt, V., & Bairlein, F. (2003). Discrimination abilities for nutrients: Which difference matters for choosy birds and why? : Animal Behaviour Vol 65(3) Mar 2003, 531-541.
  • Schmitz, F., Tabares, L., Khimich, D., Strenzke, N., de la Villa-Polo, P., Castellano-Munoz, M., et al. (2006). CSPalpha -deficiency causes massive and rapid photoreceptor degeneration: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 103(8) Feb 2006, 2926-2931.
  • Scott, T. R., Giza, B. K., & Yan, J. (1999). Gustatory neural coding in the cortex of the alert cynomolgus macaque: The quality of bitterness: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 81(1) Jan 1999, 60-71.
  • Semmler, A., Klein, A., Moskau, S., & Linnebank, M. (2007). Transient global amnesia-like episode in a patient with severe hyperhomocysteinemia: European Journal of Neurology Vol 14(9) Sep 2007, e5-e6.
  • Sen, N., Shi, L., Beuming, T., Weinstein, H., & Javitch, J. A. (2005). A pincer-like configuration of TM2 in the human dopamine transporter is responsible for indirect effects on cocaine binding: Neuropharmacology Vol 49(6) Nov 2005, 780-790.
  • Setnik, B., Goncalves de Souza, F., d'Almeida, V., & Nobrega, J. N. (2004). Increased homocysteine levels associated with sex and stress in the learned helplessness model of depression: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 77(1) Jan 2004, 155-161.
  • Severus, W. E., Littman, A. B., & Stoll, A. L. (2001). Omega-3 fatty acids, homocysteine, and the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in major depressive disorder: Harvard Review of Psychiatry Vol 9(6) Nov 2001, 280-293.
  • Shamushaki, V. A. J., Kasumyan, A. O., Abedian, A., & Abtahi, B. (2007). Behavioural responses of the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) juveniles to free amino acid solutions: Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology Vol 40(3) Sep 2007, 219-224.
  • Shapre, L. G., & et al. (1975). Brain damage and associated behavioral deficits following the administration of L-cysteine to infant rats: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 3(2) Mar-Apr 1975, 291-298.
  • Sharpley, A. L., Vassallo, C. M., Pooley, E. C., Harrison, P. J., & Cowen, P. J. (2001). Allelic variation in the 5-HT-sub(2C ) receptor (HT2RC) and the increase in slow wave sleep produced by olanzapine: Psychopharmacology Vol 153(2) Jan 2001, 271-272.
  • Shea, T. B., Lyons-Weiler, J., & Rogers, E. (2002). Homocysteine, folate deprivation and Alzheimer neuropathology: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 4(4) 2002, 261-267.
  • Shi, Q., Hufeisen, S. J., Wroblewski, J. T., Nadeau, J. H., & Roth, B. L. (2003). L-Homocysteine Sulfinic Acid and L-Homocysteic Acid Stimulate Phosphoinositide Hydrolysis in Rat Cortical Neurons. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Shi, Q., Savage, J. E., Hufeisen, S. J., Rauser, L., Grajkowska, E., Ernsberger, P., et al. (2003). L-Homocysteine Sulfinic Acid and Other Acidic Homocysteine Derivatives Are Potent and Selective Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonists: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 305(1) Apr 2003, 131-142.
  • Siemens, J., Zhou, S., Piskorowski, R., Nikai, T., Lumpkin, E. A., Basbaum, A. I., et al. (2006). Spider toxins activate the capsaicin receptor to produce inflammatory pain: Nature Vol 444(7116) Nov 2006, 208-212.
  • Simone, C. B., Simone, N. L., & Simone, C. B., II. (1997). Nutritional and lifestyle modification to augment oncology care: An overview: Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol 12(4) 1997, 197-206.
  • Sodhi, M. S., Arranz, M. J., Curtis, D., Ball, D. M., & et al. (1995). Association between clozapine response and allelic variation in the 5-HT-sub(2C ) receptor gene: Neuroreport: An International Journal for the Rapid Communication of Research in Neuroscience Vol 7(1) Dec 1995, 169-172.
  • Soumare, A., Elbaz, A., Ducros, V., Tavernier, B., Alperovitch, A., & Tzourio, C. (2006). Cross-sectional association between homocysteine and motor function in the elderly: Neurology Vol 67(6) Sep 2006, 985-990.
  • Sprince, H. (1966). Biochemical approaches to mental illness: Pennsylvania Psychiatric Quarterly 6(1) 1966, 3-7.
  • Stahl, Z., Belmaker, R. H., Friger, M., & Levine, J. (2005). Nutritional and life style determinants of plasma homocysteine in schizophrenia patients: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 15(3) May 2005, 291-295.
