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Individual differences |
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Walker's theory rests on the idea that abusive relationships, once established, are characterized by a predictable repetitious pattern of abuse, whether emotional, psychological or physical, with psychological abuse nearly always preceding and accompanying physical abuse. Additionally, Walker suggested that sustained periods of living in such a cycle may lead to learned helplessness and battered person syndrome.
The cycle of abuse concept is widely used in domestic violence programs, particularly in the United States. Critics have argued the theory is flawed as it does not apply as universally as Walker suggested, does not accurately or completely describe all abusive relationships, and may favor ideological presumptions over empirical data.
Phases of the cycleEdit
The cycle usually goes in the following order, and will repeat until the conflict is stopped, usually by the victim entirely abandoning the relationship. The cycle can occur hundreds of times in an abusive relationship, the total cycle taking anywhere from a few hours, to a year or more to complete. However, the length of the cycle usually diminishes over time so that the "making-up" and "calm" stages may disappear.
1: Tension building phaseEdit
This phase occurs prior to an overtly abusive act, and is characterized by poor communication, passive aggression, rising interpersonal tension, and fear of causing outbursts in one's partner. During this stage the victims may attempt to modify his or her behavior to avoid triggering their partner's outburst.
2: Acting-out phaseEdit
Characterized by outbursts of violent, abusive incidents. During this stage the batterer attempts to dominate his/her partner (victim), with the use of domestic violence.
3: Reconciliation/Honeymoon phaseEdit
Characterized by affection, apology, or, alternatively, ignoring the incident. This phase marks an apparent end of violence, with assurances that it will never happen again, or that the abuser will do his or her best to change. During this stage the abuser feels overwhelming feelings of remorse and sadness, or at least pretends to. Some abusers walk away from the situation with little comment, but most will eventually shower their victims with love and affection. The abuser may use self-harm or threats of suicide to gain sympathy and/or prevent the victim from leaving the relationship. Abusers are frequently so convincing, and victims so eager for the relationship to improve, that victims who are often worn down and confused by longstanding abuse, stay in the relationship.
Although it is easy to see the outbursts of the Acting-out Phase as abuse, even the more pleasant behaviours of the Honeymoon Phase serve to perpetuate the abuse.
4: Calm phaseEdit
During this phase (which is often considered an element of the honeymoon/reconciliation phase), the relationship is relatively calm and peaceable. However, interpersonal difficulties will inevitably arise, leading again to the tension building phase.
Walker's cycle of abuse theory was regarded as a revolutionary and important concept in the study of abuse and interpersonal violence. However, subsequent researchers have occasionally critiqued Walker's methodology, preconceptions or findings.
Dutton and Golant agree that Walker's cycle of abuse accurately describes all cyclically abusive relationships they studied. Nonetheless, they also note that her initial research was based almost entirely on anecdotal data from a rather small set of women who were in violent relationships. Walker herself wrote, "These women were not randomly selected and they cannot be considered a legitimate data base from which to make specific generalizations."
Initially, Walker proposed that the cycle of abuse described the controlling patriarchal behavior of men who felt entitled to abuse their wives to maintain control over them. Her terms "the battering cycle" and "battered woman syndrome" has since been largely eclipsed by "cycle of abuse" and "battered person syndrome," respectively, for many reasons: to maintain objectivity; because the cycle of abuse doesn't always lead to physical abuse; because symptoms of the syndrome have been observed in men and women, and are not confined to marriage and dating. Similarly, Dutton (1994) writes, "The prevalence of violence in homosexual relationships, which also appear to go through abuse cycles is hard to explain in terms of men dominating women."
- Cycles of stress
- Domestic violence
- Outline of domestic violence
- Psychological abuse
- Psychological manipulation
- Relational disorder
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Walker, Lenore E. (1979) The Battered Woman. New York: Harper and Row.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Dutton, Donald G. and Susan Golant. 1997. The Batterer: A Psychological Profile. 0465033881
- ↑ Bancroft, Lundy. Why does he do that? Inside the minds of angry and controlling men Berkley Publishing Group 2002 ISBN 0-339-14844-2
- ↑ Brewster, Susan Helping her get free Seal Press 2006 ISBN 1-58005-167-5
- ↑ Dutton, Donald G. (1994) Patriarchy And Wife Assault: The Ecological Fallacy. Violence and Victims, 9 (2), p. 125 – 140
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- Pugh, Roxanne Deliverance from the Vicious Cycle of Abuse (2007)
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- Furniss, Kathleen K. Ending the cycle of abuse: what behavioral health professionals need to know about domestic violence.: An article from: Behavioral Healthcare (2007)
- Glasser, M & Campbell, D & Glasser, A & Leitch I & Farrelly S Cycle of child sexual abuse: links between being a victim and becoming a perpetrator The British Journal of Psychiatry (2001) 179: 482-494
- Kirn, Timothy F. Sexual abuse cycle can be broken, experts assert.(Psychiatry): An article from: Internal Medicine News (2008)
- Quayle, E Taylor, M - Child pornography and the Internet: Perpetuating a cycle of abuse Deviant Behavior, Volume 23, Issue 4 July 2002 , pages 331 - 361
- Stone, AE & Fialk, RJ Criminalizing the exposure of children to family violence: Breaking the cycle of abuse 20 Harv. Women's L.J. 205, Spring, 1997
- Woods, J Breaking the cycle of abuse and abusing: Individual psychotherapy for juvenile sex Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 2, No. 3, 379-392 (1997)
- Summary: the family-dysfunction cycle
- The Abusive Cycle
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- What the cycle consists of
- Types of Abuse diagram
- Types of Abuse diagram Spanish
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