Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Curiosity

Talk0
34,140pages on
this wiki
Revision as of 11:20, August 23, 2013 by AWeidman (Talk | contribs)

(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Personality: Self concept · Personality testing · Theories · Mind-body problem


This article is in need of attention from a psychologist/academic expert on the subject.
Please help recruit one, or improve this page yourself if you are qualified.
This banner appears on articles that are weak and whose contents should be approached with academic caution
.

Curiosity is any natural inquisitive behaviour, evident by observation in many animal species, and is the emotional aspect of living beings that engenders exploration, investigation and learning.

Curiosity Edit

In essence, "curiosity" is a term that describes an unknown number of behavioural and psychological mechanisms, which have the effect of impelling beings to seek information and interaction with their environment and with other beings in their vicinity.

Who is Affected? Edit

Curiosity is common to human beings at all ages; from infancy to old age, and is easy to observe in many other animal species. These include apes, cats, fish, reptiles, and insects; as well as many others. Many aspects of exploration are shared among all beings, as all known terrestrial beings share similar aspects: limited size, and a need to seek out food sources.

Many famous historical figures where affected strongly by curiosity, to explore and conquer, for example, Colombus, Balboa, Magellan, etc. .


Assessment of curiosityEdit

Curiosity in clinical psychologyEdit

Curiosity in the educationEdit

Abstract Curiosity Edit

Though humans are sometimes considered particularly very curious, they sometimes seem to miss the obvious when compared to other animals. What seems to happen is that human curiosity combined with the ability to think in an abstract way, lead to mimesis, fantasy and imagination - eventually leading to an especially human way of thinking ("human reason"), which is abstract and self aware, or conscious. This in turn allows most adult humans to rely heavily upon beliefs which they have learnt long before, but which might only be imagined to be correct. See Francis Bacon concerning "idols".

Epistemic curiosityEdit

Morbid Curiosity Edit

A morbid curiosity is a compulsion, fixed with excitement and fear, to know about macabre topics, such as death and violence.

In a milder form, however, this can be understood as a cathartic form of behaviour or as something instinctive within humans. According to Aristotle, in his Poetics Ch 4 we even “enjoy contemplating the most precise images of things whose sight is painful to us”.

Sexual curiosityEdit

Social curiosityEdit

Curiosity in childrenEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Ainley, M. D. (1987). Explorations in curiosity: Breadth and depth of interest curiosity styles: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ainley, M. D. (1987). The factor structure of curiosity measures: Breadth and depth of interest curiosity styles: Australian Journal of Psychology Vol 39(1) Apr 1987, 53-59.
  • Alberti, E. T., & Witryol, S. L. (1994). The relationship between curiosity and cognitive ability in third- and fifth-grade children: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 155(2) Jun 1994, 129-145.

A*luja, A. (2004). Sensitivity to punishment, sensitivity to reward and sexuality in females: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 36(1) Jan 2004, 5-10.

  • Aluja, A., & Torrubia, R. (1993). Relationship between personality variables and interest in morbid and sexual events in the mass media: Replication of the study by Zuckerman and Litle in a Spanish sample: Revista de Psiquiatria de la Facultad de Medicina de Barcelona Vol 20(2) Mar-Apr 1993, 71-80.
  • Aluja Fabregat, A., & Torrubia Beltri, R. (1995). Curiosity about sexual and/or horror events and personality in delinquents and nondelinquents: Psiquis: Revista de Psiquiatria, Psicologia y Psicosomatica Vol 16(6) Jun 1995, 22-30.
  • Aluja-Fabregat, A. (2000). Personality and curiosity about TV and films violence in adolescents: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 29(2) Aug 2000, 379-392.
  • Alvarado, A. E., & Herr, P. R. (2003). Inquiry-based learning using everyday objects: Hands-on instructional strategies that promote active learning in grades 3-8. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Arend, R., Gove, F. L., & Sroufe, L. A. (1979). Continuity of individual adaptation from infancy to kindergarten: A predictive study of ego-resiliency and curiosity in preschoolers: Child Development Vol 50(4) Dec 1979, 950-959.
  • Arndt, S., Feltes, J., & Hanak, J. (1983). Secretarial attitudes towards word processors as a function of familiarity and locus of control: Behaviour & Information Technology Vol 2(1) Jan-Mar 1983, 17-22.
  • Arnone, M. P., & Grabowski, B. L. (1992). Effects on children's achievement and curiosity of variations in learner control over an interactive video lesson: Educational Technology Research and Development Vol 40(1) 1992, 15-27.
  • Arnone, M. P., Grabowski, B. L., & Rynd, C. P. (1994). Curiosity as a personality variable influencing learning in a learner controlled lesson with and without advisement: Educational Technology Research and Development Vol 42(1) 1994, 5-20.
  • Barendregt, W., Bekker, M. M., Bouwhuis, D. G., & Baauw, E. (2007). Predicting effectiveness of children participants in user testing based on personality characteristics: Behaviour & Information Technology Vol 26(2) Mar 2007, 133-147.
  • Barkai, A. R., & Hauser, S. T. (2007). The creation of a coding scheme assessing curiosity expression in adolescent interviews: Preliminary findings: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association Vol 55(1) Win 2007, 287-294.
  • Barnes, K. L. (1999). Curiosity and self-directed learning readiness among a sample of baccalaureate nursing students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Barondess, J. A. (2005). Viewpoint: On Wondering: Academic Medicine Vol 80(1) Jan 2005, 62-65.
  • Bath, J. B. (1977). The interactions of student traits and classroom openness with self-concept, attitude toward school, creativity and curiosity and persistence in a science exploration lesson: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Beer, J. (1986). Specific and diversive curiosity in students in special education classes: Psychological Reports Vol 59(1) Aug 1986, 307-309.
  • Beer, J. (1990). Correlations among ambiguous figures, curiosity, and spatial ability: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 71(3, Pt 2) Dec 1990, 1188-1190.
  • Beer, J., & Beer, J. (1986). Specific and diversive curiosity in mentally retarded adults: Psychological Reports Vol 59(2, Pt 2) Oct 1986, 846.
  • Behr, W. A. (1998). Curiosity transference: Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy Vol 15(1) 1998, 59-75.
  • Beiser, H. R. (1984). On curiosity: A developmental approach: Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry Vol 23(5) Sep 1984, 517-526.
  • Bennett, R., & Kottasz, R. (2001). Marketing undergraduates' attitudes towards query-based instructional machines as a possible learning medium: British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 32(4) Sep 2001, 471-482.
  • Ben-Zur, H. (1999). The effectiveness of coping meta-strategies: Perceived efficiency, emotional correlates and cognitive performance: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 26(5) May 1999, 923-939.
  • Ben-Zur, H. (2002). Associations of type A behavior with the emotional traits of anger and curiosity: Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal Vol 15(1) 2002, 95-104.
  • Ben-Zur, H., & Zeidner, M. (1988). Sex differences in anxiety, curiosity, and anger: A cross-cultural study: Sex Roles Vol 19(5-6) Sep 1988, 335-347.
  • Berlyne, D. E. (1955). The arousal and satiation of perceptual curiosity in the rat: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 48(4) Aug 1955, 238-246.
  • Berlyne, D. E. (1957). Conflict and information-theory variables as determinants of human perceptual curiosity: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 53(6) Jun 1957, 399-404.
  • Berlyne, D. E. (1960). Conflict, arousal, and curiosity. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Berlyne, D. E. (1960). Toward a Theory of Epistemic Behavior: Conceptual Conflict and Epistemic Curiosity. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Berlyne, D. E. (1960). Toward a Theory of Exploratory Behavior: II. Arousal Potential, Perceptual Curiosity, and Learning. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Berlyne, D. E. (1963). "Complexity and incongruity variables as determinants of exploratory choice and evaluative ratings": Erratum: Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Vol 17(4) 1963, 411.
  • Berlyne, D. E. (1966). Curiosity and the quest for information: Voprosy Psychologii No 3 1966, 54-60.
  • Berlyne, D. E. (1966). Curiouser and Curiouser: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 11 (5), May, 1966.
  • Berlyne, D. E. (1978). Curiosity and Learning: Motivation and Emotion Vol 2(2) Jun 1978, 97-175.
  • Berlyne, D. E., & Frommer, F. D. (1966). Some determinants of the incidence and content of children's questions: Child Development 37(1) 1966, 177-189.
  • Berlyne, D. E., & Slater, J. (1957). Perceptual curiosity, exploratory behavior, and maze learning: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 50(3) Jun 1957, 228-232.
  • Berman, P. (1973). Curiosity as information seeking in fifth grade children: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Bijou, S. W. (1998). Exploratory behavior in infancy and early childhood: Revista Mexicana de Analisis de la Conducta Vol 24(2) Sep 1998, 215-223.
  • Birch, D., & Veroff, J. (1966). Motivation: a Study of Action. Oxford, England: Brooks/Cole.
  • Bishop, S. I. (1996). The effects of orienting activity and social structure on cognitive processing. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Blass, R. B. (2004). The desire to know--Freud's study of Leonardo and its meaning for psychoanalysis today: Zeitschrift fur Psychoanalytische Theorie und Praxis Vol 19(2) 2004, 164-181.
  • Boatright, M. (2007). Within-student and contextual factors that influence hispanic students' math achievement. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Bordin, E. (1966). Curiosity, compassion, and doubt: The dilemma of the psychologist: American Psychologist Vol 21(2) Feb 1966, 116-121.
  • Boykin, A. W., & Harackiewicz, J. (1981). Epistemic curiosity and incidental recognition in relation to degree of uncertainty: Some general trends and intersubject differences: British Journal of Psychology Vol 72(1) Feb 1981, 65-72.
  • Boyle, G. J. (1977). Validation of the three-factor optimal arousal model: Indian Journal of Psychology Vol 52(1) 1977, 92-94.
  • Boyle, G. J. (1979). Delimitation of state-trait curiosity in relation to state anxiety and learning task performance: Australian Journal of Education Vol 23(1) 1979, 70-82.
  • Boyle, G. J. (1983). Critical review of state-trait curiosity test development: Motivation and Emotion Vol 7(4) Dec 1983, 377-397.
  • Boyle, G. J. (1989). Breadth-depth or state-trait curiosity? A factor analysis of state-trait curiosity and state anxiety scales: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 10(2) 1989, 175-183.
  • Bradbard, M. R., Halperin, S. M., & Endsley, R. C. (1988). The curiosity of abused preschool children in mother-present, teacher-present, and stranger-present situations: Early Childhood Research Quarterly Vol 3(1) Mar 1988, 91-105.
  • Brannigan, G. G., Duchnowski, A. J., & Nyce, P. A. (1974). Contingency awareness, partial reinforcement effects, and curiosity motivation in children: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 18(3) Dec 1974, 497-503.
  • Brickman, P., & D'Amato, B. (1975). Exposure effects in a free-choice situation: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 32(3) Sep 1975, 415-420.
  • Brown, L. T. (1972). A behavioral index of the exploratory value of prose materials: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 63(5) Oct 1972, 437-445.
  • Bull, K. S. (1979). The development of scales for internal sensation-seeking, curiosity, need for creative production, and privacy, to be used as predictor variables for four indices of creative ability among a population of college students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bull, S. G., & Dizney, H. F. (1973). Epistemic curiosity-arousing prequestions: Their effect on long-term retention: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 65(1) Aug 1973, 45-49.
  • Burgers, J. M. (1966). Curiosity and Play: Basic Factors in the Development of Life: Science 154(3757) 1966, 1680-1681.
  • Byman, R. (1993). From two-dimensional to three-dimensional curiosity: A reanalysis of depth-breadth-factor model: Australian Journal of Psychology Vol 45(3) Dec 1993, 155-160.
  • Byman, R. (2005). Curiosity and sensation seeking: A conceptual and empirical examination: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 38(6) Apr 2005, 1365-1379.
  • Camp, C. J. (1986). I am curious-grey: Information seeking and depression across the adult lifespan: Educational Gerontology Vol 12(4) 1986, 375-384.
  • Camp, C. J., Dietrich, M. S., & Olson, K. R. (1985). Curiosity and uncertainty in young, middle aged, and older adults: Educational Gerontology Vol 11(4-6) 1985, 401-412.
  • Camp, C. J., Rodrigue, J. R., & Olson, K. R. (1984). Curiosity in young, middle-aged, and older adults: Educational Gerontology Vol 10(4-5) 1984, 387-400.
  • Cantor, I. B. (1977). Naturalistic observation of curiosity behavior in kindergarten children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Carlin, K. A. (2000). The impact of curiosity on learning during a school field trip to the zoo. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Caron, A. J. (1963). Curiosity, achievement, and avoidant motivation as determinants of epistemic behavior: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 67(6) Dec 1963, 535-549.
  • Carr, C. T. (1976). Curiosity in children as a function of individual characteristics and environmental determinants: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Carscaddon, D. M., Poston, J. M., & Sachs, E. (1988). Problem-solving appraisal as it relates to state-trait personality factors: Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior Vol 25(3-4) 1988, 73-76.
  • Cavojova, V., & Sollar, T. (2007). The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory: Structure and reliability: Studia Psychologica Vol 49(1) 2007, 89-100.
  • Cecil, L. M., Gray, M. M., Thornburg, K. R., & Ispa, J. (1985). Curiosity-exploration-play-creativity: The early childhood mosaic: Early Child Development and Care Vol 19(3) 1985, 199-217.
  • Chak, A. (2002). Understanding children's curiosity and exploration through the lenses of Lewin's field theory: On developing an appraisal framework: Early Child Development and Care Vol 172(1) Feb 2002, 77-87.
  • Chak, A. (2007). Teachers' and parents' conceptions of children's curiosity and exploration: International Journal of Early Years Education Vol 15(2) Jun 2007, 141-159.
  • Choi, I. (1999). The cultural psychology of surprise: Causal theories, contradiction, and epistemic curiosity. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Coie, J. D. (1973). The motivation of exploration strategies in young children: Genetic Psychology Monographs Vol 87(2) May 1973, 177-196.
  • Coie, J. D. (1974). An evaluation of the cross-situational stability of children's curiosity: Journal of Personality Vol 42(1) Mar 1974, 93-116.
  • Collins, R. P. (2001). Measurement of curiosity as a multidimensional personality trait. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Collins, R. P., Litman, J. A., & Spielberger, C. D. (2004). The measurement of perceptual curiosity: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 36(5) Mar 2004, 1127-1141.
  • Comunian, A. L. (1992). Dimensions of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory and their relation to curiosity and optimism: Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata No 202-203 Apr-Sep 1992, 37-45.
  • Comunian, A. L. (1994). Anger, curiosity, and optimism: Psychological Reports Vol 75(3, Pt 2) Dec 1994, 1523-1528.
  • Cook, T., & Cohen, A. S. (1978). The effects of interpersonal attraction on manipulatory curiosity in preschool children: Journal of Social Psychology Vol 106(1) Oct 1978, 49-56.
  • Cooper, A., & Witenberg, E. G. (1983). Stimulation of curiosity in the supervisory process of psychoanalysis: Contemporary Psychoanalysis Vol 19(2) Apr 1983, 248-265.
  • Corlis, C. A. (1978). Curiosity in open and closed schooling systems: A developmental investigation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Couchenour, D. L. (1984). The influence of mothers' cognitive orientation on preschool children's play, curiosity, and creativity: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cowan, M. L. (1992). The effects of take-home science activities on curiosity levels, attitudes toward science, and parent/child interactions: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Crockett, A. B. (1996). The relationship among parenting styles, home environments, and children's curiosity. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Cyr, T. A. (1997). Arousing and sustaining intellectual curiosity: A study of course design and implementation. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Daffner, K. R., Scinto, L. F., Weintraub, S., Guinessey, J. E., & et al. (1992). Diminished curiosity in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease as measured by exploratory eye movements: Neurology Vol 42(2) Feb 1992, 320-328.
  • Daffner, K. R., Scinto, L. F. M., Weintraub, S., Guinessey, J., & et al. (1994). The impact of aging on curiosity as measured by exploratory eye movements: Archives of Neurology Vol 51(4) Apr 1994, 368-376.
  • Dash, A. S., Acharya, S., & Hariharan, M. (1985). Academic competence and curiosity: A classroom experiment: Perspectives in Psychological Researches Vol 8(2) Oct 1985, 54-56.
  • Dash, J., & Dash, A. S. (1982). Verbal and perceptual measures of children's curiosity: Psycho-Lingua Vol 12(1) Jan 1982, 55-59.
  • David, H. P. (1977). Review of Neugier und Exploration: Theorien und Ergebnisse (Curiosity and exploration: Theories and findings): PsycCRITIQUES Vol 22 (6), Jun, 1977.
  • Day, H. (1968). A Curious Approach to Creativity: Canadian Psychologist/Psychologie Canadienne Vol 9(4) Oct 1968, 485-497.
  • Day, H. I. (1982). Curiosity and the interested explorer: Performance & Instruction Vol 21(4) May 1982, 19-22.
  • Delahousse, A. (1976). On the psychological effects of architectural complexity: Le Travail Humain Vol 39(2) 1976, 249-260.
  • Dember, W. N., & Earl, R. W. (1957). Analysis of exploratory, manipulatory, and curiosity behaviors: Psychological Review Vol 64(2) Mar 1957, 91-96.
  • Dewey, J. (1910). Natural Resources in the Training of Thought. Lexington, MA: D C Heath.
  • Diament, B. (1973). A study of specific curiosity in third and fourth grade children: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Dupont, J., & Cosh, I. (1997). From infantile curiosity to science. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
  • Elias, S. F., & Elias, J. W. (1976). Curiosity and openmindedness in open and traditional classrooms: Psychology in the Schools Vol 13(2) Apr 1976, 226-232.
  • Elias, S. F., & Elias, J. W. (1978). Open education and teacher attitudes toward openness: The impact on students: Education Vol 99(2) Win 1978, 208-214.
  • Endsley, R. C., Hutcherson, M. A., Garner, A. P., & Martin, M. J. (1979). Interrelationships among selected maternal behaviors, authoritarianism, and preschool children's verbal and nonverbal curiosity: Child Development Vol 50(2) Jun 1979, 331-339.
  • Engelhard, G., & Monsaas, J. A. (1988). Grade level, gender, and school-related curiosity in urban elementary schools: Journal of Educational Research Vol 82(1) Sep-Oct 1988, 22-26.
  • Estrada, A. (1989). An exploratory study of the relationship between curiosity and print awareness of four-year-old children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Feldman, D. J., & Feldman, H. S. (1972). On the etiology of narcotic addiction and its relation to curiosity: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 13(5) Sep 1972, 304-308.
  • Fiedler, N. L. (1982). A comparison of curiosity behaviors and learning among hyperactives treated with methylphenidate and normals: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Fiedler, N. L., & Ullman, D. G. (1983). The effects of stimulant drugs on curiosity behaviors of hyperactive boys: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Vol 11(2) Jun 1983, 193-206.
  • Finuf, L. A. (1980). A test of Berlyne's theory of epistemic curiosity: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Fire, W. M. (1986). Interaction of cues, learner curiosity, verbal ability, and amount of invested mental effort with achievement in a museum setting: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Foote, M. M. (1985). An exploratory study of curiosity in three-, four-, and five-year-old children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Fortner-Wood, C., & Henderson, B. B. (1997). Individual differences in two-year-olds' curiosity in the assessment setting and in the grocery store: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 158(4) Dec 1997, 495-497.
  • Fowler, H. (1967). Satiation and curiosity: Constructs for a drive and incentive-motivational theory of exploration. Oxford, England: Academic Press.
  • Frain, F. J. (1982). The effects of trait curiosity, trait anxiety, and perceived instructor threat on student verbal behavior in a simulated college classroom: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Frederick, E. C. (1988). Why teach anyone to read? Toward a person-centered view of reading instruction: Person-Centered Review Vol 3(1) Feb 1988, 50-58.
