Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Social psychology: Altruism · Attribution · Attitudes · Conformity · Discrimination · Groups · Interpersonal relations · Obedience · Prejudice · Norms · Perception · Index · Outline

This article is in need of attention from a psychologist/academic expert on the subject.
Please help recruit one, or improve this page yourself if you are qualified.
This banner appears on articles that are weak and whose contents should be approached with academic caution

Cruelty is a form of abuse which can be described as indifference to suffering and even positive pleasure in inflicting it. Sadism can also be related to this form of action or concept.

Cruel ways of inflicting suffering may involve violence, but violence is not necessary for an act to be cruel. For example, if another person is drowning and begging for help, and another person is able to help, but merely watches with disinterest or amusement, that person is being cruel — not violent.

Cruelty usually carries connotations of supremacy over a submissive or weaker force.

The term cruelty is often used with regard to the treatment of animals, children and prisoners. See: punishment and cruel and unusual punishment. When cruelty to animals is discussed, it often refers to unnecessary suffering.

See alsoEdit

  • Judith Shklar: Harvard University Professor Shklar's thought centered around two main beliefs: that cruelty is the greatest evil, and her idea of "liberalism of fear."


  • Adler, A. (1916). Avarice, Suspiciousness, Envy, Cruelty, The derogatory critique of the neurotic, neurotic apperception, senile neuroses, changes in the form and intensity of the fiction. Somatic jargon (organ-jargon). *Adler, Alfred; Glueck, Bernard (Trans); Lind, John E (Trans). (1916). The neurotic constitution: Outlines of a comparative individualistic psychology and psychotherapy.
  • Adler, A. (1916). Cruelty. Conscience. Perversion and neurosis. Adler, Alfred; Glueck, Bernard (Trans); Lind, John E (Trans). (1916). The neurotic constitution: Outlines of a comparative individualistic psychology and psychotherapy.
  • Arluke, A. (2000). Secondary victimization in companion animal abuse the owner's perspective. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ascione, F. R. (1993). Children who are cruel to animals: A review of research and implications for developmental psychopathology: Anthrozoos Vol 6(4) 1993, 226-247.
  • Ascione, F. R. (1997). Battered women's reports of their partners' and their children's cruelty to animals: Journal of Emotional Abuse Vol 1(1) 1997, 119-133.
  • Ascione, F. R., Friedrich, W. N., Heath, J., & Hayashi, K. (2003). Cruelty to animals in normative, sexually abused, and outpatient psychiatric samples of 6- to 12-year-old children: Relations to maltreatment and exposure to domestic violence: Anthrozoos Vol 16(3) 2003, 194-212.
  • Ascione, F. R., Thompson, T. M., & Black, T. (1997). Childhood cruelty to animals: Assessing cruelty dimensions and motivations: Anthrozoos Vol 10(4) 1997, 170-179.
  • Baenninger, R. (1991). Violence toward other species. Oxford, England: North-Holland.
  • Bairrao, J. F. M. H. (2004). Sublimity of the Evil and Sublimation of the Cruelty: Child, Sacred and Street: Psicologia: Reflexao e Critica Vol 17(1) 2004, 61-73.
  • Balsamo, M. (2005). Ruins. The Course of Destructiveness: Topique: Revue Freudienne No 91 2005, 129-143.
  • Bathori, J. E. (2007). Warum Krieg? The stricken field and Freud's other scene in Terence Malick's film "a thin red line". Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Baumeister, R. F. (1996). Evil: Inside human cruelty and violence. New York, NY: W H Freeman/Times Books/ Henry Holt & Co.
  • Becker, F., & French, L. (2004). Making the Links: Child Abuse, Animal Cruelty and Domestic Violence: Child Abuse Review Vol 13(6) Nov-Dec 2004, 399-414.
  • Becker, F., & French, L. (2006). Response to 'Forging the Links: (De)Constructing Chains of Behaviours': Child Abuse Review Vol 15(3) May-Jun 2006, 188-189.
  • Becker, K. D., Stuewig, J., Herrera, V. M., & McCloskey, L. A. (2004). A study of firesetting and animal cruelty in children: Family influences and adolescent outcomes: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 43(7) Jul 2004, 905-912.
  • Beirne, P. (2004). From Animal Abuse to Interhuman Violence? A Critical Review of the Progression Thesis: Society & Animals Vol 12(1) 2004, 39-65.
  • Berkowitz, L. (1998). Two Views of Evil : Evil Is Not Only Banal: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 43 (5), May, 1998.
  • Berkowitz, L. (1999). Evil is more than banal: Situationism and the concept of evil: Personality and Social Psychology Review Vol 3(3) 1999, 246-253.
  • Boat, B. W. (1995). The relationship between violence to children and violence to animals: An ignored link? : Journal of Interpersonal Violence Vol 10(2) Jun 1995, 229-235.
  • Bohm, T. (2006). Psychoanalytic aspects on perpetrators in genocide: Experiences from Rwanda: Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review Vol 29(1) 2006, 22-32.
  • Brenman, E. (1985). Cruelty and narrowmindedness: International Journal of Psycho-Analysis Vol 66(3) 1985, 273-281.
  • Brenman, E., & Hacker, A.-L. (2002). Cruelty and narrowmindedness: Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse Vol 66(4) Oct-Dec 2002, 1231-1245.
  • Brodsky, C. M. (1976). The harassed worker. Oxford, England: D C Heath & Co.
  • Caputo, A. A., Brodsky, S. L., & Kemp, S. (2000). Understandings and experiences of cruelty: An exploratory report: Journal of Social Psychology Vol 140(5) Oct 2000, 649-660.
  • Carlson, J. (1997). Review of The Psychological Residuals of Slavery: The Family Journal Vol 5(3) Jul 1997, 275.
  • Carnahan, T., & McFarland, S. (2007). Revisiting the Stanford prison experiment: Could participant self-selection have led to the cruelty? : Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 33(5) May 2007, 603-614.
  • Carnahan, T., & McFarland, S. (2007). "Revisiting the Stanford Prison Experiment: Could participant self-selection have led to the cruelty?" Erratum: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 33(6) Jun 2007, 911.
  • Carreteiro, T. C., & Enriquez, E. (2005). Hate and the mercantilism of human beings: Psicologia Clinica Vol 17(1) 2005, 151-160.
  • Coffey, R. (1998). Unspeakable truths and happy endings: Human cruelty and the new trauma therapy. Baltimore, MD: The Sidran Press.
  • Coxwell, W. (2005). The Case for Strengthening Alabama's Animal Cruelty Laws: Law & Psychology Review Vol 29 Spr 2005, 187-196.
  • Coyne, S. M., Archer, J., & Eslea, M. (2004). Cruel intentions on television and in real life: Can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression? : Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 88(3) Jul 2004, 234-253.
  • Cupa, D. (2002). The cruelty drive: Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse Vol 66(4) Oct-Dec 2002, 1073-1089.
  • Currie, C. L. (2006). Animal cruelty by children exposed to domestic violence: Child Abuse & Neglect Vol 30(4) Apr 2006, 425-435.
  • Dadds, M. R., Whiting, C., Bunn, P., Fraser, J. A., Charlson, J. H., & Pirola-Merlo, A. (2004). Measurement of Cruelty in Children: The Cruelty to Animals Inventory: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Vol 32(3) Jun 2004, 321-334.
  • Dadds, M. R., Whiting, C., & Hawes, D. J. (2006). Associations Among Cruelty to Animals, Family Conflict, and Psychopathic Traits in Childhood: Journal of Interpersonal Violence Vol 21(3) Mar 2006, 411-429.
  • Daly, R. J. (1976). Lasting damage in torture cases: Victimology Vol 1(2) Sum 1976, 341-342.
  • de Mijolla-Mellor, S., & Teixeira Marques, S. (2005). Terrorism, barbarity and disorder - Part II: Psicologia Clinica Vol 17(2) 2005, 173-183.
  • de Mijolla-Mellor, S., & Teixeira Marques, S. (2005). Terrorism, barbarity and disorder--Part 1: Psicologia Clinica Vol 17(1) 2005, 137-149.
  • Deutsch, M. (1971). Review of The Paradox of Cruelty: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 16 (8), Aug, 1971.
  • Dudai, R. (2006). Understanding perpetrators in genocides and mass atrocities: British Journal of Sociology Vol 57(4) Dec 2006, 699-707.
  • Dullea, R. J. (1995). The literary thanatic: Writing and oblivion in Freud and Bataille. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Duncan, A., & Miller, C. (2002). The impact of an abusive family contex on childhood animal cruelty and adult violence: Aggression and Violent Behavior Vol 7(4) Jul-Aug 2002, 365-383.
  • Duncan, A., Thomas, J. C., & Miller, C. (2005). Significance of family risk factors in development of childhood animal cruelty in adolescent boys with conduct problems: Journal of Family Violence Vol 20(4) Aug 2005, 235-239.
  • Faranda, D. M., Katsikas, S. L., Lim, N. K., & Fegley, V. M. (2007). The Triad Of Juvenile Firesetting, Bedwetting, and Cruelty to Animals: Establishing Prevalence and Comorbidity: American Journal of Forensic Psychology Vol 25(1) 2007, 51-69.
  • Faver, C. A., & Strand, E. B. (2003). Domestic violence and animal cruelty: Untangling the web of abuse: Journal of Social Work Education Vol 39(2) Spr-Sum 2003, 237-253.
  • Felthous, A. R., & Kellert, S. R. (1986). Violence against animals and people: Is aggression against living creatures generalized? : Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law Vol 14(1) 1986, 55-69.
  • Felthous, A. R., & Kellert, S. R. (1987). Childhood cruelty to animals and later aggression against people: A review: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 144(6) Jun 1987, 710-717.
  • Finance, F., Israel, L., & Singer, L. (1974). Reflections on a case of cruelty to animals: Annales Medico-Psychologiques Vol 2(4) Nov 1974, 557-576.
  • Flynn, C. P. (1999). Exploring the link between corporal punishment and children's cruelty to animals: Journal of Marriage & the Family Vol 61(4) Nov 1999, 971-981.
  • Flynn, C. P. (2001). Acknowledging the "Zoological connection": A sociological analysis of animal cruelty: Society & Animals Vol 9(1) 2001, 71-87.
  • Flynn, C. P. (2007). Review of Just a dog: Understanding animal cruelty and ourselves: Anthrozoos Vol 20(2) Jun 2007, 201-203.
  • Frawley, L. F., Jr. (2001). A study of student and administrator perceptions regarding the existence of student-to-student cruelty in the independent middle school population. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Gilbert, P. (2005). Compassion and cruelty: A biopsychosocial approach. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Grandin, T. (1988). Behavior of slaughter plant and auction employees toward the animals: Anthrozoos Vol 1(4) Spr 1988, 205-213.
  • Guymer, E. C., Mellor, D., Luk, E. S. L., & Pearse, V. (2001). The development of a screening questionnaire for childhood cruelty to animals: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 42(8) Nov 2001, 1057-1063.
  • Haden, S. C., & Scarpa, A. (2005). Childhood Animal Cruelty: A Review of Research, Assessment, and Therapeutic Issues: The Forensic Examiner Vol 14(2) Sum 2005, 23-32.
  • Hallie, P. P. (1970). Sadean and institutional cruelty. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Harris, D. A. (2007). Pathways to embodied empathy and reconciliation after atrocity: Former boy soldiers in a dance/movement therapy group in Sierra Leone: Intervention: International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work & Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict Vol 5(3) Nov 2007, 203-231.
  • Haslam, S. A., & Reicher, S.-D. (2004). A critique of the role-based explanation of tyranny: Thinking beyond the Stanford Prison: Revista de Psicologia Social Vol 19(2) 2004, 115-122.
  • Heath, G. A., Hardesty, V. A., & Goldfine, P. E. (1984). Firesetting, enuresis, and animal cruelty: Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychotherapy Vol 1(2) Sep 1984, 97-100.
  • Heller, M. S., Ehrlich, S. M., & Lester, D. (1984). Childhood cruelty to animals, firesetting, and enuresis as correlates of competence to stand trial: Journal of General Psychology Vol 110(2) Apr 1984, 151-153.
  • Hendrickson, K. M., McCarty, T., & Goodwin, J. M. (1990). Animal alters: Case reports: Dissociation: Progress in the Dissociative Disorders Vol 3(4) Dec 1990, 218-221.
  • Henry, B. C. (2004). The Relationship between Animal Cruelty, Delinquency, and Attitudes toward the Treatment of Animals: Society & Animals Vol 12(3) 2004, 185-207.
  • Hensley, C., & Tallichet, S. E. (2005). Animal Cruelty Motivations: Assessing Demographic and Situational Influences: Journal of Interpersonal Violence Vol 20(11) Nov 2005, 1429-1443.
  • Hensley, C., & Tallichet, S. E. (2005). Learning To Be Cruel?: Exploring the Onset and Frequency of Animal Cruelty: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology Vol 49(1) Feb 2005, 37-47.
  • Hepburn, A. (2006). Getting Closer at a Distance: Theory and the Contingencies of Practice: Theory & Psychology Vol 16(3) Jun 2006, 327-342.
  • Herzog, T. R., Harris, A. C., Kropscott, L. S., & Fuller, K. L. (2006). Joke cruelty and joke appreciation revisited: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 19(2) 2006, 139-156.
  • Hills, A. M., & Lalich, N. (1998). Judgments of cruelty toward animals: Sex differences and effect of awareness of suffering: Anthrozoos Vol 11(3) 1998, 142-147.
  • Huber, J. P., & Unger, P. (1989). Reactive psychiatric pathologies in the aftermath of a prison riot: Perspectives Psychiatriques Vol 28(19) 1989, 248-251.
  • Hurlbert, D. F., & Apt, C. V. (1992). The malevolent personality disorder? : Psychological Reports Vol 70(3, Pt 1) Jun 1992, 979-991.
  • Jacklin, C. N. (1976). Review of At risk: An account of the work of the battered child research department, NSPCC (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children): PsycCRITIQUES Vol 21 (12), Dec, 1976.
  • Jandrok, T. (2005). Evil Happening Behind Good's Back: Topique: Revue Freudienne No 92 2005, 141-155.
  • Johnson, J. M., & Ferraro, K. J. (1988). Courtship violence: Survey vs. empathic understandings of abusive conduct. Us: Elsevier Science/JAI Press.
  • Kellert, S. R., & Felthous, A. R. (1985). Childhood cruelty toward animals among criminals and noncriminals: Human Relations Vol 38(12) Dec 1985, 1113-1129.
  • Kemp, S., Brodsky, S. L., & Caputo, A. A. (1997). How cruel is a cat playing with a mouse? A study of people's assessment of cruelty: New Zealand Journal of Psychology Vol 26(2) Dec 1997, 19-24.
  • Koelle, B. S. (1981). Primary children's stories as a function of exposure to violence and cruelty in the folk fairy tale: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kruesi, M. J. (1989). Cruelty to animals and CSF 5HIAA: Psychiatry Research Vol 28(1) Apr 1989, 115-116.
  • Lee, J. Y. (1994). What children's narratives of everyday moral incidents tell us. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Lewis, P. (1997). The killing jokes of the American eighties: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research Vol 10(3) 1997, 251-283.
  • Long, D. D., Long, J. H., & Kulkarni, S. J. (2007). Interpersonal violence and animals: Mandated cross-sector reporting: Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol 34(3) Sep 2007, 147-164.
  • Luk, E. S. L., Staiger, P. K., Wong, L., & Mathai, J. (1999). Children who are cruel to animals: A revisit: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 33(1) Feb 1999, 29-36.
  • Lunde, I., Rasmussen, O. V., Wagner, G., & Lindholm, J. (1981). Sexual and pituitary-testicular function in torture victims: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 10(1) Feb 1981, 25-32.
  • MacDonald, A. J. (1979). Review: Children and companion animals: Child Care, Health & Development Vol 5(5) Sep-Oct 1979, 347-358.
  • Major, R., & Jacob, A. (2006). Cruelty, its origns, its fates: Journal of European Psychoanalysis No 23 2006, 111-125.
  • Merrick, R. A. (1985). The tort of outrage: Recovery for the intentional infliction of mental distress: Behavioral Sciences & the Law Vol 3(2) Spr 1985, 165-175.
  • Merz-Perez, L., Heide, K. M., & Silverman, I. J. (2001). Childhood cruelty to animals and subsequent violence against humans: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology Vol 45(5) Oct 2001, 556-573.