  • Stickel, F., Choi, S.-W., Kim, Y.-I., Bagley, P. J., Seitz, H. K., Russell, R. M., et al. (2000). Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on total plasma homocysteine level in rats: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 24(3) Mar 2000, 259-264.
  • Storey, S. G., Suryadevara, V., Aronow, W. S., & Ahn, C. (2003). Association of Plasma Homocysteine in Elderly Persons With Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease and Dementia, Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease Without Dementia, Dementia Without Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease, and No Dementia or Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: Journals of Gerontology: Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences Vol 58A(12) Dec 2003, 1135-1136.
  • Szantay, I., & Szirmai, E. (1970). 35S-methionine incorporation in liver proteins on the rat under stress induced by restraint: Agressologie Vol 11(5) 1970, 427-430.
  • Tagami, S., Tsujimoto, Y., Akaike, A., Takashima, A., Hasegawa, M., Ishiguro, K., et al. (2006). Involvement of apoptosis and cholinergic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: Psychogeriatrics Vol 6(Suppl 2) Dec 2006, S57-S63.
  • Tang, X.-C., & Kalivas, P. W. (2003). Bidirectional Modulation of Cystine/Glutamate Exchanger Activity in Cultured Cortical Astrocytes. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Tan-No, K., Ohshima, K., Taira, A., Inoue, M., Niijima, F., Nakagawasai, O., et al. (2001). Antinociceptive effect produced by intracerebroventricularly administered dynorphin A is potentiated by p -hydroxymercuribenzoate or phosphoramidon in the mouse formalin test: Brain Research Vol 891(1-2) Feb 2001, 274-280.
  • Tan-No, K., Takahashi, H., Nakagawasai, O., Niijima, F., Sato, T., Satoh, S., et al. (2005). Pronociceptive role of dynorphins in uninjured animals: N-ethylmaleimide-induced nociceptive behavior mediated through inhibition of dynorphin degradation: Pain Vol 113(3) Feb 2005, 301-309.
  • Tchantchou, F., Graves, M., Rogers, E., Ortiz, D., & Shea, T. B. (2005). N-acteyl cysteine alleviates oxidative damage to central nervous system of ApoE-deficient mice following folate and vitamin E-deficiency: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 7(2) 2005, 135-138.
  • Teixeira, F., Pollock, M., Karim, A., & Jiang, Y. (2002). Use of antioxidants for the prophylaxis of cold-induced peripheral nerve injury: Military Medicine Vol 167(9) Sep 2002, 753-755.
  • Teunissen, C. E., Lutjohann, D., von Bergmann, K., Verhey, F., Vreeling, F., Wauters, A., et al. (2003). Combination of serum markers related to several mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease: Neurobiology of Aging Vol 24(7) Nov 2003, 893-902.
  • Tomimatsu, Y., Idemoto, S., Moriguchi, S., Watanabe, S., & Nakanishi, H. (2002). Proteases involved in long-term potentiation: Life Sciences Vol 72(4-5) Dec 2002, 355-361.
  • Troen, A. M. (2005). The central nervous system in animal models of hyperhomocysteinemia: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 29(7) Sep 2005, 1140-1151.
  • Ts'o, T. O., Baker, S. J., Boeckler, W. H., & Wong, P. W. (1975). Enhancement of acquisition and performance of lever-pressing behavior in rats by an experimental diet: Psychopharmacologia Vol 42(1) 1975, 79-86.
  • Tucker, S., Ahl, M., Bush, A., Westaway, D., Huang, X., & Rogers, J. T. (2005). Pilot Study of the Reducing Effect on Amyloidosis In Vivo by Three FDA Pre-Approved Drugs Via the Alzheimer's APP 5'Untranslated Region: Current Alzheimer Research Vol 2(2) Apr 2005, 249-254.
  • Tucker, S., Ahl, M., Cho, H.-H., Bandyopadhyay, S., Cuny, G. D., Bush, A. I., et al. (2006). RNA Therapeutics Directed to the Non Coding Regions of APP mRNA, In Vivo Anti-Amyloid Efficacy of Paroxetine, Erythromycin, and N-acetyl cysteine: Current Alzheimer Research Vol 3(3) Jul 2006, 221-227.
  • van A. Raamt, F., Kalmijn, S., Mali, W. P. T. M., van Zandvoort, M. J. E., & van der Graaf, Y. (2006). Homocysteine Level and Cognitive Function in Patients with Arterial Disease: The Second Manifestations of ARTerial Disease Study: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 54(4) Apr 2006, 575-579.