  • Freidenberg, B. M., & Cimbalo, R. S. (1996). Human ethology: Eating, security, and curiosity: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 83(2) Oct 1996, 489-490.
  • Freund, K., & Kuban, M. (1993). Toward a testable developmental model of pedophilia: The development of erotic age preference: Child Abuse & Neglect Vol 17(2) Mar-Apr 1993, 315-324.
  • Frick, J. W., & Cofer, C. N. (1972). Berlyne's demonstration of epistemic curiosity: An experimental re-evaluation: British Journal of Psychology Vol 63(2) May 1972, 221-228.
  • Friedlander, B. Z. (1965). A psychologist's second thoughts on concepts, curiosity, and discovery in teaching and learning: Harvard Educational Review 35(1) 1965, 18-38.
  • Fulcher, K. H. (2004). Towards measuring lifelong learning: The curiosity index. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Fuller, R. C. (2006). Wonder: From emotion to spirituality. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Gallagher, M. W., & Lopez, S. J. (2007). Curiosity and well-being: The Journal of Positive Psychology Vol 2(4) Oct 2007, 236-248.
  • Ganoshenko, N. I., & Yurkevich, V. S. (1983). Development of learning necessities in preschool children: Novye Issledovaniya v Psikhologii Vol 1(28) 1983, 47-52.
  • Garcia, A. M. (1979). The relationship between curiosity, exploratory behavior, and innovative behavior and school achievement of children in Grades 1-3: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Giambra, L. M. (1981). Daydreaming, attentional processes, and curiosity in White Americans: Religious, educational, economic, and residency influences for a life span sample: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 37(2) Apr 1981, 262-275.
  • Giambra, L. M., Camp, C. J., & Grodsky, A. (1992). Curiosity and stimulation seeking across the adult life span: Cross-sectional and 6- to 8-year longitudinal findings: Psychology and Aging Vol 7(1) Mar 1992, 150-157.
  • Giambra, L. M., & Stone, B. S. (1982). Australian-American differences in daydreaming, attentional processes, and curiosity: First findings based on retrospective reports: Imagination, Cognition and Personality Vol 2(1) 1982-1983, 23-35.
  • Glanzer, M. (1958). Curiosity, exploratory drive, and stimulus satiation: Psychological Bulletin Vol 55(5) Sep 1958, 302-315.
  • Gold, S. R., & Henderson, B. B. (1990). Daydreaming and curiosity: Stability and change in gifted children and adolescents: Adolescence Vol 25(99) Fal 1990, 701-708.
  • Goldberg, C. (2002). Escaping the dark side of curiosity: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 62(2) Jun 2002, 185-199.
  • Goldberg, C. (2002). An exploration of the analyst's impeded curiosity: Contemporary Psychoanalysis Vol 38(1) Jan 2002, 141-151.
  • Goldberg, C. (2004). Curiosity as an Agent of Conscience: Pastoral Psychology Vol 52(4) Mar 2004, 329-338.
  • Goldberg, C., & Crespo, V. (2003). Curiosity as a guide to the virtuous life: Pastoral Psychology Vol 51(4) Mar 2003, 283-292.
  • Goldberger, L. I., Ausman, L. M., & Boelkins, R. C. (1980). Incidental learning, attention, and curiosity in squirrel monkeys calorie deprived as infants: Learning and Motivation Vol 11(2) May 1980, 185-207.
  • Goldman, B. A., & Mitchell, D. F. (2008). Motivation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Goldstein, S. P. (1986). The gifted child: An investigation of science achievement with respect to spatial ability, science interest, curiosity, level of giftedness, and sex of child: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Goodman, C. R. (1980). Curiosity and exploratory behavior in juvenile delinquent males: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gorlitz, D. (1987). Exploration and attribution in a developmental context. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Gorlitz, D., & Wohlwill, J. F. (1987). Curiosity, imagination, and play: On the development of spontaneous cognitive motivational processes. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Granger, C. A. (2007). On (not) representing sex in the preschool and kindergarten: A psychoanalytic reflection on orders and hints: Sex Education Vol 7(1) Feb 2007, 1-15.
  • Gugula, M. L. (1980). The relationship between anxiety, curiosity, and intelligence among sixth-grade students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Halpern, J. (1996). Empathy: Using resonance emotions in the service of curiosity. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Hamann, D. L. (1982). An assessment of anxiety in instrumental and vocal performances: Journal of Research in Music Education Vol 30(2) Sum 1982, 77-90.
  • Harter, S., & Zigler, E. (1974). The assessment of effectance motivation in normal and retarded children: Developmental Psychology Vol 10(2) Mar 1974, 169-180.
  • Hartmann, T., & Havik, O. (1980). Exploring curiosity: A curiosity-exhibitionism inventory, and some empirical results: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology Vol 21(2) 1980, 143-149.
  • Harty, H., & Beall, D. (1984). Toward the development of a Children's Science Curiosity measure: Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol 21(4) Apr 1984, 425-436.
  • Harty, H., & Beall, D. (1985). Reactive curiosity of gifted and nongifted elementary school youngsters: Roeper Review Vol 7(4) Apr 1985, 214-217.
  • Harty, H., Samuel, K. V., & Beall, D. (1986). Exploring relationships among four science teaching-learning affective attributes of sixth grade students: Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol 23(1) Jan 1986, 51-60.
  • Harvey, M., Novicevic, M., Leonard, N., & Payne, D. (2007). The role of curiosity in global managers' decision-making: Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies Vol 13(3) Spr 2007, 43-58.
  • Hawkins, C. K., & Lanzetta, J. T. (1965). Uncertainty, importance, and arousal as determinants of pre-decisional information search: Psychological Reports 17(3) 1965, 791-800.
  • Hawkins, V. J. (1982). Curiosity: A prerequisite for the attainment of formal operations? : Education Vol 103(1) Fal 1982, 100-102.
  • Haymond, P. J. (1995). Ericksonian approaches to curiosity in the treatment of incest and sexual abuse survivors. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.
  • Henderson, B., & Moore, S. G. (1979). Measuring exploratory behavior in young children: A factor-analytic study: Developmental Psychology Vol 15(2) Mar 1979, 113-119.
  • Henderson, B., & Moore, S. G. (1980). Children's responses to objects differing in novelty in relation to level of curiosity and adult behavior: Child Development Vol 51(2) Jun 1980, 457-465.
  • Henderson, B. B. (1979). Exploratory behavior of preschool children in relation to individual differences in curiosity, maternal behavior and novelty of object: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Henderson, B. B., & Gold, S. R. (1983). Intellectual styles: A comparison of factor structures in gifted and average children and adolescents: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 45(3) Sep 1983, 624-632.
  • Henderson, B. B., Gold, S. R., & McCord, M. T. (1982). Daydreaming and curiosity in gifted and average children and adolescents: Developmental Psychology Vol 18(4) Jul 1982, 576-582.
  • Henderson, B. B., & Wilson, S. E. (1991). Intelligence and curiosity in preschool children: Journal of School Psychology Vol 29(2) Sum 1991, 167-175.
  • Hendricks, J., & Scott, M. (1987). Mentor companions in curiosity: A program for accepting and encouraging curiosity in young gifted children: Creative Child & Adult Quarterly Vol 12(2) Sum 1987, 119-123.
  • Henniger, M. L. (1988). Learning mathematics and science through play. Washington, DC: National Education Association.
  • Hernandez, C. R., & Moncada, I. E. (2003). Sexual relationships in adolescents: Desire, love, curiosity, and pleasure: Archivos Hispanoamericanos de Sexologia Vol 9(2) 2003, 235-254.
  • Hill, M. E., & McGinnis, J. (2007). The curiosity in marketing thinking: Journal of Marketing Education Vol 29(1) Apr 2007, 52-62.
  • Hoats, D. L., Miller, M. B., & Spitz, H. H. (1963). Experiments on perceptual curiosity in mental retardates and normals: American Journal of Mental Deficiency 68(3) 1963, 386-395.
  • Holmes, C. B., & Holmes, D. A. (1992). Women and men authors' portrayal of curiosity in young children's literature: Psychological Reports Vol 70(1) Feb 1992, 258.
  • Holmes, D. A., & Holmes, C. B. (1991). Curiosity as portrayed in young children's literature: Psychological Reports Vol 68(2) Apr 1991, 695-700.
  • Hughes, R. N. (2007). Neotic preferences in laboratory rodents: Issues, assessment and substrates: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Vol 31(3) 2007, 441-464.
  • Hung, D. W. (1977). Generalization of "curiosity" questioning behavior in autistic children: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 8(3) Sep 1977, 237-245.
  • Inagaki, K. (1977). Correlates of curiosity rating by teachers in young children: Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 25(2) Jun 1977, 97-103.
  • Inagaki, K. (1978). Effects of object curiosity on exploratory learning in young children: Psychological Reports Vol 42(3, Pt 1) Jun 1978, 899-908.
  • Inagaki, K. (1979). Relationships of curiosity to perceptual and verbal fluency in young children: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 48(3, Pt 1) Jun 1979, 789-790.
  • Inagaki, K., & Hatano, G. (1977). Amplification of cognitive motivation and its effects on epistemic observation: American Educational Research Journal Vol 14(4) Fal 1977, 485-491.
  • Jacob, S. (2003). The duality of the trait of curiosity and its role in self-rating questionnaires: European Review of Applied Psychology/Revue Europeenne de Psychologie Appliquee Vol 53(2) 2003, 87-95.
  • Jiang, B. (1998). Learner motivation and preference: Effects of culture, gender and age. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Joesting, J., & Whitehead, G. I. (1976). Equalitarianism, curiosity, and creativity: Partial replication: Psychological Reports Vol 38(2) Apr 1976, 369-370.
  • Johns, C., & Endsley, R. C. (1977). The effects of a maternal model on young children's tactual curiosity: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 131(1) Sep 1977, 21-28.
  • Johnson, L., & Beer, J. (1992). Specific and diversive curiosity in gifted elementary students: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 75(2) Oct 1992, 463-466.
  • Johnson, M. H. (1980). The relationship between parental authoritarianism and child curiosity development: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Jones, R. S. (1979). Curiosity and knowledge: Psychological Reports Vol 45(2) Oct 1979, 639-642.
  • Judd, W. A., McCombs, B. L., & O'Neil, H. F. (1973). Further validation of a state epistemic curiosity measure in computer-managed instruction: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association 1973, 621-622.
  • Kagan, J., Sontag, L. W., Baker, C. T., & Nelson, V. L. (1958). Personality and IQ change: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 56(2) Mar 1958, 261-266.
  • Kakar, S. (1976). Curiosity in children and adults: A review essay: Indian Journal of Psychology Vol 51(3) Sep 1976, 181-201.
  • Kaplan, M. A. (2006). Review of Clinical values: Emotions that guide psychoanalytic treatment: Clinical Social Work Journal Vol 34(2) Sum 2006, 239-240.
  • Kashdan, T. B. (2004). The neglected relationship between social interaction anxiety and hedonic deficits: Differentiation from depressive symptoms: Journal of Anxiety Disorders Vol 18(5) 2004, 719-730.
  • Kashdan, T. B. (2006). Exploring the Functions, Correlates, and Consequences of Interest and Curiosity: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 87(3) 2006, 352-353.
  • Kashdan, T. B., & Fincham, F. D. (2004). Facilitating Curiosity: A Social and Self-Regulatory Perspective for Scientifically Based Interventions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Kashdan, T. B., & Roberts, J. E. (2004). Social Anxiety's Impact on Affect, Curiosity, and Social Self-Efficacy During a High Self-Focus Social Threat Situation: Cognitive Therapy and Research Vol 28(1) Feb 2004, 119-141.
  • Kashdan, T. B., & Roberts, J. E. (2004). Trait and State Curiosity in the Genesis of Intimacy: Diffentiation from Related Constructs: Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology Vol 23(6) Dec 2004, 792-816.
  • Kashdan, T. B., & Roberts, J. E. (2006). Affective outcomes in superficial and intimate interactions: Roles of social anxiety and curiosity: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 40(2) Apr 2006, 140-167.
  • Kashdan, T. B., Rose, P., & Fincham, F. D. (2004). Curiosity and Exploration: Facilitating Positive Subjective Experiences and Personal Growth Opportunities: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 82(3) Jun 2004, 291-305.
  • Kauser, F. (1986). The influence of age, sex and economic status on the development of curiosity in children: Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology Vol 12(2) Jul 1986, 64-68.
  • Keller, H. (1977). Transfer of training as experimental method for testing the connection between perceptive and epistemic curiosity in D. E. Berlyne's theory: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie Vol 24(4) 1977, 602-612.
  • Kempa, R. F., & Dube, G. E. (1973). Cognitive preference orientations in students of chemistry: British Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 43(3) Nov 1973, 279-288.
  • Kerr, J., & Beer, J. (1992). Specific and diversive curiosity and depression in junior high school students of divorced and nondivorced parents: Psychological Reports Vol 71(1) Aug 1992, 227-231.
  • Kezu, H., Lizhu, Y., & Risheng, Z. (2006). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Structure Model of Teachers' Rating for Preschoolers' Curiosity: Psychological Science (China) Vol 29(2) Mar 2006, 358-361.
  • Kim, P. (1985). The effect of level of curiosity and age of a peer on the exploratory behavior of young children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kirkland, J. (1976). Epistemic curiosity and cartoon preference: Psychological Reports Vol 38(2) Apr 1976, 354.
  • Kirkland, J. (1976). Interest: Phoenix in psychology: Bulletin of the British Psychological Society Vol 29 Feb 1976, 33-41.
  • Kleefeld, C. F. (1983). The effect of a peer model's exploration and expressed affect on the curiosity of second-grade children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Knobloch, S., Patzig, G., Mende, A.-M., & Hastall, M. (2004). Affective news: Effects of discourse structure in narratives on suspense, curiosity, and enjoyment while reading news and novels: Communication Research Vol 31(3) Jun 2004, 259-287.
  • Kolko, D. J., & Kazdin, A. E. (1991). Motives of childhood firesetters: Firesetting characteristics and psychological correlates: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 32(3) Mar 1991, 535-550.
  • Koran, J. J., & et al. (1984). Attention and curiosity in museums: Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol 21(4) Apr 1984, 357-363.
  • Kreitler, S., & Kreitler, H. (1986). Types of curiosity behaviors and their cognitive determinants: Archiv fur Psychologie Vol 138(4) 1986, 233-251.
  • Kreitler, S., Kreitler, H., & Zigler, E. (1974). Cognitive orientation and curiosity: British Journal of Psychology Vol 65(1) Feb 1974, 43-52.
  • Kreitler, S., Zigler, E., & Kreitler, H. (1975). The nature of curiosity in children: Journal of School Psychology Vol 13(3) Fal 1975, 185-200.
  • Kreitler, S., Zigler, E., & Kreitler, H. (1984). Curiosity and demographic factors as determinants of children's probability-learning strategies: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 145(1) Sep 1984, 61-75.
  • Kuhl, J. (1985). Curiosity: Exploring the Known: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 30 (3), Mar, 1985.
  • Lancaster, A. R. (2004). What does curiosity really do to the cat? A look at how message exposure can lead to illicit drug trial Among College Students: Mass Communication and Society Vol 7(1) 2004, 77-95.
  • Lancy, D. F. (1991). The autotelic learning environment revisited: An exploratory study: Play & Culture Vol 4(2) May 1991, 124-128.
  • Langevin, R. (1976). Construct validity of sensation seeking and curiosity measures of normal and psychotic subjects: Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des Sciences du comportement Vol 8(3) Jul 1976, 251-262.
  • Lankford, V. (2004). Face-to-Face with Caring Confrontation: Transactional Analysis Journal Vol 34(1) Jan 2004, 69-74.
  • Lanzilotti, S. S. (1989). Curiosity. New York, NY, England: Praeger Publishers.
  • Lazare, S. (1967). Creativity and Curiosity: the Overlap: Child Study 29(2) 1967, 22-29.
  • Ledet, L., & Rabinowitz, M. (1975). Working with parents on the importance of curiosity and exploration in an infant's development: Young Children Vol 30(3) Mar 1975, 179-182.
  • Lenehan, M. C., Dunn, R., Ingham, J., Signer, B., & et al. (1994). Effects of learning-style intervention on college students' achievement, anxiety, anger, and curiosity: Journal of College Student Development Vol 35(6) Nov 1994, 461-466.
  • Leonard, N. H., & Harvey, M. (2007). The trait of curiosity as a predictor of emotional intelligence: Journal of Applied Social Psychology Vol 37(8) Aug 2007, 1914-1929.
  • Levorato, M. C., Nemesio, A., & Ronconi, L. (2004). Emotional responses and textual features while reading mystery short stories: Eta Evolutiva No 79 Oct 2004, 60-67.
  • Lewkowicz, M. L. (2001). Investigating the use of intrigue to enhance mathematical thinking and motivation in a learning support beginning algebra course. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Libutti, P. O. (1978). Peer facilitation of curiosity and exploratory behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lintz, L. M., Starr, R. H., & Medinnus, G. R. (1965). Curiosity reward in children: Psychological Reports 16(3, Pt 2) 1965, 1222.
  • Lippman, L. G. (2007). Review of Cadwallader: Psychology and Education: An Interdisciplinary Journal Vol 44(2) 2007, 37.
  • Litman, J. A. (2001). Construct and predictive validity of measures of epistemic and perceptual curiosity. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Litman, J. A. (2005). Curiosity and the pleasures of learning: Wanting and liking new information: Cognition & Emotion Vol 19(6) Sep 2005, 793-814.
  • Litman, J. A., Collins, R. P., & Spielberger, C. D. (2005). The nature and measurement of sensory curiosity: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 39(6) Oct 2005, 1123-1133.
  • Litman, J. A., Hutchins, T. L., & Russon, R. K. (2005). Epistemic curiosity, feeling-of-knowing, and exploratory behaviour: Cognition & Emotion Vol 19(4) Jun 2005, 559-582.
  • Litman, J. A., & Jimerson, T. L. (2004). The measurement of curiosity as a feeling of deprivation: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 82(2) Apr 2004, 147-157.
  • Litman, J. A., & Pezzo, M. V. (2007). Dimensionality of interpersonal curiosity: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 43(6) Oct 2007, 1448-1459.
  • Litman, J. A., & Silvia, P. J. (2006). The Latent Structure of Trait Curiosity: Evidence for Interest and Deprivation Curiosity Dimensions: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 86(3) 2006, 318-328.
  • Litman, J. A., & Spielberger, C. D. (2003). Measuring epistemic curiosity and its diversive and specific components: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 80(1) 2003, 75-86.
  • Loewenstein, G. (1994). The psychology of curiosity: A review and reinterpretation: Psychological Bulletin Vol 116(1) Jul 1994, 75-98.
  • Loewenstein, G. (2000). Curiosity: Kazdin, Alan E (Ed).
  • Lowry, N., & Johnson, D. W. (1981). Effects of controversy on epistemic curiosity, achievement, and attitudes: Journal of Social Psychology Vol 115(1) Oct 1981, 31-43.
  • Lucco, A. A. (1967). Curiosity Behavior and Independent Functioning in Preschool Children: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association 2 1967, 173-174.
  • MacAfee, J. J. (1977). The effects of curiosity training on second and fifth grade boys and girls: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • MacLachlan, J. (1986). Psychologically based techniques for improving learning within computerized tutorials: Journal of Computer-Based Instruction Vol 13(3) Sum 1986, 65-70.
  • Maldonado, J. L. (2005). A disturbance of interpreting, of symbolisation and of curiosity in the analyst-analysand relationship.(The patient without insight): International Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 86(2) Apr 2005, 413-432.
  • Maloney, J. C. (2000). Curiosity versus disbelief in advertising: Journal of Advertising Research Vol 40(6) Nov-Dec 2000, 7-13.
  • Maner, J. K., & Gerend, M. A. (2007). Motivationally selective risk judgments: Do fear and curiosity boost the boons or the banes? : Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 103(2) Jul 2007, 256-267.
  • Mansour, A. A. H., Babstock, D. M., Penney, J. H., Martin, G. M., McLean, J. H., & Harley, C. W. (2003). Novel objects in a holeboard probe the role of the locus coerulus in curiosity: Support for two modes of attention in the rat: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 117(3) Jun 2003, 621-631.
  • Mark, L. S. (1998). The exploration of complexity and the complexity of exploration. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Marranti Liendo, A. F. (1986). Curiosity, affects, and insight: Some reflections and a clinical contribution: Revista de Psicoanalisis Vol 43(1) Jan-Feb 1986, 177-192.
  • Marsh, C. A. (1978). Social-psychological influences upon the expression and inhibition of curiosity: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Matheson, D., & Spranger, K. (2001). Content analysis of the use of fantasy, challenge, and curiosity in school-based nutrition education programs: Journal of Nutrition Education Vol 33(1) Jan-Feb 2001, 10-16.
  • Maw, W. H., & Maw, E. W. (1965). Differences in preference for investigatory activities by school children who differ in curiosity level: Psychology in the Schools 2 1965, 263-266.
  • Maw, W. H., & Maw, E. W. (1966). Children's curiosity and parental attitudes: Journal of Marriage & the Family 28(3) Aug 1966, 343-345.
  • Maw, W. H., & Maw, E. W. (1972). Differences between high- and low-curiosity fifth-grade children in their recognition of verbal absurdities: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 63(6) Dec 1972, 558-562.
  • Maw, W. H., & Maw, E. W. (1975). Contrasting proverbs as a measure of attitudes of college students toward curiosity-related behaviors: Psychological Reports Vol 37(3, Pt 2) Dec 1975, 1085-1086.
  • Maw, W. H., & Maw, E. W. (1975). Note on curiosity and intelligence of school children: Psychological Reports Vol 36(3) Jun 1975, 782.
  • Maw, W. H., & Maw, E. W. (1975). Social adjustment and curiosity of fifth-grade children: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 90(1) May 1975, 137-145.
  • Maw, W. H., Maw, E. W., & Laskaris, J. B. (1976). Contrasting proverbs as a measure of attitudes toward curiosity-related behavior of Black and White college students: Psychological Reports Vol 39(3, Pt 2) Dec 1976, 1229-1230.
  • Mayes, L. C. (1991). Exploring internal and external worlds: Reflections on being curious: The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child Vol 46 1991, 3-36.
  • McNamara, H. J., Murphy, G., & Harrell, S. N. (1964). Curiosity and reality contact: A preliminary report: Perceptual and Motor Skills 18(3) 1964, 976.
  • McNay, M. (1985). Science: All the wonder things: Childhood Education Vol 61(5) May-Jun 1985, 375-378.
  • Medinnus, G. R., & Love, J. M. (1965). The relation between curiosity and security in preschool children: Journal of Genetic Psychology 107(1) 1965, 91-98.
  • Menon, S., & Soman, D. (2002). Managing the power of curiosity for effective Web advertising strategies: Journal of Advertising Vol 31(3) Fal 2002, 1-14.
  • Metz, W. C. (1976). The effects of two modes of instruction on the curiosity and the attitude toward science of elementary school children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Miller, C. F. (1972). Frustation and curiosity in exploratory behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Miller, M. V. (1987). Curiosity and its vicissitudes: Gestalt Journal Vol 10(1) Spr 1987, 18-32.
  • Minton, H. L. (1963). A replication of perceptual curiosity as a function of stimulus complexity: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 66(5) Nov 1963, 522-524.
  • Mittman, L. R., & Terrell, G. (1964). An experimental study of curiosity in children: Child Development 35(3) 1964, 851-855.
  • Moch, M. (1987). Asking questions: An expression of epistemological curiosity in children. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Mohanty, B., & Mishra, S. (1991). Effect of cognitive intervention training on mental ability and epistemic curiosity: Psycho-Lingua Vol 21(2) Jul 1991, 91-98.
  • Montalvo, B. (2004). Useful Coincidences and Family Strengths: Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal Vol 26(2) Jun 2004, 117-128.
  • Moore, S. G., & Bulbulian, K. N. (1976). The effects of contrasting styles of adult-child interaction on children's curiosity: Developmental Psychology Vol 12(2) Mar 1976, 171-172.
  • Morgan, S. (2004). Sleeping beauty: The development of psychic strength, love, and imagination in a 4-year-old girl. London, England: Karnac Books.
  • Mukherjee, R., & Jain, P. (1987). Concept and curiosity development in pre-school children: Psychological Research Journal Vol 11(1) 1987, 25-32.
  • Murphy, G. (1945). The freeing of intelligence: Psychological Bulletin Vol 42(1) Jan 1945, 1-19.
  • Nagel, J. W. (1978). The effects on achievement of changes in curiosity and anxiety among ninth graders given different inquiry stimuli: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Nersessian, E. (1995). Some reflections on curiosity and psychoanalytic technique: Psychoanalytic Quarterly Vol 64(1) Jan 1995, 113-135.
  • Nersessian, E., & Silvan, M. (2007). Neutrality and curiosity: Elements of technique: Psychoanalytic Quarterly Vol 76(3) Jul 2007, 863-890.
  • Nezworski, M. T. (1984). Continuity in adaptation into the fourth year: Individual differences in curiosity and exploratory behavior of preschool children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Nosko, A., Wood, E., & Desmarais, S. (2007). Unsolicited online sexual material: What affects our attitudes and likelihood to search for more? : Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality Vol 16(1-2) 2007, 1-10.
  • Ofer, G., & Durban, J. (1999). Curiosity: Reflections on its nature and functions: American Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 53(1) Win 1999, 35-51.
  • Olson, E. (1987). Measurement of curiosity in junior high school students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Olson, K. R., & Camp, C. J. (1984). Factor analysis of curiosity measures in adults: Psychological Reports Vol 54(2) Apr 1984, 491-497.
  • Olson, K. R., Camp, C. J., & Fuller, D. (1984). Curiosity and need for cognition: Psychological Reports Vol 54(1) Feb 1984, 71-74.
  • Padhee, B., & Das, S. (1987). Reliability of an adapted curiosity scale: Social Science International Vol 3(2) Jul 1987, 27-30.
  • Paradowski, W. (1967). Effect of Curiosity on Incidental Learning: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 58(1) Feb 1967, 50-55.
  • Parker, K. J., Rainwater, K. L., Buckmaster, C. L., Schatzberg, A. F., Lindley, S. E., & Lyons, D. M. (2007). Early life stress and novelty seeking behavior in adolescent monkeys: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 32(7) Aug 2007, 785-792.
  • Parker, S. (1984). Cultural rules, rituals, and behavior regulation: American Anthropologist Vol 86(3) Sep 1984, 584-600.
  • Pellegrini, A. D. (1988). A Replay of Play: With a Different Tune: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 33 (11), Nov, 1988.
  • Pelzmann, L. (1982). Results of experimental economic research about optimizing behavior: Psychologie und Praxis Vol 26(4) Oct-Dec 1982, 182-191.