  • Miller, C. (2001). Childhood animal cruelty and interpersonal violence: Clinical Psychology Review Vol 21(5) Jul 2001, 735-749.
  • Miller, K. S., & Knutson, J. F. (1997). Reports of severe physical punishment and exposure to animal cruelty by inmates convicted of felonies and by university students: Child Abuse & Neglect Vol 21(1) Jan 1997, 59-82.
  • Nell, V. (2006). Cruelty's rewards: The gratifications of perpetrators and spectators: Behavioral and Brain Sciences Vol 29(3) Jun 2006, 211-257.
  • Nettler, G. (1961). "Free Will and Cruelty": Comment: American Psychologist Vol 16(8) Aug 1961, 529.
  • Nicoll, C. S., & Russell, S. M. (2001). A Darwinian view of the issues associated with the use of animals in biomedical research. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
  • No authorship, i. (2007). The dynamics of torture. Baltimore, MD: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Pardini, D. A. (2006). The Callousness Pathway to Severe Violent Delinquency: Aggressive Behavior Vol 32(6) Nov-Dec 2006, 590-598.
  • Pecjak, V. (1994). War cruelty in the former Yugoslavia and its psychological correlates: Politics & the Individual Vol 4(1) 1994, 75-84.
  • Peskin, L. (2000). From the "cruel act" to the psychopathology of everyday delinquency: Revista de Psicoanalisis SpecIssue(7) 2000, 231-248.
  • Petersen, M. L., & Farrington, D. P. (2007). Cruelty to animals and violence to people: Victims & Offenders Vol 2(1) Jan 2007, 21-43.
  • Piper, H., & Myers, S. (2006). Forging the Links: (De) Constructing Chains of Behaviours: Child Abuse Review Vol 15(3) May-Jun 2006, 178-187.
  • Piven, J. S. (2004). The Psychosis (Religion) of Islamic Terrorists and the Ecstasy of Violence: Journal of Psychohistory Vol 32(2) Fal 2004, 151-201.
  • Prentky, R. A., & Carter, D. L. (1984). The predictive value of the triad for sex offenders: Behavioral Sciences & the Law Vol 2(3) Sum 1984, 341-354.
  • Rassin, E., van Rootselaar, A.-F., van der Heiden, S., Ugahary, A., & Wagener, S. (2005). Nazi cruelties: Are they literally hard to imagine? : British Journal of Psychology Vol 96(3) Aug 2005, 321-330.
  • Rican, P. (1999). Cruelty as experience and as motive: Ceskoslovenska Psychologie Vol 43(6) 1999, 543-555.
  • Rigdon, J. D., & Tapia, F. (1977). Children who are cruel to animals: A follow-up study: Journal of Operational Psychiatry Vol 8(1) 1977, 27-36.
  • Roberts, K. (2006). Interlocking oppressions: The nature of cruelty to nonhuman animals and its relationship to violence toward humans. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Rustin, M. (2005). Conceptual analysis of critical moments in Victoria Climbie's life: Child & Family Social Work Vol 10(1) Feb 2005, 11-19.
  • Schaeffer, R. (1989). Cruelty in the Christian tradition: Analytische Psychologie Vol 20(78) Nov 1989, 257-281.
  • Schneirla, T. C. (1943). Postscript to "cruel ants." Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 35(2) Apr 1943, 233-235.
  • Sims, V. K., Chin, M. G., & Yordon, R. E. (2007). Don't be cruel: Assessing beliefs about punishments for crimes against animals: Anthrozoos Vol 20(3) Sep 2007, 251-259.
  • Slavkin, M. L. (2001). Enuresis, firesetting, and cruelty to animals: Does the ego triad show predictive validity? : Adolescence Vol 36(143) Fal 2001, 461-466.
  • Slavkin, M. L. (2004). Predictive Validity of the Ego Triad: The Myth of Enuresis, Firesetting, and Cruelty to Animals. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Smith, T. J., & Danforth, S. (2000). Ethics, politics, and the unintended cruelties of teaching. Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing.
  • Sober, E. (2002). Kindness and cruelty in evolution. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Solomon, S., Greenberg, J., & Pyszcznski, T. (2003). Fear Of Death and Human Destructiveness: Psychoanalytic Review Vol 90(4) Aug 2003, 457-474.
  • Stannard-Friel, D. L. (1978). Psychiatric innovation and social change: A study of the perversion of psychiatric treatment and social control: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Swabe, J. (2007). Review of Brute force: Animal police and the challenge of cruelty: Anthrozoos Vol 20(4) Dec 2007, 394-396.
  • Tallichet, S. E., & Hensley, C. (2004). Exploring the link between recurrent acts of childhood and adolescent animal cruelty and subsequent violent crime: Criminal Justice Review Vol 29(2) Fal 2004, 304-316.
  • Tallichet, S. E., & Hensley, C. (2005). Rural and Urban Differences in the Commission of Animal Cruelty: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology Vol 49(6) Dec 2005, 711-726.
  • Tallichet, S. E., Hensley, C., O'Bryan, A., & Hassel, H. (2005). Targets for Cruelty: Demographic and Situational Factors Affecting the Type of Animal Abused: Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law & Society Vol 18(2) Jun 2005, 173-182.
  • Tallichet, S. E., Hensley, C., & Singer, S. D. (2005). Unraveling the Methods of Childhood and Adolescent Cruelty to Nonhuman Animals: Society & Animals Vol 13(2) 2005, 91-107.
  • Tapia, F. (1971). Children who are cruel to animals: Child Psychiatry & Human Development Vol 2(2) Win 1971, 70-77.
  • Taylor, N., & Signal, T. D. (2006). Community demographics and the propensity to report animal cruelty: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Vol 9(3) 2006, 201-210.
  • Ulloa, F. (2000). Society and cruelty: Clinica y Analisis Grupal Vol 22(2)[84] May-Aug 2000, 23-34.
  • Vaca-Guzman, M., & Arluke, A. (2005). Normalizing passive cruelty: The excuses and justifications of animal hoarders: Anthrozoos Vol 18(4) 2005, 338-357.
  • Vermeulen, H., & Odendaal, J. S. J. (1993). Proposed typology of companion animal abuse: Anthrozoos Vol 6(4) 1993, 248-257.
  • Vollum, S., Buffington-Vollum, J., & Longmire, D. R. (2004). Moral Disengagement and Attitudes about Violence toward Animals: Society & Animals Vol 12(3) 2004, 209-235.
  • Wachler, K. B. (1995). Interpersonal cruelty among fifth-grade girls. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Wake, F. R., Beattie, K. L., & King, A. J. (1965). Physical cruelty in male juvenile delinquents: Canadian Psychologist/Psychologie Canadienne Vol 6a(3) Jul 1965, 241-245.
  • Wake, F. R., Beattie, K. L., & King, A. J. (1966). A comparison of physical cruelty in rural and urban delinquent boys: Canadian Psychologist/Psychologie Canadienne Vol 7a(3) Jul 1966, 209-212.
  • Wallis, C., & Saletan, W. (2007). Issue 9: Can Social Psychological Research Help Explain the Abu Ghraib Prison Scandal? New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  • Ward, T. (2005). State crime in the Heart of Darkness: British Journal of Criminology Vol 45(4) Jul 2005, 434-445.
  • Wax, D., & Haddox, V. (1974). Enuresis, fire setting, and animal cruelty in male adolescent delinquents: A triad predictive of violent behavior: Journal of Psychiatry & Law Vol 2(1) Spr 1974, 45-71.
  • Weinfield, N. S., & Whaley, G. J. L. (2005). What of the Lingering Effects of Preoccupying Anger? : PsycCRITIQUES Vol 50 (37), 2005.
  • White, R. K. (1972). Dehumanization, More Than Aggression: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 17 (4), Apr, 1972.
  • Wispe, L. (1978). Altruism Grows in Brooklyn: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 23 (1), Jan, 1978.
  • Wright, J., & Hensley, C. (2003). From animal cruelty to serial murder: Applying the graduation hypothesis: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology Vol 47(1) Feb 2003, 71-88.
  • Youngs, G. (2003). Private Pain/Public Peace: Women's Rights as Human Rights and Amnesty International's Report on Violence against Women: Signs Vol 28(4) Sum 2003, 1209-1229.
  • Zimbardo, P. (2006). Power Turns Good Soldiers into "Bad Apples". New York, NY: Nation Books.

References Edit

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.