  • Vecsei, L., Alling, C., Heilig, M., & Widerlov, E. (1989). Effects of cysteamine and pantethine on open-field behavior, hypothalamic catecholamine concentrations, and somatostatin-induced barrel rotation in rats: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 32(3) Mar 1989, 629-635.
  • Vedadi, M. (1999). Structural and functional studies of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase from the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio harveyi. (glutamic acid). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Vilella, E., Virgos, C., Murphy, M., Martorell, L., Valero, J., Simo, J. M., et al. (2005). Further evidence that hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1289C polymorphisms are not risk factors for schizophrenia: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 29(7) Sep 2005, 1169-1174.
  • Vrentzos, G. E., Papadakis, J. A., Malliaraki, N., Bampalis, D. E., Repa, A., Lemonomichelaki, V., et al. (2006). Serum homocysteine concentration as a marker of nutritional status of healthy subjects in Crete, Greece: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics Vol 19(2) Apr 2006, 117-123.
  • Wang, K. K. W. (2000). Calpain and caspase: Can you tell the difference? : Trends in Neurosciences Vol 23(1) Jan 2000, 20-26.
  • Wang, Y., Vodovotz, Y., Kim, P. K. M., Zamora, R., & Billiar, T. R. (2002). Mechanisms of hepatoprotection by nitric oxide. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Waziri, R., Wilson, R., & Sherman, A. D. (1983). Plasma serine to cysteine ratio as a biological marker for psychosis: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 143 Jul 1983, 69-73.
  • Westberg, L., Bah, J., Rstam, M., Gillberg, C., Wentz, E., Melke, J., et al. (2002). Association between a polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor and weight loss in teenage girls: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 26(6) Jun 2002, 789-793.
  • Whitmer, R. A., Haan, M. N., Miller, J. W., & Yaffe, K. (2003). Hormone replacement therapy and cognitive performance: The role of homocysteine: Journals of Gerontology: Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences Vol 58A(4) Apr 2003, 324-330.
  • Widner, B., Fuchs, D., Leblhuber, F., Sperner-Unterweger, B., Reynolds, E. H., & Bottiglieri, T. (2001). Does disturbed homocysteine and folate metabolism in depression result from enhanced oxidative stress? : Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 70(3) Mar 2001, 419.
  • Windelborn, J. A. (2007). Lysosomal release of cathepsins in ischemic brain damage. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Wolters, M., Strohle, A., & Hahn, A. (2004). Age-associated changes in the metabolism of vitamin B-sub-1-sub-2 and folic acid: Prevalence, aetiopathogenesis and pathophysiological consequences: Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie Vol 37(2) Apr 2004, 109-135.
  • Wurtman, R. J., Rose, C. M., Chou, C., & Larin, F. F. (1968). Daily rhythms in the concentrations of various amino acids in human plasma: New England Journal of Medicine 279(4) 1968, 171-175.
  • Yamamoto, Y., Akiyoshi, J., Kiyota, A., Katsuragi, S., Tsutsumi, T., Isogawa, K., et al. (2000). Increased anxiety behavior in OLETF rats without cholecystokinin-A receptor: Brain Research Bulletin Vol 53(6) Dec 2000, 789-792.
  • Yokel, R. A. (2006). Blood-brain barrier flux of aluminum, maganese, iron and other metals suspected to contribute to metal-induced neurodegeneration: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 10(2-3) 2006, 223-253.
  • Yoshida, Y., Nakano, A., Hamada, R., Kamitsuchibashi, H., & et al. (1992). Patients with homocystinuria: High metal concentrations in hair, blood and urine: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Vol 86(5) Nov 1992, 490-495.
  • Zesiewicz, T. A., Wecker, L., Sullivan, K. L., Merlin, L. R., & Hauser, R. A. (2006). The Controversy Concerning Plasma Homocysteine in Parkinson Disease Patients Treated with Levodopa Alone or with Entacapone: Effects of Vitamin Status: Clinical Neuropharmacology Vol 29(3) May-Jun 2006, 106-111.
  • Zhu, X., Li, X., & Eisenach, J. C. (2002). Spinal norepinephrine release from nitric oxide species is not increased following peripheral nerve injury in rats: Brain Research Vol 947(2) Nov 2002, 199-203.


External linksEdit


Amino acids

Alanine | Arginine | Asparagine | Aspartic acid | Cysteine | Glutamic acid | Glutamine | Glycine | Histidine | Isoleucine | Leucine | Lysine | Methionine | Phenylalanine | Proline | Serine | Threonine | Tryptophan | Tyrosine | Valine
Essential amino acid | Protein | Peptide | Genetic code
Template:E number infobox 920-929


This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki