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{{Biopsy}}
 
{{Infobox Brain|
 
{{Infobox Brain|
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Name = Cranial nerve nucleus |
 
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Latin = |
 
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GraySubject = 195 |
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A '''cranial nerve nucleus''' is a collection of [[neuron]]s ([[gray matter]]) in the [[brain stem]] that is associated with one or more [[cranial nerves]].
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A '''cranial nerve nucleus''' is a collection of [[neuron]]s ([[gray matter]]) in the [[brain stem]] that is associated with one or more [[cranial nerves]]. [[Axon]]s carrying information to and from the cranial nerves form a [[synapse]] first at these [[nucleus (neuroanatomy)|nucleii]]. Lesions occurring at these nucleii can lead to effects resembling those seen by the severing of nerve(s) they are associated with. All the nucleii excepting that of the IV nerve supply nerves of the same side of the body.
 
As well as the visible nerves outside of the brain, most of the cranial nerves have associated [[Nucleus (neuroanatomy)|nuclei]] within the brainstem. These nuclei are areas of [[grey matter]], and damage to them can have a similar affect to the severing of an actual nerve. Axons to (and from) cranial nerves synapse first at the nuclei.
 
   
 
==Arrangement of the nuclei==
 
==Arrangement of the nuclei==
 
Just as grey matter in the ventral (closer to front of a human) [[spinal cord]] tends to be efferent (motor) fibers, and the dorsal horn tends to contain sensory [[neuron]]s, nuclei in the brainstem are arranged in an analogous way.
 
Just as grey matter in the ventral (closer to front of a human) [[spinal cord]] tends to be efferent (motor) fibers, and the dorsal horn tends to contain sensory [[neuron]]s, nuclei in the brainstem are arranged in an analogous way.
   
* Close to the midline are the '''somatic efferent nuclei''', such as the [[oculomotor nucleus]], which control skeletal muscle. Just lateral to this are the '''autonomic (or visceral) efferent nuclei.'''
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* Close to the midline are the '''motor efferent nuclei''', such as the [[oculomotor nucleus]], which control skeletal muscle. Just lateral to this are the '''autonomic (or visceral) afferent nuclei.'''
   
 
* There is a separation, called the ''sulcus limitans'', and lateral to this are the '''sensory nuclei'''. Near the sulcus limitans are the '''visceral afferent nuclei''', namely the [[solitary tract nucleus]].
 
* There is a separation, called the ''sulcus limitans'', and lateral to this are the '''sensory nuclei'''. Near the sulcus limitans are the '''visceral afferent nuclei''', namely the [[solitary tract nucleus]].
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====[[pons]]====
 
====[[pons]]====
* [[Cochlear nuclei]] (VII) - sensory
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* [[Cochlear nuclei]] (VIII) - sensory
 
** [[Dorsal cochlear nucleus]]
 
** [[Dorsal cochlear nucleus]]
 
** [[Ventral cochlear nucleus]]
 
** [[Ventral cochlear nucleus]]
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* [[Oculomotor nucleus]] (III) - motor
 
* [[Oculomotor nucleus]] (III) - motor
 
* [[Edinger-Westphal nucleus]] (III) - visceromotor
 
* [[Edinger-Westphal nucleus]] (III) - visceromotor
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==Mnemonic Device==
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'''SAME DAVE'''
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* Somatic - Afferent
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* Motor - Efferent
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* Dorsal - Afferent
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* Ventral - Efferent
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
* [[Lennart Heimer]], ''The Human Brain'', ISBN 0-387-94227-0
 
* [[Lennart Heimer]], ''The Human Brain'', ISBN 0-387-94227-0
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==Additional images==
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<gallery>
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Image:Gray697.png|Nuclei of origin of cranial motor nerves schematically represented; lateral view.
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Image:Gray698.png|Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent (sensory) cranial nerves schematically represented; lateral view.
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</gallery>
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
* [http://sprojects.mmi.mcgill.ca/cns/histo/systems/cranialnerves/main.htm Diagrams at McGill]
 
* [http://sprojects.mmi.mcgill.ca/cns/histo/systems/cranialnerves/main.htm Diagrams at McGill]
 
* [http://thalamus.wustl.edu/course/brstem.html Digram at Washington University]
 
* [http://thalamus.wustl.edu/course/brstem.html Digram at Washington University]
* [http://anatomy.uams.edu/anatomyhtml/atlas_html/n2a6p2.html Photo showing many nuclei at University of Alabama]
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* {{UMichAtlas|n2a6p2}}
 
* [http://www.coloradocollege.edu/idprog/Neuroscience/Cranial.html Slides at Colorado College]
 
* [http://www.coloradocollege.edu/idprog/Neuroscience/Cranial.html Slides at Colorado College]
   
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[[Category:Nerve nuclei]]
 
[[Category:Neuroanatomy]]
 
 
[[Category:Anatomy]]
 
[[Category:Anatomy]]
{{Biopsy}}
 
 
{{enWP|Cranial nerve nucleus}}
 
{{enWP|Cranial nerve nucleus}}

Latest revision as of 12:24, February 2, 2007

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Brain: Cranial nerve nucleus
Gray696
The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. (The olfactory and optic centers are not represented.)
[[Image:|250px|center|]]
Latin '
Gray's subject #195 881
Part of
Components
Artery
Vein
BrainInfo/UW -
MeSH [1]

A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. Axons carrying information to and from the cranial nerves form a synapse first at these nucleii. Lesions occurring at these nucleii can lead to effects resembling those seen by the severing of nerve(s) they are associated with. All the nucleii excepting that of the IV nerve supply nerves of the same side of the body.

Arrangement of the nucleiEdit

Just as grey matter in the ventral (closer to front of a human) spinal cord tends to be efferent (motor) fibers, and the dorsal horn tends to contain sensory neurons, nuclei in the brainstem are arranged in an analogous way.

  • Close to the midline are the motor efferent nuclei, such as the oculomotor nucleus, which control skeletal muscle. Just lateral to this are the autonomic (or visceral) afferent nuclei.
  • There is a separation, called the sulcus limitans, and lateral to this are the sensory nuclei. Near the sulcus limitans are the visceral afferent nuclei, namely the solitary tract nucleus.
  • More lateral, but also less posterior, are the general somatic afferent nuclei. This is the trigeminal nucleus. Back at the dorsal surface of the brainstem, and more lateral are the special somatic afferents, this handles sensation such as balance.
  • Another area, not on the dorsum of the brainstem, is where the branchial efferent nuclei reside. These formed from the branchial arches, in the embryo. This area is a bit below the autonomic motor nuclei, and includes the nucleus ambiguus, facial nerve nucleus, as well as the motor part of the trigeminal nerve nucleus.

Examples of nucleiEdit

There are several cranial nerve nuclei (roman numeral refers to the cranial nerve number):

hindbrain (rhombencephalon)Edit

medulla oblongataEdit

ponsEdit

midbrain (mesencephalon)Edit

Mnemonic DeviceEdit

SAME DAVE

  • Somatic - Afferent
  • Motor - Efferent

  • Dorsal - Afferent
  • Ventral - Efferent

ReferencesEdit

Additional imagesEdit

External linksEdit

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

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