Penney, R. K. (1965). Reactive curiosity and manifest anxiety in children: Child Development 36(3) 1965, 697-702. Penney, R. K., & McCann, B. (1964). The children's reactive curiosity scale: Psychological Reports 15(1) 1964, 323-334.

  • Peters, R. A. (1976). The effects of anxiety, curiosity, and instructor threat on student verbal behavior in the college classroom: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Peters, R. A. (1978). Effects of anxiety, curiosity, and perceived instructor threat on student verbal behavior in the college classroom: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 70(3) Jun 1978, 388-395.
  • Peters, R. D., & Penney, R. K. (1966). Spontaneous alternation of high and low reactively curious children: Psychonomic Science Vol 4(4) 1966, 139-140.
  • Peterson, C., & Park, N. (2005). Classifying and measuring character strengths: Revue Quebecoise de Psychologie Vol 26(1) 2005, 23-40.
  • Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Curiosity. Washington, DC ; New York, NY: American Psychological Association; Oxford University Press.
  • Peterson, E. A. (1979). Listening to children: A descriptive study of children's expressions of curiosity, concern and role enactment: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pick, L. L. (1974). An exploratory study of curiosity in young children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pielstick, N. L., & Woodruff, A. B. (1964). Exploratory behavior and curiosity in two age and abiilty groups of children: Psychological Reports 14(3) 1964, 831-838.
  • Pierce, J. P., Distefan, J. M., Gilpin, E. A., & Gilpin, E. A. (2005). The role of curiosity in smoking initiation: Addictive Behaviors Vol 30(4) May 2005, 685-696.
  • Pillsbury, W. B., & Pennington, L. A. (1942). Motivation and adjustment. Ft Worth, TX: Dryden Press.
  • Pisula, W. (2003). Costs and benefits of curiosity: The adaptive value of exploratory behavior: Polish Psychological Bulletin Vol 34(4) 2003, 183-186.
  • Poortinga, Y. H., & Foden, B. I. (1975). A comparative study of curiosity in Black and White South African students: Psychologia Africana Mono Suppl 8 1975, 60.
  • Rager, G., Graf-Szczuka, K., Bodin, M., & Thiele, M. (2004). Who reads newspapers? Factors influencing juvenile newspaper reading: Zeitschrift fur Medienpsychologie Vol 16(1) 2004, 2-16.
  • Raguse-Stauffer, B. (1993). The capacity for curiosity, its manifestatons, its disorders, and the latter's changes in the psychoanalytic process: Zeitschrift fur Psychoanalytische Theorie und Praxis Vol 8(1) 1993, 3-18.
  • Rahman, M. M. (1966). A reinterpretation of curiosity: Research Bulletin of the Department of Psychology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India 2 1966, 15-27.
  • Reddin, J. (1997). High-achieving women: Career development patterns. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Reed, G. S. (1997). The analyst's privacy and the patient's curiosity: Journal of Clinical Psychoanalysis Vol 6(4) 1997, 517-531.
  • Reio, T. G., Jr. (1998). Effects of curiosity on socialization-related learning and job performance in adults. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Reio, T. G., Jr., & Callahan, J. L. (2004). Affect, curiosity, and socialization-related learning: A path analysis of antecedents to job performance: Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 19(1) Fal 2004, 3-22.
  • Reio, T. G., Jr., Petrosko, J. M., Wiswell, A. K., & Thongsukmag, J. (2006). The Measurement and Conceptualization of Curiosity: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 167(2) Jun 2006, 117-135.
  • Reio, T. G., Jr., & Wiswell, A. (2000). Field investigation of the relationship among adult curiosity, workplace learning, and job performance: Human Resource Development Quarterly Vol 11(1) Spr 2000, 5-30.
  • Reiss, S., & Reiss, M. M. (2004). Curiosity and Mental Retardation: Beyond IQ: Mental Retardation Vol 42(1) Feb 2004, 77-81.
  • Renner, B. (2006). Curiosity About People: The Development of a Social Curiosity Measure in Adults: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 87(3) 2006, 305-316.
  • Richman, C. L., Kahle, D., & Rutland, S. (1972). Curiosity behavior in normal and mentally retarded children: Psychonomic Science Vol 29(4-A) Nov 1972, 212.
  • Richman, L. S., Kubzansky, L., Maselko, J., Kawachi, I., Choo, P., & Bauer, M. (2005). Positive Emotion and Health: Going Beyond the Negative: Health Psychology Vol 24(4) Jul 2005, 422-429.
  • Riddle, J. A., & Riddle, H. M. (2007). Men and Art Therapy: A connection through strengths: Art Therapy Vol 24(1) 2007, 10-15.
  • Rodrigue, J. R., Olson, K. R., & Markley, R. P. (1987). Induced mood and curiosity: Cognitive Therapy and Research Vol 11(1) Feb 1987, 101-106.
  • Rodrigues, O. M., Monesi, A. A., & Costa, M. (1991). Child and adult sexual curiosity: Extent and implications for treatment of male sexual dysfunction: Revista Latinoamericana de Sexologia Vol 6(1) 1991, 45-54.
  • Rogers, J. D. (2000). Cognitive responses to dissent: Effects of conflict, curiosity, and evaluation apprehension on divergent thinking. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Rossing, B. E. (1978). Extension of Berlyne's theory of epistemic curiosity to adult learners: Factors related to the desire for knowledge: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rowden, R. W. (2000). Invited reaction: Relationship among curiosity, workplace learning, and job performance: Human Resource Development Quarterly Vol 11(1) Spr 2000, 31-34.
  • Rubenstein, A. S. (1986). An item-level analysis of questionnaire-type measures of intellectual curiosity: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rubenstein, D. J. (2000). Stimulating children's creativity and curiosity: Does content and medium matter? : Journal of Creative Behavior Vol 34(1) 2000, 1-17.
  • Russell, A. (1975). Interrelations among response frequency, looking time and rated interest with visual stimuli: Australian Journal of Psychology Vol 27(3) Dec 1975, 251-256.
  • Salz, C. (1983). A theoretical approach to the treatment of work difficulties in borderline personalities: Occupational Therapy in Mental Health Vol 3(3) Fal 1983, 33-46.
  • Saup, W. (1992). Curiosity and interest in later adulthood: Zeitschrift fur Gerontopsychologie & -psychiatrie Vol 5(1) Mar 1992, 1-10.
  • Schacht, L. (1991). The child as researcher: Zeitschrift fur Psychoanalytische Theorie und Praxis Vol 6(4) 1991, 376-392.
  • Schneider, G. E., & Gross, C. G. (1965). Curiosity in the hamster: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 59(1) Feb 1965, 150-152.
  • Schneider, K., Barthelmey, E., & Herrmann, P. (1981). Subjective uncertainty and visual exploration by preschool aged children: Zeitschrift fur Entwicklungspsychologie und Padagogische Psychologie Vol 13(2) Apr 1981, 106-115.
  • Schuhrke, B. (2000). Young children's curiosity about other people's genitals: Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality Vol 12(1-2) 2000, 27-48.
  • Seligman, M. E. P., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2004). The Values In Action (VIA) classification of character strengths: Ricerche di Psicologia Vol 27(1) 2004, 63-78.

