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'''Cybernetics''' is the interdisciplinary study of the [[structure]] of [[complex system]]s, especially [[communication]] processes, [[control]] mechanisms and [[feedback]] principles. Cybernetics is closely related to [[control theory]] and [[systems theory]].
   
'''Cybernetics''' is the study of [[communication]] and [[control theory|control]], typically involving regulatory [[feedback]], in living beings and machines, and in combinations of the two (e.g. sociotechnical systems).
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Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of [[control system]]s, [[Circuit theory|electrical network theory]], [[mechanical engineering]], [[logic modeling]], [[evolutionary biology]] and [[neuroscience]] in the 1940s. Other fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include [[game theory]]; [[system theory]] (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics); [[psychology]], especially [[neuropsychology]], [[behavioral psychology]],[[cognitive psychology]]; [[philosophy]] and even [[architecture]].{{Fact|date=October 2007}}
   
The term ''cybernetics'' stems from the [[Greek language|Greek]] ''Κυβερνήτης'' (''kybernetes'' - meaning steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder; the same root as [[government]]). It became a powerful [[vogue idea]] from [[1948]] to the 1960s; but since the 1970s use of the term has decreased for a number of reasons, in part because it went out of fashion among devotees of [[artificial intelligence]], with which it differs philosophically. Current related fields include:- [[complexity theory]], [[Control theory]] and [[dynamic systems theory]].
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== Overview ==
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The term ''cybernetics'' stems from the [[Ancient Greek|Greek]] [[w:el:Κυβερνήτης|Κυβερνήτης]] (''kybernetes'', steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder — the same root as [[government]]). Cybernetics is a broad field of study, but the essential goal of cybernetics is to understand and define the functions and processes of systems. Studies of this field are all ultimately means of examining different forms of systems and applying what is known to make artificial systems, such as business management, more [[efficient]] and [[effective]].
   
A more philosophical definition, suggested in [[1958]] by [[Louis Couffignal]], one of the pioneers of cybernetics in the 1930s, considers cybernetics as ''"the art of assuring efficiency of action"'' (see external links for reference).
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Cybernetic was defined by [[Norbert Wiener]], in his book of that title, as the study of control and communication in the animal and the machine. [[Stafford Beer]] called it the science of effective organization and [[Gordon Pask]] extended it to include information flows "in all media" from stars to brains. It includes the study of [[feedback]], [[black box]]es and derived concepts such as [[communication]] and [[control theory|control]] in [[life|living organisms]], [[machine]]s and [[organization]]s including [[self-organization]]. Its focus is how anything (digital, mechanical or biological) processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks <ref name="Kelly">{{cite book |author=Kelly, Kevin |title=Out of control: the new biology of machines, social systems and the economic world |publisher=Addison-Wesley |location=Boston |year=1994 |pages= |isbn=0-201-48340-8 |oclc= |doi=}}</ref>.
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A more philosophical definition, suggested in 1956 by [[Louis Couffignal]], one of the pioneers of cybernetics, characterizes cybernetics as "the art of ensuring the efficacy of action" <ref name="Couffignal">Couffignal, Louis, "Essai d’une définition générale de la cybernétique", ''The First International Congress on Cybernetics'', Namur, Belgium, June 26-29, 1956, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1958, pp. 46-54</ref>. The most recent definition has been proposed by [[Louis Kauffman]], President of the [[American Society for Cybernetics]], "Cybernetics is the study of systems and processes that interact with themselves and produce themselves from themselves" <ref>CYBCON discussion group 20 September 2007 18:15</ref>.
   
==History==
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Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to: [[learning]], [[cognition]], [[adaption]], [[social control]], [[emergence]], [[communication]], [[efficiency]], [[efficacy]] and [[interconnectivity]]. These concepts are studied by other subjects such as [[engineering]] and [[biology]], but in cybernetics these are removed from the context of the individual [[organism]] or [[machine|device]].
   
The modern study of cybernetics began at the intersection of [[neurology]], electronic [[network theory]] and [[logic modelling]] around the time of [[World War II|WWII]]. The name 'cybernetics' was coined by [[Norbert Wiener]] to denote the study of "teleological mechanisms" and was popularized through his book ''Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and machine'', ([[1948]]).
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Other fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include [[game theory]]; [[system theory]] (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics); [[psychology]], especially [[neuropsychology]], [[behavioral psychology]],[[cognitive psychology]]; [[philosophy]]; [[anthropology]] and even [[architecture]].{{Fact|date=October 2007}}
   
The word ''cybernetics'' ('cybernétique') had, unbeknownst to Wiener, also been used in [[1834]] by the physicist [[André-Marie Ampère]] (1775-1836) to denote the sciences of government in his classification system of human knowledge. It was also used by [[Plato]] in [[The Republic]] to signify the governance of people. The word [[governor]] and govern is also derived from the same Greek root.
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==History==
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===The Roots of Cybernetic theory===
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The word '''cybernetics''' was first used in the context of "the study of self-governance" by [[Plato]] in [[The Laws]] to signify the [[governance]] of people. The words govern and [[governor]] are related to the same Greek root through the [[Latin]] cognates [[gubernare]] and [[gubernator]]. The word "cybernétique" was also used in 1834 by the physicist [[André-Marie Ampère]] (1775–1836) to denote the sciences of government in his classification system of human knowledge.
   
The study of "teleological mechanisms" ("teleos" is Greek for "end" in the sense of "purpose for") in machinery (i.e. machines with corrective feedback) dates back at least to the late 1700s when [[James Watt]]'s steam engine was equipped with a [[governor (device)|governor]]. In [[1868]] [[James Clerk Maxwell]] published a theoretical article on governors. In 1938 the Romanian scientist [[Stefan Odobleja]] published in Paris ''Psychologie consonantiste'' describing many cybernetic principles. In the 1940s the study and mathematical modelling of regulatory processes became a continuing research effort and two key articles were published in [[1943]]. These papers were ''"Behavior, Purpose and Teleology"'' by [[Arturo Rosenblueth]], [[Norbert Wiener]], and [[Julian Bigelow]]; and the paper ''"A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity"'' by [[Warren McCulloch]] and [[Walter Pitts]].
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The first artificial automatic regulatory system, a [[water clock]], was invented by the mechanician Ktesibios. In his water clocks, water flowed from a source such as a holding tank into a reservoir, then from the reservoir to the mechanisms of the clock. Ktesibios's device used a cone-shaped float to monitor the level of the water in its reservoir and adjust the rate of flow of the water accordingly to maintain a constant level of water in the reservoir, so that it neither overflowed nor was allowed to run dry. This was the first artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that required no outside intervention between the feedback and the controls of the mechanism. Although they did not refer to this concept by the name of Cybernetics (they considered it a field of engineering), [[Ktesibios]] and others such as [[Hero of Alexandria|Heron]] and [[Su Song]] are considered to be some of the first to study cybernetic principles.
   
Cybernetics as a discipline was firmly established by Wiener, McCulloch and others, such as [[W. Ross Ashby]] and [[Grey Walter|W. Grey Walter]]. Together with the [[United_States|US]] and [[UK]], an important geographical locus of early cybernetics was [[France]] where Wiener's book was first published.
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The study of '''teleological mechanisms''' (from the [[Ancient Greek|Greek]] τέλος or ''telos'' for ''end'', ''goal'', or ''purpose'') in machines with '''corrective feedback''' dates from as far back as the late 1700s when [[James Watt]]'s steam engine was equipped with a [[governor (device)|governor]], a centripetal feedback valve for controlling the speed of the engine. [[Alfred Russel Wallace]] identified this as the principle of [[evolution]] in his famous 1858 paper. In 1868 [[James Clerk Maxwell]] published a theoretical article on governors, one of the first to discuss and refine the principles of self-regulating devices.
   
In the spring of [[1947]], Wiener was invited to a congress on harmonic analysis, held in [[Nancy]], [[France]] and organized by the [[Bourbaki|bourbakist]] mathematician, [[Szolem Mandelbrojt]] (1899-1983), uncle of the world famous mathematician [[Benoit Mandelbrot]].
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===The Early 20th century===
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Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of [[control system]]s, [[Circuit theory|electrical network theory]], [[mechanical engineering]], [[logic modeling]], [[evolutionary biology]] and [[neuroscience]] in the 1940s. Electronic control systems originated with the 1927 work of [[Bell Labs|Bell Telephone Laboratories]] engineer [[Harold Stephen Black|Harold S. Black]] on using negative feedback to control amplifiers. The ideas are also related to the biological work of [[Ludwig von Bertalanffy]] in General Systems Theory.
   
During this stay in France, Wiener received the offer to write a manuscript on the unifying character of this part of applied mathematics, which is found in the study of [[Brownian motion]] and in telecommunication engineering. The following summer, back in the United States, Wiener decided to introduce the neologism cybernetics into his scientific theory.
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Early applications of negative feedback in electronic circuits included the control of gun mounts and radar antenna during World War Two. [[Jay Wright Forrester|Jay Forrester]], a graduate student at the Servomechanisms Laboratory at MIT during WWII working with [[Gordon S. Brown]] to develop electronic control systems for the U.S. Navy, later applied these ideas to social organizations such as corporations and cities as an original organizer of the MIT School of Industrial Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management. Forrester is known as the founder of [[System Dynamics]].
   
Wiener popularized the social implications of cybernetics, drawing analogies between automatic systems such as a regulated steam engine and human institutions in his best-selling ''The Human Use of Human Beings : Cybernetics and Society'' (Houghton-Mifflin, 1950).
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[[W. Edwards Deming]], the [[Total Quality Management]] guru for whom Japan named its top post-WWII industrial [[Deming Prize|prize]], was an intern at [[Bell Labs|Bell Telephone Labs]] in 1927 and may have been influenced by network theory. Deming made "Understanding Systems" one of the four pillars of what he described as "Profound Knowledge" in his book "The New Economics."
   
==Scope==
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Numerous papers spearheaded the coalescing of the field. In 1935 Russian physiologist [[P.K. Anokhin]] published a book in which the concept of [[feedback]] ("back [[afferent]]ation") was studied. The Romanian scientist [[Ştefan Odobleja]] published ''Psychologie consonantiste'' (Paris, 1938), describing many cybernetic principles. The study and mathematical modelling of regulatory processes became a continuing research effort and two key articles were published in 1943. These papers were "Behavior, Purpose and Teleology" by [[Arturo Rosenblueth]], [[Norbert Wiener]], and [[Julian Bigelow]]; and the paper "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" by [[Warren McCulloch]] and [[Walter Pitts]].
   
In scholarly terms, cybernetics is the study of systems and control in an abstracted sense &mdash; that is, it is not grounded in any one empirical field.
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Cybernetics as a discipline was firmly established by [[Norbert Wiener|Wiener]], [[Warren Sturgis McCulloch|McCulloch]] and others, such as [[W. Ross Ashby]] and [[William Grey Walter|W. Grey Walter]].
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Walter was one of the first to build autonomous robots as an aid to the study of animal behaviour. Together with the [[United States|US]] and [[United Kingdom|UK]], an important geographical locus of early cybernetics was [[France]].
   
The emphasis is on the functional relations that hold between the different parts of a system, rather than the parts themselves. These relations include the transfer of [[information]], and circular relations ([[feedback]]) that result in emergent phenomena such as [[self-organization]], and, (expressed as a term coined much later by [[Humberto Maturana]], [[Francisco Varela]] and [[Ricardo Uribe]]), [[autopoiesis]]. The main innovation of cybernetics was the creation of a scientific discipline focused on goals: an understanding of goal-directedness or [[purpose]], resulting from a [[negative feedback]] loop which minimizes the deviation between the perceived situation and the desired situation (goal). As mechanistic as that sounds, cybernetics has the scope and rigor to encompass the human social interactions of agreement and collaboration that, after all, require goals and feedback to attain.
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In the spring of 1947, Wiener was invited to a congress on harmonic analysis, held in [[Nancy]], [[France]]. The event was organized by the [[Bourbaki]], a French scientific society, and mathematician [[Szolem Mandelbrojt]] (1899-1983), uncle of the world-famous mathematician [[Benoît Mandelbrot]].
   
Cybernetics is somewhat erroneously associated in many people's minds with [[robotics]], due to uses such as [[Douglas Adams]]' ''[[Sirius Cybernetics Corporation]]'' and the concept of a ''[[cyborg]]'', a term first popularized by Clynes and Kline in 1960. Additional confusion arose when terms such as 'cyberspace', 'cybercrime', and many others arose.
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During this stay in France, Wiener received the offer to write a manuscript on the unifying character of this part of applied mathematics, which is found in the study of [[Brownian motion]] and in telecommunication engineering. The following summer, back in the United States, Wiener decided to introduce the neologism cybernetics into his scientific theory. The name ''cybernetics'' was coined to denote the study of "teleological mechanisms" and was popularized through his book ''Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and Machine'' (1948). In the UK this became the focus for the [[Ratio Club]].
   
Ampère's earlier use of the term echoes in the development of [[second-order cybernetics]], which includes observers as part of whatever system is being studied. A primary force behind second-order-cybernetics was [[Heinz von Foerster]], an Austrian trained in physics and magic, who was appointed by Warren McCulloch as the editor of the [[Macy Meetings]], a series of meetings held between 1946 and 1955, involving [[Gregory Bateson]], [[Margaret Mead]], [[F.S.C. Northrop]], [[John von Neumann]], [[Claude Shannon]], [[Conrad Lorenz]], [[Warren McCulloch]], [[Grey Walter|W. Grey Walter]], and [[Norbert Wiener]]. (Wiener is usually considered the “father of cybernetics” because of his authorship of the book ''Cybernetics'', published in 1948, but this is an oversimplification that Wiener would be the first to point out.) These meetings were originally called “Circular Causal and Feedback Mechanisms in Biological and Social Systems”. From this original title, as well as the breadth of fields represented by the attendees, the scope and depth of second-order cybernetics is dramatically apparent.
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In the early 1940's [[John von Neumann]], although better known for his work in mathematics and computer science, did contribute a unique and unusual addition to the world of cybernetics: [[Von Neumann cellular automata]], and their logical follow up the [[Von Neumann Universal Constructor]]. The result of these deceptively simple thought-experiments was the concept of [[self replication]] which cybernetics adopted as a core concept. The concept that the same properties of genetic reproduction applied to social [[memes]], living cells, and even computer viruses is further proof of the somewhat surprising universality of cybernetic study.
   
==Major fields==
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Wiener popularized the social implications of cybernetics, drawing analogies between automatic systems (such as a regulated steam engine) and human institutions in his best-selling ''The Human Use of Human Beings : Cybernetics and Society'' (Houghton-Mifflin, 1950).
   
* '''General cybernetics (K1 and K2)'''
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While not the only instance of a research organization focused on cybernetics, the [http://www.ece.uiuc.edu/pubs/bcl/mueller/index.htm Biological Computer Lab] at the University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign, under the direction of [[Heinz von Foerster]], was a [http://www.ece.uiuc.edu/pubs/bcl/hutchinson/index.htm major center of cybernetic research] for almost 20 years, beginning in 1958.
** [[connectionism]]
 
** [[decision theory]]
 
** [[game theory]]
 
** [[information theory]]
 
** [[semiotics]]
 
** [[synergetics]]
 
** [[systems theory]]
 
* '''Applied cybernetics (K3)'''
 
** [[Anthropocybernetics]]
 
*** [[Microanthropocybernetics]] ([[Psychocybernetics]])
 
*** [[Macroanthropocybernetics]] ([[Soziocybernetics]])
 
** [[Biomedical cybernetics]]
 
*** [[Biological cybernetics]]
 
*** [[Medical cybernetics]]
 
** [[Engineering cybernetics]]
 
** [[Managerial cybernetics]]
 
   
* '''[[Second-order_cybernetics|Second-order cybernetics]]'''
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===The Fall and Rebirth of Cybernetics===
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For a time during the past 20 years, the field of cybernetics followed a boom-bust cycle of becoming more and more dominated by the subfields of artificial intelligence and machine-biological interfaces (ie. cyborgs) and when this research fell out of favor, the field as a whole fell from grace. Recent endeavors into the true focus of cybernetics, systems of control and emergent behavior, by such related fields as [[Game Theory]] (the analysis of group interaction), [[evolutionary stable strategy|systems of feedback in evolution]], and [[Metamaterials]] (the study of materials with properties beyond the newtonian properties of their constituent atoms), have lead to a revived interest in this increasingly relevant field.<ref name="Kelly"/>
   
==See also==
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==Subdivisions of the field==
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Cybernetics is an earlier but still-used generic term for many subject matters. These subjects also extend into many others areas of science, but are united in their study of control of systems.
   
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=== Pure Cybernetics ===
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Pure cybernetics studies systems of control as a concept, attempting to discover the basic principles underlying such things as
 
*[[Artificial intelligence]]
 
*[[Artificial intelligence]]
*[[Artificial life]]
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*[[Control system]]s
*[[Systems biology]]
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*[[Emergence]]
*[[Automation]]
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*[[Learning organization]]
*[[Brain implant]]
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*[[New Cybernetics]]
*[[Complex system|Complex systems]]
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*[[Second-order cybernetics]]
*[[Machine augmented intelligence]]
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*[[Gordon_Pask#Interactions_of_Actors_Theory_.28IA.29|Interactions of Actors Theory]]
*[[Project Cybersyn]] - a Chilean attempt to implement a planned economy using the principles of cybernetics.
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*[[Conversation Theory]]
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=== In Biology ===
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Cybernetics in biology is the study of cybernetic systems present in biological organisms, primarily focusing on how animals adapt to their environment, and how information in the form of [[genes]] is passed from generation to generation<ref>Note: this does not refer to the concept of [[Racial Memory]] but to the concept of cumulative adaptation to a particular niche, such as the case of the [[pepper moth]] having genes for both light and dark environments.</ref>. There is also a secondary focus on [[cyborg]]s.
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*[[Bioengineering]] <!--obviously, this also fits under the heading of engineering,picked bio because it had less-->
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*[[Biocybernetics]]
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*[[Bionics]]
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*[[Homeostasis]]
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*[[Medical cybernetics]]
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*[[Synthetic Biology]]
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=== In Complexity Science ===
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Complexity Science attempts to analyze the nature of complex systems, and the reasons behind their unusual properties.
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*[[Complex system]]s
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*[[Complexity theory]]
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=== In Computer Science ===
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Computer science directly applies the concepts of cybernetics to the control of devices and the analysis of information.
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*[[Decision support system]]
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*[[Cellular automaton]]
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*[[Simulation]]
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=== In Engineering ===
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Cybernetics in engineering is used to analyze [[cascading failure]]s and [[System Accident]]s, in which the small errors and imperfections in a system can generate disasters. Other topics studied include:
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*[[Adaptive system]]s
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*[[Engineering cybernetics]]
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*[[Ergonomics]]
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*[[Biomedical engineering]]
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*[[Systems engineering]]
  +
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=== In Management ===
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*[[Entrepreneurial cybernetics]]
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*[[Management cybernetics]]
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*[[Management cybernetics#Organizational cybernetics|Organizational cybernetics]]
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*[[Operations research]]
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*[[Systems engineering]]
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=== In Mathematics ===
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Mathematical Cybernetics focuses on the factors of information, interaction of parts in systems, and the structure of systems.
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*[[Dynamical system]]
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*[[Information theory]]
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*[[Systems theory]]
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=== In Psychology ===
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*[[Psycho-Cybernetics]]
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*[[Systemic psychology]]
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=== In Sociology ===
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By examining group behavior through the lens of cybernetics, sociology seeks the reasons for such spontaneous events as [[smart mob]]s and [[riots]], as well as how communities develop rules, such as etiquette, by consensus without formal discussion. [[Affect Control Theory]] explains [[role]] behavior, [[emotion]]s, and [[labeling theory]] in terms of homeostatic maintenance of sentiments associated with cultural categories. These and other cybernetic models in sociology are reviewed in a book edited by McClelland and Fararo<ref name="McClelland"> McClelland, Kent A., and Thomas J. Fararo (Eds.). 2006. Purpose, Meaning, and Action: Control Systems Theories in Sociology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.</ref>.
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*[[Affect Control Theory]]
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*[[Memetics]]
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*[[Sociocybernetics]]
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== Further reading ==
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<!--If anyone knows what these references cite, please add them using the <ref></ref> tag to the appropriate information.-->
  +
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* [[W. Ross Ashby]] (1956), ''Introduction to Cybernetics''. Methuen, London, UK. [http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/books/IntroCyb.pdf PDF text].
  +
* [[Stafford Beer]] (1974), ''Designing Freedom'', John Wiley, London and New York, 1975.
  +
* Lars Bluma, (2005), ''Norbert Wiener und die Entstehung der Kybernetik im Zweiten Weltkrieg'', Münster.
  +
* Steve J. Heims (1980), ''John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death'', 3. Aufl., Cambridge.
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* Steve J. Heims (1993), ''Constructing a Social Science for Postwar America. The Cybernetics Group, 1946-1953'', Cambridge University Press, London, UK.
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* Helvey, T.C. The Age of Information: An Interdisciplinary Survey of Cybernetics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications, 1971.
  +
* [[Francis Heylighen]], and Joslyn C. (2001), "[http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/Papers/Cybernetics-EPST.pdf Cybernetics and Second Order Cybernetics]", in: R.A. Meyers (ed.), ''Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology'' (3rd ed.), Vol. 4, (Academic Press, New York), p. 155-170.
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* Hans Joachim Ilgauds (1980), ''Norbert Wiener'', Leipzig.
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* P. Rustom Masani (1990), ''Norbert Wiener 1894-1964'', Basel.
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* Eden Medina, "Designing Freedom, Regulating a Nation: Socialist Cybernetics in Allende's Chile." Journal of Latin American Studies 38 (2006):571-606.
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* Paul Pangaro (1990), "Cybernetics — A Definition", [http://pangaro.com/published/cyber-macmillan.html Eprint].
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* [[Gordon Pask]] (1972), "[http://www.cybsoc.org/gcyb.htm Cybernetics]", entry in ''Encyclopaedia Britannica'' 1972.
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* B.C. Patten, and [[E.P. Odum]] (1981), "The Cybernetic Nature of Ecosystems", ''The American Naturalist'' 118, 886-895.
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* [[Plato]], "Alcibiades&nbsp;1", W.R.M. Lamb (trans.), pp. 93–223 in ''Plato, Volume&nbsp;12'', Loeb Classical Library, London, UK, 1927.
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* [[Heinz von Foerster]], (1995), [http://www.stanford.edu/group/SHR/4-2/text/foerster.html Ethics and Second-Order Cybernetics].
  +
* [[Norbert Wiener]] (1948), ''Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine'', Paris, Hermann et Cie - MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
* Norbert Wiener, ''Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine'', (Hermann Editions in Paris; Cambridge: MIT Press,Wiley & Sons in NY 1948),
+
<references/>
* Ashby, W. R. (1956) ''Introduction to Cybernetics''. Methuen, London. (electronically republished at [http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/books/IntroCyb.pdf]).
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* Heylighen F. & Joslyn C. (2001): "[http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/Papers/Cybernetics-EPST.pdf Cybernetics and Second Order Cybernetics]", in: R.A. Meyers (ed.), Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology (3rd ed.), Vol. 4, (Academic Press, New York), p. 155-170.
+
== See also ==
* Pangaro, Paul (1990): "Cybernetics—A Definition", available at [http://pangaro.com/published/cyber-macmillan.html]
+
{{Multicol}}
* von Foerster, Heinz (1995): Ethics and Second-Order Cybernetics, available at [http://www.stanford.edu/group/SHR/4-2/text/foerster.html]
+
* [[Artificial intelligence]]
* Manfred E. Clynes, and Nathan S. Kline, (1960) "Cyborgs and Space", ''Astronautics'', September, pp. 26-27 and 74-75; reprinted in Gray, Mentor, and Figueroa-Sarriera, eds., ''The Cyborg Handbook'', New York: Routledge, 1995, pp. 29-34.
+
* [[Artificial life]]
* Heims, Steve J.: John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, 3. Aufl., Cambridge 1980.
+
* [[Automation]]
* Heims, Steve J.: Constructing a Social Science for Postwar America. The Cybernetics Group, 1946-1953, Cambridge/London 1993.
+
* [[Brain-computer interface]]
* Ilgauds, Hans Joachim: Norbert Wiener, Leipzig 1980.
+
* [[Chaos Theory]]
* Masani, P. Rustom: Norbert Wiener 1894-1964, Basel 1990.
+
* [[Complex system]]
* Bluma, Lars: Norbert Wiener und die Entstehung der Kybernetik im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Münster 2005.
+
* [[Complex systems]]
* B.C.Patten and E.P.Odum (1981) 'The Cybernetic Nature of Ecosystems', ''The American Naturalist'', Vol. 118. pp. 886-895.
+
* [[Connectionism]]
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* [[Decision theory]]
  +
* [[Entrepreneurial cybernetics]]
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* [[Expert systems]]
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{{Multicol-break}}
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* [[Family therapy]]
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* [[Gaia hypothesis]]
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* [[Game theory]]
  +
* [[Industrial Ecology]]
  +
* [[Information theory]]
  +
* [[Intelligence amplification]]
  +
* [[Interconnectivity]]
  +
* [[Human machine systems]]
  +
* [[Management cybernetics]]
  +
* [[Management science]]
  +
* [[Network theory]]
  +
* [[New Cybernetics]]
  +
{{Multicol-break}}
  +
* [[Perceptual control theory]]
  +
* [[Principia Cybernetica]]
  +
* [[Project Cybersyn]]
  +
* [[Robotics]]
  +
* [[Second order cybernetics]]
  +
* [[Systems biology]]
  +
* [[Semiotics]]
  +
* [[Semiotic information theory]]
  +
* [[Superorganisms]]
  +
* [[Synergetics]]
  +
* [[Systems theory]]
  +
{{multicol-end}}
  +
  +
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
{{wiktionary}}
 
   
* [[Cybernetics:Main Page]]
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* [http://www.rmcybernetics.com Cybernetics projects, Physics, and High Voltage]
 
* [http://www.rmcybernetics.com Cybernetics projects, Physics, and High Voltage]
 
* [http://egodeath.com Ego Death and Self-Control Cybernetics]
 
* [http://egodeath.com Ego Death and Self-Control Cybernetics]
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* [http://dsoul.blogharbor.com/blog/Systems/Cybernetics Cybernetics Portal]
 
* [http://dsoul.blogharbor.com/blog/Systems/Cybernetics Cybernetics Portal]
 
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'''Cybernetics''' is the study of [[communication]] and [[control theory|control]], typically involving regulatory [[feedback]], in living beings and machines, and in combinations of the two (e.g. sociotechnical systems).
 
 
The term ''cybernetics'' stems from the [[Greek language|Greek]] ''&#922;&#965;&#946;&#949;&#961;&#957;&#942;&#964;&#951;&#962;'' (''kybernetes'' - meaning steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder; the same root as [[government]]). It became a powerful [[vogue idea]] from [[1948]] to the 1960s; but since the 1970s use of the term has decreased for a number of reasons, in part because it went out of fashion among devotees of [[artificial intelligence]], with which it differs philosophically. Current related fields include:- [[complexity theory]], [[Control theory]] and [[dynamic systems theory]].
 
 
A more philosophical definition, suggested in [[1958]] by [[Louis Couffignal]], one of the pioneers of cybernetics in the 1930s, considers cybernetics as ''"the art of assuring efficiency of action"'' (see external links for reference).
 
 
==History==
 
 
The modern study of cybernetics began at the intersection of [[neurology]], electronic [[network theory]] and [[logic modelling]] around the time of [[World War II|WWII]]. The name 'cybernetics' was coined by [[Norbert Wiener]] to denote the study of "teleological mechanisms" and was popularized through his book ''Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and machine'', ([[1948]]).
 
 
The word ''cybernetics'' ('cybernétique') had, unbeknownst to Wiener, also been used in [[1834]] by the physicist [[André-Marie Ampère]] (1775-1836) to denote the sciences of government in his classification system of human knowledge. It was also used by [[Plato]] in [[The Republic]] to signify the governance of people. The word [[governor]] and govern is also derived from the same Greek root.
 
 
The study of "teleological mechanisms" ("teleos" is Greek for "end" in the sense of "purpose for") in machinery (i.e. machines with corrective feedback) dates back at least to the late 1700s when [[James Watt]]'s steam engine was equipped with a [[governor (device)|governor]]. In [[1868]] [[James Clerk Maxwell]] published a theoretical article on governors. In 1938 the Romanian scientist [[Stefan Odobleja]] published in Paris ''Psychologie consonantiste'' describing many cybernetic principles. In the 1940s the study and mathematical modelling of regulatory processes became a continuing research effort and two key articles were published in [[1943]]. These papers were ''"Behavior, Purpose and Teleology"'' by [[Arturo Rosenblueth]], [[Norbert Wiener]], and [[Julian Bigelow]]; and the paper ''"A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity"'' by [[Warren McCulloch]] and [[Walter Pitts]].
 
 
Cybernetics as a discipline was firmly established by Wiener, McCulloch and others, such as [[W. Ross Ashby]] and [[Grey Walter|W. Grey Walter]]. Together with the [[United_States|US]] and [[UK]], an important geographical locus of early cybernetics was [[France]] where Wiener's book was first published.
 
 
In the spring of [[1947]], Wiener was invited to a congress on harmonic analysis, held in [[Nancy]], [[France]] and organized by the [[Bourbaki|bourbakist]] mathematician, [[Szolem Mandelbrojt]] (1899-1983), uncle of the world famous mathematician [[Benoit Mandelbrot]].
 
 
During this stay in France, Wiener received the offer to write a manuscript on the unifying character of this part of applied mathematics, which is found in the study of [[Brownian motion]] and in telecommunication engineering. The following summer, back in the United States, Wiener decided to introduce the neologism cybernetics into his scientific theory.
 
 
Wiener popularized the social implications of cybernetics, drawing analogies between automatic systems such as a regulated steam engine and human institutions in his best-selling ''The Human Use of Human Beings : Cybernetics and Society'' (Houghton-Mifflin, 1950).
 
 
==Scope==
 
 
In scholarly terms, cybernetics is the study of systems and control in an abstracted sense &mdash; that is, it is not grounded in any one empirical field.
 
 
The emphasis is on the functional relations that hold between the different parts of a system, rather than the parts themselves. These relations include the transfer of [[information]], and circular relations ([[feedback]]) that result in emergent phenomena such as [[self-organization]], and, (expressed as a term coined much later by [[Humberto Maturana]], [[Francisco Varela]] and [[Ricardo Uribe]]), [[autopoiesis]]. The main innovation of cybernetics was the creation of a scientific discipline focused on goals: an understanding of goal-directedness or [[purpose]], resulting from a [[negative feedback]] loop which minimizes the deviation between the perceived situation and the desired situation (goal). As mechanistic as that sounds, cybernetics has the scope and rigor to encompass the human social interactions of agreement and collaboration that, after all, require goals and feedback to attain.
 
 
Cybernetics is somewhat erroneously associated in many people's minds with [[robotics]], due to uses such as [[Douglas Adams]]' ''[[Sirius Cybernetics Corporation]]'' and the concept of a ''[[cyborg]]'', a term first popularized by Clynes and Kline in 1960. Additional confusion arose when terms such as 'cyberspace', 'cybercrime', and many others arose.
 
 
Ampère's earlier use of the term echoes in the development of [[second-order cybernetics]], which includes observers as part of whatever system is being studied. A primary force behind second-order-cybernetics was [[Heinz von Foerster]], an Austrian trained in physics and magic, who was appointed by Warren McCulloch as the editor of the [[Macy Meetings]], a series of meetings held between 1946 and 1955, involving [[Gregory Bateson]], [[Margaret Mead]], [[F.S.C. Northrop]], [[John von Neumann]], [[Claude Shannon]], [[Conrad Lorenz]], [[Warren McCulloch]], [[Grey Walter|W. Grey Walter]], and [[Norbert Wiener]]. (Wiener is usually considered the “father of cybernetics” because of his authorship of the book ''Cybernetics'', published in 1948, but this is an oversimplification that Wiener would be the first to point out.) These meetings were originally called “Circular Causal and Feedback Mechanisms in Biological and Social Systems”. From this original title, as well as the breadth of fields represented by the attendees, the scope and depth of second-order cybernetics is dramatically apparent.
 
 
==Major fields==
 
 
* '''General cybernetics (K1 and K2)'''
 
** [[connectionism]]
 
** [[decision theory]]
 
** [[game theory]]
 
** [[information theory]]
 
** [[semiotics]]
 
** [[synergetics]]
 
** [[systems theory]]
 
* '''Applied cybernetics (K3)'''
 
** [[Anthropocybernetics]]
 
*** [[Microanthropocybernetics]] ([[Psychocybernetics]])
 
*** [[Macroanthropocybernetics]] ([[Soziocybernetics]])
 
** [[Biomedical cybernetics]]
 
*** [[Biological cybernetics]]
 
*** [[Medical cybernetics]]
 
** [[Engineering cybernetics]]
 
** [[Managerial cybernetics]]
 
 
* '''[[Second-order_cybernetics|Second-order cybernetics]]'''
 
 
==See also==
 
 
*[[Artificial intelligence]]
 
*[[Artificial life]]
 
*[[Systems biology]]
 
*[[Automation]]
 
*[[Brain implant]]
 
*[[Complex system|Complex systems]]
 
*[[Machine augmented intelligence]]
 
*[[Project Cybersyn]] - a Chilean attempt to implement a planned economy using the principles of cybernetics.
 
 
==References==
 
* Norbert Wiener, ''Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine'', (Hermann Editions in Paris; Cambridge: MIT Press,Wiley & Sons in NY 1948),
 
* Ashby, W. R. (1956) ''Introduction to Cybernetics''. Methuen, London. (electronically republished at [http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/books/IntroCyb.pdf]).
 
* Heylighen F. & Joslyn C. (2001): "[http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/Papers/Cybernetics-EPST.pdf Cybernetics and Second Order Cybernetics]", in: R.A. Meyers (ed.), Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology (3rd ed.), Vol. 4, (Academic Press, New York), p. 155-170.
 
* Pangaro, Paul (1990): "Cybernetics—A Definition", available at [http://pangaro.com/published/cyber-macmillan.html]
 
* von Foerster, Heinz (1995): Ethics and Second-Order Cybernetics, available at [http://www.stanford.edu/group/SHR/4-2/text/foerster.html]
 
* Manfred E. Clynes, and Nathan S. Kline, (1960) "Cyborgs and Space", ''Astronautics'', September, pp. 26-27 and 74-75; reprinted in Gray, Mentor, and Figueroa-Sarriera, eds., ''The Cyborg Handbook'', New York: Routledge, 1995, pp. 29-34.
 
* Heims, Steve J.: John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, 3. Aufl., Cambridge 1980.
 
* Heims, Steve J.: Constructing a Social Science for Postwar America. The Cybernetics Group, 1946-1953, Cambridge/London 1993.
 
* Ilgauds, Hans Joachim: Norbert Wiener, Leipzig 1980.
 
* Masani, P. Rustom: Norbert Wiener 1894-1964, Basel 1990.
 
* Bluma, Lars: Norbert Wiener und die Entstehung der Kybernetik im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Münster 2005.
 
* B.C.Patten and E.P.Odum (1981) 'The Cybernetic Nature of Ecosystems', ''The American Naturalist'', Vol. 118. pp. 886-895.
 
 
==External links==
 
{{wiktionary}}
 
 
* [http://www.rmcybernetics.com Cybernetics projects, Physics, and High Voltage]
 
* [http://egodeath.com Ego Death and Self-Control Cybernetics]
 
* [http://histm2.free.fr/H.Couffign.htm Louis Couffignal's photos & documents]
 
* [http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASC/indexASC.html Web Dictionary of Cybernetics and Systems]
 
* [http://www.gwu.edu/~asc/slide/s1.html Glossary Slideshow (136 slides)]
 
* [http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/DEFAULT.html ''Principia Cybernetica Web'']
 
* [http://www.systems-thinking.de Mindmap-based-page by Ragnar Heil]
 
* [http://www.cybsoc.org The Cybernetics Society]
 
* [http://www.asc-cybernetics.org/ American Society for Cybernetics]
 
*[http://www.iberobotics.com/ Iberobotics - Portal de Robótica en Castellano]
 
* [http://perso.wanadoo.fr/nathalie.diaz/html/Approche%20syst.htm The Systemic Approach : an introduction]
 
* [http://www.infoamerica.org/documentos_word/shannon-wiener.htm Cybernetics and Information Theory in the United States, France and the Soviet Union]
 
* [http://www.medical-cybernetics.de Medizinische Kybernetik | Medical Cybernetics]
 
* [http://open-site.org/Science/Mathematics/Applied/Cybernetics/ Cybernetics category in the Open Encyclopedia Project]
 
* [http://www.uni-klu.ac.at/~gossimit/ifsr/francois/papers/systemics_and_cybernetics_in_a_historical_perspective.pdf Systemics and cybernetics in a historical perspective (pdf document)]
 
: ([http://www.uni-klu.ac.at/~gossimit/ifsr/francois/ more related pdf documents])
 
* [http://earthops.net/klaatu/delgado.html Dr Jose Delgado / Brain implants]
 
* [http://www.smithsrisca.demon.co.uk/cybernetics.html Basics of Cybernetics]
 
* [http://www.asc-cybernetics.org/foundations/definitions.htm Several definitions of cybernetics]
 
{{Cybernetics}}
 
* [http://dsoul.blogharbor.com/blog/Systems/Cybernetics Cybernetics Portal]
 
* [http://www.squidoo.com/Cybernetics Cybernetics Lens]
 
 
[[Category:Cybernetics|*]]
 
[[Category:Systems theory]]
 
[[Category:Control theory]]
 
   
 
{{enWP|Cybernetics}}
 
{{enWP|Cybernetics}}

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Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of complex systems, especially communication processes, control mechanisms and feedback principles. Cybernetics is closely related to control theory and systems theory.

Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology and neuroscience in the 1940s. Other fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory; system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics); psychology, especially neuropsychology, behavioral psychology,cognitive psychology; philosophy and even architecture.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Overview Edit

The term cybernetics stems from the Greek Κυβερνήτης (kybernetes, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder — the same root as government). Cybernetics is a broad field of study, but the essential goal of cybernetics is to understand and define the functions and processes of systems. Studies of this field are all ultimately means of examining different forms of systems and applying what is known to make artificial systems, such as business management, more efficient and effective.

Cybernetic was defined by Norbert Wiener, in his book of that title, as the study of control and communication in the animal and the machine. Stafford Beer called it the science of effective organization and Gordon Pask extended it to include information flows "in all media" from stars to brains. It includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organizations including self-organization. Its focus is how anything (digital, mechanical or biological) processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks [1]. A more philosophical definition, suggested in 1956 by Louis Couffignal, one of the pioneers of cybernetics, characterizes cybernetics as "the art of ensuring the efficacy of action" [2]. The most recent definition has been proposed by Louis Kauffman, President of the American Society for Cybernetics, "Cybernetics is the study of systems and processes that interact with themselves and produce themselves from themselves" [3].

Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to: learning, cognition, adaption, social control, emergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy and interconnectivity. These concepts are studied by other subjects such as engineering and biology, but in cybernetics these are removed from the context of the individual organism or device.

Other fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory; system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics); psychology, especially neuropsychology, behavioral psychology,cognitive psychology; philosophy; anthropology and even architecture.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

HistoryEdit

The Roots of Cybernetic theoryEdit

The word cybernetics was first used in the context of "the study of self-governance" by Plato in The Laws to signify the governance of people. The words govern and governor are related to the same Greek root through the Latin cognates gubernare and gubernator. The word "cybernétique" was also used in 1834 by the physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836) to denote the sciences of government in his classification system of human knowledge.

The first artificial automatic regulatory system, a water clock, was invented by the mechanician Ktesibios. In his water clocks, water flowed from a source such as a holding tank into a reservoir, then from the reservoir to the mechanisms of the clock. Ktesibios's device used a cone-shaped float to monitor the level of the water in its reservoir and adjust the rate of flow of the water accordingly to maintain a constant level of water in the reservoir, so that it neither overflowed nor was allowed to run dry. This was the first artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that required no outside intervention between the feedback and the controls of the mechanism. Although they did not refer to this concept by the name of Cybernetics (they considered it a field of engineering), Ktesibios and others such as Heron and Su Song are considered to be some of the first to study cybernetic principles.

The study of teleological mechanisms (from the Greek τέλος or telos for end, goal, or purpose) in machines with corrective feedback dates from as far back as the late 1700s when James Watt's steam engine was equipped with a governor, a centripetal feedback valve for controlling the speed of the engine. Alfred Russel Wallace identified this as the principle of evolution in his famous 1858 paper. In 1868 James Clerk Maxwell published a theoretical article on governors, one of the first to discuss and refine the principles of self-regulating devices.

The Early 20th centuryEdit

Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology and neuroscience in the 1940s. Electronic control systems originated with the 1927 work of Bell Telephone Laboratories engineer Harold S. Black on using negative feedback to control amplifiers. The ideas are also related to the biological work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy in General Systems Theory.

Early applications of negative feedback in electronic circuits included the control of gun mounts and radar antenna during World War Two. Jay Forrester, a graduate student at the Servomechanisms Laboratory at MIT during WWII working with Gordon S. Brown to develop electronic control systems for the U.S. Navy, later applied these ideas to social organizations such as corporations and cities as an original organizer of the MIT School of Industrial Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management. Forrester is known as the founder of System Dynamics.

W. Edwards Deming, the Total Quality Management guru for whom Japan named its top post-WWII industrial prize, was an intern at Bell Telephone Labs in 1927 and may have been influenced by network theory. Deming made "Understanding Systems" one of the four pillars of what he described as "Profound Knowledge" in his book "The New Economics."

Numerous papers spearheaded the coalescing of the field. In 1935 Russian physiologist P.K. Anokhin published a book in which the concept of feedback ("back afferentation") was studied. The Romanian scientist Ştefan Odobleja published Psychologie consonantiste (Paris, 1938), describing many cybernetic principles. The study and mathematical modelling of regulatory processes became a continuing research effort and two key articles were published in 1943. These papers were "Behavior, Purpose and Teleology" by Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener, and Julian Bigelow; and the paper "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" by Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts.

Cybernetics as a discipline was firmly established by Wiener, McCulloch and others, such as W. Ross Ashby and W. Grey Walter.

Walter was one of the first to build autonomous robots as an aid to the study of animal behaviour. Together with the US and UK, an important geographical locus of early cybernetics was France.

In the spring of 1947, Wiener was invited to a congress on harmonic analysis, held in Nancy, France. The event was organized by the Bourbaki, a French scientific society, and mathematician Szolem Mandelbrojt (1899-1983), uncle of the world-famous mathematician Benoît Mandelbrot.

During this stay in France, Wiener received the offer to write a manuscript on the unifying character of this part of applied mathematics, which is found in the study of Brownian motion and in telecommunication engineering. The following summer, back in the United States, Wiener decided to introduce the neologism cybernetics into his scientific theory. The name cybernetics was coined to denote the study of "teleological mechanisms" and was popularized through his book Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and Machine (1948). In the UK this became the focus for the Ratio Club.

In the early 1940's John von Neumann, although better known for his work in mathematics and computer science, did contribute a unique and unusual addition to the world of cybernetics: Von Neumann cellular automata, and their logical follow up the Von Neumann Universal Constructor. The result of these deceptively simple thought-experiments was the concept of self replication which cybernetics adopted as a core concept. The concept that the same properties of genetic reproduction applied to social memes, living cells, and even computer viruses is further proof of the somewhat surprising universality of cybernetic study.

Wiener popularized the social implications of cybernetics, drawing analogies between automatic systems (such as a regulated steam engine) and human institutions in his best-selling The Human Use of Human Beings : Cybernetics and Society (Houghton-Mifflin, 1950).

While not the only instance of a research organization focused on cybernetics, the Biological Computer Lab at the University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign, under the direction of Heinz von Foerster, was a major center of cybernetic research for almost 20 years, beginning in 1958.

The Fall and Rebirth of CyberneticsEdit

For a time during the past 20 years, the field of cybernetics followed a boom-bust cycle of becoming more and more dominated by the subfields of artificial intelligence and machine-biological interfaces (ie. cyborgs) and when this research fell out of favor, the field as a whole fell from grace. Recent endeavors into the true focus of cybernetics, systems of control and emergent behavior, by such related fields as Game Theory (the analysis of group interaction), systems of feedback in evolution, and Metamaterials (the study of materials with properties beyond the newtonian properties of their constituent atoms), have lead to a revived interest in this increasingly relevant field.[1]

Subdivisions of the fieldEdit

Cybernetics is an earlier but still-used generic term for many subject matters. These subjects also extend into many others areas of science, but are united in their study of control of systems.

Pure Cybernetics Edit

Pure cybernetics studies systems of control as a concept, attempting to discover the basic principles underlying such things as

In Biology Edit

Cybernetics in biology is the study of cybernetic systems present in biological organisms, primarily focusing on how animals adapt to their environment, and how information in the form of genes is passed from generation to generation[4]. There is also a secondary focus on cyborgs.

In Complexity Science Edit

Complexity Science attempts to analyze the nature of complex systems, and the reasons behind their unusual properties.

In Computer Science Edit

Computer science directly applies the concepts of cybernetics to the control of devices and the analysis of information.

In Engineering Edit

Cybernetics in engineering is used to analyze cascading failures and System Accidents, in which the small errors and imperfections in a system can generate disasters. Other topics studied include:

In Management Edit

In Mathematics Edit

Mathematical Cybernetics focuses on the factors of information, interaction of parts in systems, and the structure of systems.

In Psychology Edit

In Sociology Edit

By examining group behavior through the lens of cybernetics, sociology seeks the reasons for such spontaneous events as smart mobs and riots, as well as how communities develop rules, such as etiquette, by consensus without formal discussion. Affect Control Theory explains role behavior, emotions, and labeling theory in terms of homeostatic maintenance of sentiments associated with cultural categories. These and other cybernetic models in sociology are reviewed in a book edited by McClelland and Fararo[5].

Further reading Edit

  • W. Ross Ashby (1956), Introduction to Cybernetics. Methuen, London, UK. PDF text.
  • Stafford Beer (1974), Designing Freedom, John Wiley, London and New York, 1975.
  • Lars Bluma, (2005), Norbert Wiener und die Entstehung der Kybernetik im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Münster.
  • Steve J. Heims (1980), John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, 3. Aufl., Cambridge.
  • Steve J. Heims (1993), Constructing a Social Science for Postwar America. The Cybernetics Group, 1946-1953, Cambridge University Press, London, UK.
  • Helvey, T.C. The Age of Information: An Interdisciplinary Survey of Cybernetics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications, 1971.
  • Francis Heylighen, and Joslyn C. (2001), "Cybernetics and Second Order Cybernetics", in: R.A. Meyers (ed.), Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology (3rd ed.), Vol. 4, (Academic Press, New York), p. 155-170.
  • Hans Joachim Ilgauds (1980), Norbert Wiener, Leipzig.
  • P. Rustom Masani (1990), Norbert Wiener 1894-1964, Basel.
  • Eden Medina, "Designing Freedom, Regulating a Nation: Socialist Cybernetics in Allende's Chile." Journal of Latin American Studies 38 (2006):571-606.
  • Paul Pangaro (1990), "Cybernetics — A Definition", Eprint.
  • Gordon Pask (1972), "Cybernetics", entry in Encyclopaedia Britannica 1972.
  • B.C. Patten, and E.P. Odum (1981), "The Cybernetic Nature of Ecosystems", The American Naturalist 118, 886-895.
  • Plato, "Alcibiades 1", W.R.M. Lamb (trans.), pp. 93–223 in Plato, Volume 12, Loeb Classical Library, London, UK, 1927.
  • Heinz von Foerster, (1995), Ethics and Second-Order Cybernetics.
  • Norbert Wiener (1948), Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, Paris, Hermann et Cie - MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kelly, Kevin (1994). Out of control: the new biology of machines, social systems and the economic world, Boston: Addison-Wesley.
  2. Couffignal, Louis, "Essai d’une définition générale de la cybernétique", The First International Congress on Cybernetics, Namur, Belgium, June 26-29, 1956, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1958, pp. 46-54
  3. CYBCON discussion group 20 September 2007 18:15
  4. Note: this does not refer to the concept of Racial Memory but to the concept of cumulative adaptation to a particular niche, such as the case of the pepper moth having genes for both light and dark environments.
  5. McClelland, Kent A., and Thomas J. Fararo (Eds.). 2006. Purpose, Meaning, and Action: Control Systems Theories in Sociology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

See also Edit



External linksEdit

(more related pdf documents)
Edit General subfields and scientists in Cybernetics
K1 Polycontexturality, Second-order cybernetics
K2 Catastrophe theory, Connectionism, Control theory, Decision theory, Information theory, Semiotics, Synergetics, Sociosynergetics, Systems theory
K3 Biological cybernetics, Biomedical cybernetics, Biorobotics, Computational neuroscience, Homeostasis, Medical cybernetics, Neuro cybernetics, Sociocybernetics
Cyberneticians William Ross Ashby, Claude Bernard, Valentin Braitenberg, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, George S. Chandy, Joseph J. DiStefano III, Heinz von Foerster, Charles François, Jay Forrester, Buckminster Fuller, Ernst von Glasersfeld, Francis Heylighen, Erich von Holst, Stuart Kauffman, Sergei P. Kurdyumov, Niklas Luhmann, Warren McCulloch, Humberto Maturana, Horst Mittelstaedt, Talcott Parsons, Walter Pitts, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, Robert Trappl, Valentin Turchin, Francisco Varela, Frederic Vester, John N. Warfield, Kevin Warwick, Norbert Wiener


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