Seth, K. (1996). Intrinsic motivation to learn: Affective and cognitive correlates of learning and problem-solving. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.

  • Shand, A. F. (1914). Curiosity. New York, NY: MacMillan Co.
  • Shevrin, H. (1970). Thunder on the Freudian Left: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 15 (12), Dec, 1970.
  • Shumakova, N. (1992). Study of students' curiosity: Roeper Review Vol 14(4) May 1992, 197.
  • Silverstein, A. B., Pearson, L. B., Dunnick, B. F., & Ford, T. M. (1981). Psychometric properties of two measures of intrinsic motivation: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 53(2) Oct 1981, 655-658.
  • Simon, H. A. (2001). "Seek and ye shall find": How curiosity engenders discovery. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Simpson, D. (2002). Learning disability as a refuge from knowledge: Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Vol 16(3) Oct 2002, 215-226.
  • Simpson, D. (2004). Learning disability as a refuge from knowledge. London, England: Karnac Books.
  • Simpson, D. D. (2005). Riddles of Human Behavior: An Economist Models the Powers of Exuberant Intellectual Curiosity: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 50 (36), 2005.
  • Sines, J. O. (1962). On the Impact of Stimulus Impact: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 7 (12), Dec, 1962.
  • Sjoberg, L. (2006). What Makes Something Interesting? : PsycCRITIQUES Vol 51 (46), 2006.
  • Slade, P. (2003). Gallipoli Thanatourism: The Meaning of ANZAC: Annals of Tourism Research Vol 30(4) Oct 2003, 779-794.
  • Slater, E. M. (1977). Basic human nature...revisited. Oxford, England: Vantage Press.
  • Smith, R. E., & Swinyard, W. R. (1988). Cognitive response to advertising and trial: Belief strength, belief confidence and product curiosity: Journal of Advertising Vol 17(3) 1988, 3-14.
  • Smith, T. L., & Hall, G. S. (1907). Curiosity and interest. London, England: Routledge/Thoemmes Press.
  • Spielberger, C. D. (2006). Cross-Cultural Assessment of Emotional States and Personality Traits: European Psychologist Vol 11(4) 2006, 297-303.
  • Spielberger, C. D., & Reheiser, E. C. (2004). Measuring anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity as emotional states and personality traits with the STAI, STAXI and STPI. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Spielberger, C. D., Reheiser, E. C., Owen, A. E., & Sydeman, S. J. (2004). Measuring the Psychological Vital Signs of Anxiety, Anger, Depression, and Curiosity in Treatment Planning and Outcomes Assessment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Spielberger, C. D., Ritterband, L. M., Reheiser, E. C., & Brunner, T. M. (2003). The nature and measurement of depression: International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology Vol 3(2) May 2003, 209-234.
  • Spielberger, C. D., & Starr, L. M. (1994). Curiosity and exploratory behavior. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Steider, A. M. (2002). Attachment, curiosity, and health behaviors: A study of inter-relationships among deaf and hearing populations. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Stern, D. B. (1983). Unformulated experience: From familiar chaos to creative disorder: Contemporary Psychoanalysis Vol 19(1) Jan 1983, 71-99.
  • Stixrud, W. R. (1984). The relationship between curiosity status and exploratory learning in preschool children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Susskind, E. (1979). Encouraging teachers to encourage children's curiosity: A pivotal competence: Journal of Clinical Child Psychology Vol 8(2) Sum 1979, 101-106.
  • Sussman, R. (1989). Curiosity and exploration in children: Where affect and cognition meet. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, Inc.
  • Sussman, R. P. (1979). Effects of novelty and training on the curiosity and exploration of young children in day care centers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Swan, G. E., & Carmelli, D. (1996). Curiosity and mortality in aging adults: A 5-year follow-up of the Western Collaborative Group Study: Psychology and Aging Vol 11(3) Sep 1996, 449-453.
  • Swasy, J. L., & Rethans, A. J. (1986). Knowledge effects on curiosity and new product advertising: Journal of Advertising Vol 15(4) 1986, 28-34.
  • Switzky, H. N., Haywood, H. C., & Isett, R. (1974). Exploration, curiosity, and play in young children: Effects of stimulus complexity: Developmental Psychology Vol 10(3) May 1974, 321-329.
  • Tannebaum, L. (1977). The depiction of curiosity and exploratory behavior in contemporary picture story books for young children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Thompson, D. K. (1999). Early childhood literacy education, wakefulness, and the arts: Visual Arts Research Vol 25(2)[50] 1999, 90-98.
  • Thorndike, E. L. (1922). Original tendencies and acquisitions before school. New York, NY: MacMillan Co.
  • Todd, S. R. (1973). Story preferences: A technique for assessing children's curiosity: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Tokarz, A. (1989). On the stimulation of inquisitiveness: I. A characterization of the phenomenon: Przeglad Psychologiczny Vol 32(3) 1989, 729-747.
  • Tokarz, A. (1989). On the stimulation of inquisitiveness: II. Stimuli of inquisitiveness and cognitive motivation: Przeglad Psychologiczny Vol 32(4) 1989, 899-921.
  • Tolman, E. C. (1926). The nature of fundamental drives: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 20(4) Jan 1926, 349-358.
  • Tolman, E. C. (1926). The nature of the fundamental drives: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 20(4) Jan 1926, 349-358.
  • Towell, R. D. (1973). Test performance of high and low curiosity subjects on timed and untimed verbal tests of creativity: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Trudewind, C. (2000). Curiosity and anxiety as motivational determinants of cognitive development. New York, NY: Elsevier Science.
  • Tsankova, J., & Dobrynina, G. (2005). Mathematics: Developing Curious Students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Tucker, E. W. (1987). The interrelationships among curiosity, age, and age phases and transitions of adult development (non nova sed nova): Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Tzuriel, D., & Klein, P. S. (1983). Learning skills and types of temperaments as discriminants between intrinsically and extrinsically motivated children: Psychological Reports Vol 53(1) Aug 1983, 59-69.
  • van de Ven, N., Zeelenberg, M., & van Dijk, E. (2005). Buying and selling exchange goods: Outcome information, curiosity and the endowment effect: Journal of Economic Psychology Vol 26(3) Jun 2005, 459-468.
  • van Dijk, E., & Zeelenberg, M. (2007). When curiosity killed regret: Avoiding or seeking the unknown in decision-making under uncertainty: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Vol 43(4) Jul 2007, 656-662.
  • van Heeswyk, P. (1994). Parental intercourse--the Official Secret Act: Trying not to think about sex in adolescence: Journal of Child Psychotherapy Vol 20(2) Aug 1994, 231-241.
  • Vega, M., & Silverman, M. (1988). Stress and the elderly convict: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology Vol 32(2) Sep 1988, 153-162.
  • Vidler, D. C. (1972). The relationship between convergent and divergent thinking, test-anxiety and curiosity: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Vidler, D. C. (1980). Curiosity, academic performance, and class attendance: Psychological Reports Vol 47(2) Oct 1980, 589-590.
  • Vidler, D. C., & Hansen, R. A. (1978). Factor analysis of a scale of academic curiosity: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 34(2) Apr 1978, 386-387.
  • Vidler, D. C., & Karan, V. E. (1975). A study of curiosity, divergent thinking, and test-anxiety: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 90(2) Jul 1975, 237-243.
  • Vidler, D. C., & Levine, J. (1976). Teachers' ratings and self-ratings of curiosity: Psychological Reports Vol 39(1) Aug 1976, 149-150.
  • Vidler, D. C., & Rawan, H. R. (1974). Construct validation of a scale of academic curiosity: Psychological Reports Vol 35(1, Pt 1) Aug 1974, 263-266.
  • Vidler, D. C., & Rawan, H. R. (1975). Further validation of a scale of academic curiosity: Psychological Reports Vol 37(1) Aug 1975, 115-118.
  • Voss, H.-G., & Keller, H. (1977). Critical evaluation of the Obscure Figures Test as an instrument for measuring cognitive innovation: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 45(2) Oct 1977, 495-502.
  • Voss, H.-G., & Keller, H. (1986). Curiosity and exploration: A program of investigation: German Journal of Psychology Vol 10(4) Dec 1986, 327-337.
  • Voss, H.-G., & Meyer, H.-J. (1981). Relationships between trait and state measures of anxiety and curiosity under conditions of self-appraised risk: Psychologische Beitrage Vol 23(1) 1981, 97-114.
  • Walker, E. L. (1961). Quest for Stability and Change: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 6 (5), May, 1961.
  • Waterworth, E. L., Haggkvist, M., Jalkanen, K., Olsson, S., Waterworth, J., & Wimelius, H. (2003). The Exploratorium: An Environment To Explore Your Feelings: PsychNology Journal Vol 1(3) 2003, 189-201.
  • Watson, R. A. (2007). Ready or not, here I come: Surrender, recognition, and mutuality in psychotherapy: Journal of Psychology & Theology Vol 35(1) Spr 2007, 65-73.
  • Wavo, E. n.-Y.-T. (2004). Honesty, Cooperation and Curiosity Achievement of Some Schools on Nanjing (China): IFE Psychologia: An International Journal Vol 12(2) 2004, 178-187.
  • Webb, S. C. (1965). An exploratory investigation of some needs met through religious behaviour: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 5 1965, 51-58.
  • Webb, W. B. (1961). The choice of the problem: American Psychologist Vol 16(5) May 1961, 223-227.
  • Wentworth, N., & Witryol, S. L. (2003). Curiosity, exploration, and novelty-seeking. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • White, D., & Fitzsimmons, P. (2005). Assessment in the Inquiry Classroom: Asking the Right Questions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • White, J. (2007). Working in the midst of ideological and cultural differences: Critically reflecting on youth suicide prevention in indigenous communities: Canadian Journal of Counselling Vol 41(4) Oct 2007, 213-227.
  • White, R. K., Wright, B. A., & Dembo, T. (1948). Studies in adjustment to visible injuries: evaluation of curiosity by the injured: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 43(1) Jan 1948, 13-28.
  • Whitmire, A. J., Jr. (2001). Effects of external reward and trait curiosity type on analogical insight and analytical problem solving. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Wilde, N. (1902). Review of Etudes esthetiques: Psychological Review Vol 9(6) Nov 1902, 639-640.
  • Winefield, H. (2007). Review of Stress and emotion: Anxiety, anger, and curiosity, Volume 17: Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal Vol 20(1) Mar 2007, 103-105.
  • Wolf, Y., Olenick-Shemesh, D., Addad, M., Green, D., & et al. (1995). Personal and situational factors in drug use as perceived by kibbutz youth: Adolescence Vol 30(120) Win 1995, 909-930.
  • Wolfinger, C. M. (1997). The validation of the Trait Diversive Curiosity Inventory for children. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Woodward, J. B. (1998). The effects of low levels of stimulation on nursing home residents. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Wrobel, G. M., Ayers-Lopez, S., Grotevant, H. D., McRoy, R. G., & et al. (1996). Openness in adoption and the level of child participation: Child Development Vol 67(5) Oct 1996, 2358-2374.
  • Yunyan, L., & Dajun, Z. (2004). An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Structure of Infant Curiosity: Psychological Science (China) Vol 27(1) Jan 2004, 127-129.
  • Yurkevich, V. S. (1980). The development of the initial levels of cognitive need in schoolchildren: Voprosy Psychologii No 2 1980, 83-92.
  • Zingarelli, G. R. (1970). Comment on Heckel's Report: American Psychologist Vol 25(6) Jun 1970, 569.
  • Zuckerman, M., & Litle, P. (1986). Personality and curiosity about morbid and sexual events: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 7(1) 1986, 49-56.
  • Zusman, J. A., Cheniaux, E., & de Freitas, S. (2007). Psychoanalysis and change: Between curiosity and faith: International Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 88(1) Feb 2007, 113-125.


External linksEdit

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki